What is Common Law?


Welcome to the Investors Trading Academy talking
glossary of financial terms and events. Our word of the day is “Common Law”
The law of the land which comes from neither the statute books nor the constitution but
from court law reports. Originally that body of law which was common to all parts of England
not customary or local law and developed over centuries from the English courts to be adopted
and further developed in countries using that system. As compared to democratically maintained
law, common law is judge maintained and modified law and is valid unless it conflicts with
statute law. Common law also known as case law or precedent
is law developed by judges, courts, and similar tribunals, stated in decisions that nominally
decide individual cases but that in addition have precedential effect on future cases.
The common-law system prevails in England, the United States, and other countries colonized
by England. It is distinct from the civil-law system, which predominates in Europe and in
areas colonized by France and Spain. The common-law system is used in all the states of the United
States except Louisiana, where French Civil Law combined with English Criminal Law to
form a hybrid system. The common-law system is also used in Canada, except in the Province
of Quebec, where the French civil-law system prevails.

Meet The Legendary Creator of Famous Daredevil Foe Typhoid Mary | Women of Marvel


[MUSIC PLAYING] Hey, guys.
I’m Judy. And I’m Sana. And we’re here from
the Women of Marvel. And we are back with a special
80th anniversary episode, and we’re excited to be
joined by Ann Nocenti. Hi. Hello. We’re so excited
to have Ann here. Ann is a very well known
editor, writer, filmmaker. You’ve done so much
across the board. But you’re such a
big part of Marvel’s history, the legacy of Marvel
in the ’80s in particular. And there was one
character, which is a personal favorite
of mine, that you created named Typhoid Mary. Uh oh. That is exactly
what you should say. What’s she doing in the room? Tell us about Typhoid
Mary and how she came to be. ANN NOCENTI: Well,
I think that a hero is only as good as its villain. When John Romita, Jr., and
I were working on Daredevil, we wanted to give Daredevil
a really good villain. He had a couple personalities. You know, he was a
lawyer and a vigilante, so if he didn’t solve
it in the courts, he solved it in the streets. He wore a devil suit. He was a lapsed Catholic. We felt like he was
full of contradictions, so give him a female that
had a lot of different sides. And so we created a
character where there would be an innocent Mary
who would seduce Matt Murdock, while
the wild Typhoid would seduce Daredevil’s darker side. It’s comics. Hey, you can have
lots of personalities. You already have an ego and
an alter ego and a mask. Why not have, like, five more? The conversation that we
had with you on the podcast really showcased all of
your different personalities as well, some of the darker side
of Ann Nocenti, which you guys should definitely check
out because there’s a great conversation. We learned a lot more about
the history of Marvel, all of the amazing things
Ann is doing right now. So Ann, thanks for joining us. And you guys, go check it out. This is Marvel. Your universe. Thank you. [MUSIC PLAYING]

[NEWS IN-DEPTH] Analysis of Moon’s New Year’s address


president moon jae-in took over the main
headlines of Tuesday with his highly anticipated New Year’s address keywords
stood out in a speech including a peace and evident change the president has
vowed to continue efforts to create momentum to improve inter-korean
relations and speed up stalled North Korea u.s. nuclear talks while assuring
that the government will make evident changes in the nation’s economy specific
ways to achieve those pledges were also laid out today we dissect the
president’s New Year’s message with doctors homes had Yun professor at Cal
King University it’s great to have you with us good to be here
president during his New Year’s address said that much of the efforts were
focused on facilitating the talks between North Korea and the US and 2019
but today he emphasized that while keeping those efforts alive the two
Koreas should try and enhance cooperation at the same time what does
this imply to the president’s long sought peace drive on the Korean
Peninsula right in this address we again reconfirmed against his resolve to push
through the the peace process Korean Peninsula peace process there are three
parts to it we all knew that there is a stop the war mutual security assurance
but the third part is a prosperity through economic projects and all those
and that goes more to the inter-korean relations relationships and I think that
the president moon feels that because we’ve focused too much on the North
Korea and the u.s. relationship and now how he has stalled he feels that there
is a much to be done in the third part of it and also the inter-korean
relationship I think that’s why he has a flurry of new or renewed proposals and
offers to – to North Korea and probably he wants to get that that aspect going
in order to kind of help along what the the u.s. and North Korea is going
in terms of dialogues president moon also laid out specific measures to make
new progress and inter-korean cooperation he mentioned about boosting
cooperation on borderline provinces and called on joint efforts for Co
registering of DMZ as the unesco world heritage which is also linked to
president moons proposal made last year on turning DMZ into a global peace zone
how feasible are his newly suggested measures to boost inter-korean
cooperation ostensibly it is possible to have that project going because those
are not subject to sanctions explicitly and so if the North wants to cooperate
there is a chance to do it I think the the problem is that the North Korea is
not looking to kind of go with those kind of soft projects at this point it
seems like their bellicose messages and and escalating this tension is at this
point would not really jive well with those soft approaches and and the
cultural projects so in that sense I think there there might be a point where
this artificially imposed deadline from the North Korea about the u.s. actions
if that’s up sized or if that doesn’t go anywhere probably they’ll have to find
new ways to get the get the dialogue going
probably that might be one of the options so the biggest remaining
obstacle you would say is North Korea’s hostile attitude toward South Korea
great point I guess fundamentally whether they are on board with the
Korean Peninsula peace process and if they see the merits of that probably a
lot of things can piss facilitate but the evidence is so far has been that
their criticism about the South Korea and the lack of role
kosecki singularly focused on whether the South Korean actions would help that
the talk between the North Korea and the u.s. so they have to kind of expand the
horizons to get the overall packages of the peace process
going and again that requires North Korea kind of getting on board squarely
on the peace process oh three prongs abit another highlight of president ones
address today was his invitation to Kim Jungman to visit South Korea he called
an efforts to create conditions the right conditions to materialize Kim
jong-un’s promised visit to Seoul which is after the second time the president
has made such proposal since September of 2018 how do you gauge the possibility
of Kim jong-un crossing the border to the south in the near future I think
it’s in the same vein whether Kim sees the value of that it’s a continuation of
North South Korea relationship so that there would be a major step in that
direction as any of the summit meetings would would would be so in that sense if
the North sees that by visiting South Korea if that helps South Korea to talk
to the North Korea to you know make the better relationship among the three of
them probably that would be the avenue to go but as I mentioned before North
Korea at this point is focused on escalating tensions and putting pressure
to to the Donald Trump in his bid to re-election and so on and so forth so at
this point it doesn’t really create a environment to where Kim would visit
South Korea and become become a big message to to the United States at this
point so I don’t think he sees the value at this point but things could quickly
change as the new years progress and those artificial deadlines kind of runs
its course probably they’ll come up with new plans
what do you think is President when Jane’s strategy if you will of
re-invited Kim jong-un during his New Year’s address
I think he almost he has to at this point his whole theme of the new
addresses new direction more concrete actions and rather than proposing
entirely new things he wants to kind of progress or make progress on the
previous talks that have happening and the Kim’s visit to South Korea is
certainly the one of them and also DMZ development and also road projects that
north-south they have talked about those are the kind of a low-hanging fruit so
to speak if they want to engage because that the talks have progressed to some
extent before but again you know it comes down to whether the North Korea is
willing to go to that route other specific measures suggested by president
moon today include co-hosting of 2032 Olympic Games Coe entrance of North
Korean and South Korean athletes during this year’s Tokyo Olympics mm-hmm and
also a forming a north-south unified team for certain Olympic events you’ve
mentioned that North Korea wants something bigger but how do you expect
North Korea to react to these proposals right remember the North Korea’s
overture of a peace that started the dialogue with the US started with the
sports events Pyongyang Olympic Games their participation zuv it
so this culture and sports events is always a good option on a soft option to
go to that route again we come to a point to weather weather that is useful
probably not in the relationship between north and United States because they way
their way past that stage but in terms of north-south relationship probably
that will be a major events that they can make some progress between two
countries in many different fronts of cooperation so I think the moon has sees
a very significant value to that and depending on what happens with the North
Korea and the US if that stalls further
probably north would say well we have to go down this route and start up the this
talk peace process or the talk process again so that North Korea can come
around I mean the US could come around but that’s I think of the month or two
away from this point president moon also mentioned about his long-sought goal of
connecting inter-korean roads and railways and China and Russia has
recently requested to the UN for sanctions waiver on those projects as
well how feasible is the plan though depends on the president moons vision in
this area I think that in the road projects especially his diplomatic
abilities or his influence could then net some better fruits than just
focusing on the North Korea and the u.s. because the road projects in this region
at least to China is a significantly invested in it they’re involved in the
Russia is involved so having a good relationship with those who are
benefiting from this project probably there might be some agreements or some
projects to be done and that requires that concrete actions
from moon and that has to be in in difficult maneuvering with the what the
US wants in this region how a steer there will be about the any kind of
economic cooperation that happening in this region not only from South and
North Korea but with the China and Russia now to the economy the moon
administration has injected the largest sum of money in Korea’s history into the
job market which actually led to the highest employment rate Korea has seen
but although the job quality remains debatable right how do you assess our
government’s economic achievements 20:19 well the criticisms are that those
projects are not sustainable because if it’s a fiscal policy or a budget driven
then when the money runs out wouldn’t what happens to those jobs but I would
look at it more there hopefully because any kind of stimulus to the economy it
is a good beginning but then it has to be followed up by the structural changes
in the economy so that those changes that he made would be self-financing
rather than just putting government money into it so on and so forth
so I think that the success of that that they report cart of on those actions
would depend on what he does next I think he talked about the changes this
year I hope that includes a structural reforms in the economy because without
that probably that will kind of fall wayside so a structural reform is a must
to achieve president moons what he called evident to make evident changes
in the new year right especially in the venture sectors there are some
significant legislations that did not pass I think the president mentioned
that so his diplomatic or the the political abilities to bring those
together so that these lawmakers would pass there was a structural reform bill
probably that would go to the credit of his ability to revive the economy in the
new year now prosecutorial reform is another huge
agenda for president moon Jane and as part of the efforts the president and
the cabinet members today approved the bill passed by the Parliament to set up
an agency that will look into corruption by high-ranking government officials
your thoughts on president moon’s core processor real reform I think even
before he he pushed that that prosecutorial reform had a pretty broad
base the support that has to happen because it was a legacy from the
previous kind of regime I’m talking about the 70s and 80s so not just the
immediate Regine so in that sense I think the
devil is in the details I think the people quibble over how to get there
rather than whether we should get there or not so we got about seven months I
guess when that agency comes into a real physical being so I think that a lot of
details has to be worked out especially focusing on how we ensure that the
independence of that agency would make sure that the goal of making a agency
that really serve have a check and balance on any kind of a high level
civil servants corruption issues that is an issue none
III think the direction is there so it’s a matter of making direct making that
happen with a sufficiently competent details
and and the mechanisms to make sure that that happens before you go could you sum
up president ones New Year’s message for us today and what do you think are the
main factors that will propel his goals I think that he faces a lot of
uncertainties not only the u.s. job us-china relationship korea-japan
relationship and and north and the u.s. that influences our economic issues and
diplomatic issues as well peace and economy those were his key words I think
he has a direction right which is that Korea needs to step up to give more
flesh to those directions the Korea’s role has to step up in the the peace
process not just looking at what happens in North Korea in the US and also in the
economy he briefly talked about the structural reforms those are the
tangible actions that has to be really driven by the government in the new year
we cannot just look back and say well this is what’s happening all right many
thanks to you dr. song as always we appreciate the time tonight thank you

The Japanese Government Wants You to Date | Explorer


[music playing] FRANCESCA FIORENTINI
(VOICEOVER): Here in the Japanese
countryside, some of Japan’s most
eligible bachelors are waiting to meet their mates. The mayor is here. Parents are here. Eligible bachelors and
bachelorettes are here. FRANCESCA FIORENTINI
(VOICEOVER): They’ve even summoned the city’s
mascots, the great warrior Masamitsu and his wife. [speaking japanese] [speaking japanese] FRANCESCA FIORENTINI
(VOICEOVER): This is one of many
events organized each year by the Japanese government
to get young people to hook up, shack up, and make babies. Japan’s overall
population is dropping and the government is panicked. Without young people to shore
up the country’s tax base, the coming decades
could see Japan spin into an economic death spiral. Emma, a 29-year-old
bachelorette, traveled two hours
from the city of Tokyo with the hope of meeting
the farm boy of her dreams. [speaking japanese] FRANCESCA FIORENTINI
(VOICEOVER): Emma has one hour
to play the field, but comes up empty-handed. FRANCESCA FIORENTINI: So
what’s next for you, Osaka? Maybe start from
close to where I live, like Tokyo, maybe. – Well–
– Yeah. Well, keep trying. Yeah. See ya. See ya.

Iran’s Only Female Olympian Defects, Calls Out Government “Hypocrisy”


Kimia Alizadeh, Iran’s only female Olympian
who won a bronze medal in Taekwondo in 2016, has announced she is defecting from the Country. Her announcement comes a day after Iran admitted
shooting down a Ukranian plane that had 176 civilians on it. U.S. State Department official Morgan Ortagus
reacted to the news on Twitter, writing: #KimiaAlizadeh, Iran’s only female Olympic
medalist, has rejected the regime’s oppression of women. She has defected for a life of security, happiness,
and freedom. #Iran will continue to lose more strong women
unless it learns to empower and support them. — Morgan Ortagus (@statedeptspox) January
12, 2020 FoxNews reports Iran’s only female Olympic
medalist has reportedly defected, posting a goodbye letter to Iran on Saturday, calling
out the government’s “hypocrisy” as she announced she had permanently left the
country. “Should I start with hello, goodbye, or
condolences?” Taekwondo athlete, Kimia Alizadeh, 21, posted
on her Instagram in Farsi, Agence France-Presse reported. Alizadeh did not disclose where she was going,
but Iran’s ISNA news agency reported she had gone to the Netherlands, according to
AFP. The Iranian report quoted Alizadeh’s coach
as saying the athlete was injured and did not show up for trials ahead of the 2020 Summer
Olympics in Tokyo. The Olympian’s announcement came just a
day after Iranian officials admitted to downing a Ukrainian passenger plane, killing 176 people
minutes after takeoff from Tehran’s international airport early Wednesday due to “human error,”
thinking it was a military aircraft. She accused the Iranian government of “lying”
and “injustice” toward Iranian athletes, adding all she wants is “Taekwondo, security
and a happy and healthy life,” according to AFP. Alizadeh won a bronze medal in Taekwondo at
the 2016 Olympics in Rio de Janeiro. She said she wore everything the government
asked her to wear, referring to the head covering all Iranian female athletes must wear, and
wrote she “repeated everything they told me to say…None of us matter to them.”

Open Meeting Law: Part 1. Introduction/Definitions


Welcome to the Massachusetts Attorney General’s
training on the Open Meeting Law. During this training, we’ll explain the
requirements of the Open Meeting Law so that you as a member of the public, the press,
or a public body can understand and follow the law. Please note that this presentation is current
as of March 2018. Please check with the Attorney General’s
office to ensure that a more recent presentation has not been published. You can do so by visiting the Attorney General’s
Open Meeting Law website at www.mass.gov/ago/openmeeting. This training is divided into 6 parts. You can view the entire training by watching
each part in order, or you can skip to any particular part you’d like to review. The run time for the entire presentation is
approximately one hour. The Open Meeting Law tries to strike a balance
between government accountability/ transparency and government efficiency. The law ensures transparency by requiring
public bodies to post notice of their meetings, conduct deliberations in public view, and
provide public access to both their meetings and certain documents. The law also enables the government to efficiently
and effectively manage its operations by allowing certain deliberations to take place in executive,
or closed, session. Finally, the law permits public bodies to
maintain the confidentiality of certain executive session records. The Division of Open Government within the
Attorney General’s Office is responsible for educating and training public officials
and members of public bodies on the requirements of the Open Meeting Law. The Division also has the authority to promulgate
regulations to interpret and enforce the law. You can find the Attorney General’s Open
Meeting Law regulations on our website. The Division also provides guidance on the
Open Meeting Law’s requirements through a hotline that the public can call with questions. The hotline number is 617-963-2540. Questions can also be emailed to the Division
at [email protected] We also provide monthly webinars where staff
attorneys speak about the Open Meeting Law and answer questions in real time. Finally, the Division addresses Open Meeting
Law complaints filed against public bodies. The Division investigates complaints, makes
findings and, if necessary, brings enforcement actions. All of the Attorney General’s Open Meeting
Law determinations are available on the Attorney General’s website, along with other educational
guidance such as checklists for the creation of meeting notices and minutes, and answers
to certain frequently asked questions. The Open Meeting Law requires that all public
body members sign a certification form within two weeks of taking an oath of office or,
if no oath is required, before beginning performance of the office. Public body members must certify that they’ve
received copies of the Open Meeting Law, the Open Meeting Law regulations, the Attorney
General’s Open Meeting Law Guide, and Open Meeting Law determinations issued to the member’s
public body within the last five years in which the Attorney General found a violation
of the law; members also certify that they’ve read and understand the consequences for violating
the law. For local public bodies, these materials should
be provided by the municipal clerk, either in digital or paper form. For regional, district, county and state public
bodies, they should be provided by the appointing authority, the executive director, or another
administrator or designee. The certification form, as well as the Guide,
can be found at the Attorney General’s website. The person distributing the materials should
retain the certifications as a public record. The Office of the Attorney General does not
need to receive a copy. A public body member must sign a new Certificate
upon reelection or reappointment to the public body but need not sign a Certificate when
joining a subcommittee. This presentation covers a number of aspects
of the Open Meeting Law, however there are some basic principles that we’d like you
to keep in mind. First, whenever a public body holds a meeting,
the public must be given proper notice of the meeting. Second, all meetings must be open and accessible
to the public, unless the public body properly enters into executive, that is closed, session. Third, public bodies must create and maintain
accurate minutes for all meetings, including both open and executive sessions. Finally, there’s a complaint process, whereby
a person may file a complaint alleging that a public body violated the Open Meeting Law. We’ll discuss later the ways that Open Meeting
Law complaints can be filed. The Open Meeting Law only applies to public
bodies, and a question we are asked frequently is whether or not an entity is a public body. To make that determination, the best place
to start is with the Open Meeting Law’s definition of the term Public Body. A public body is defined as a multiple-member
board, commission, committee or sub-committee, however created, elected, appointed, or otherwise
constituted, that’s established to serve a public purpose. This is a very broad definition, but it’s
important to note that a public body must have multiple members. An individual public official cannot be a
public body, and therefore does not have to comply with the Open Meeting Law, unless that
individual is serving as a member of a public body. Also, note that a public body can be any type
of multiple-member board, regardless of what it’s called. It can be called a committee, a task force,
an ad-hoc committee, or a working group, but if it meets this definition, it is a public
body. Subcommittees are also public bodies. A subcommittee includes any multiple member
board created to advise or make recommendations to a public body. There is a judicially recognized exception
to the definition of public body. This is the Connelly exception, and it was
created in 1991 by the Supreme Judicial Court in the case of Connelly versus School Committee
of Hanover. The Connelly exception states that where an
individual public official voluntarily creates a body to advise that person on a decision
that he or she has the sole authority to make, that committee is not subject to the Open
Meeting Law. In the Connelly case, the superintendent of
schools had the sole authority to recommend a candidate for the position of principal
to the school committee for confirmation. The superintendent decided to create a committee
to interview candidates and make recommendations to him. This committee consisted of members of the
public as well as school officials and even some school committee members. And the Court found that because the committee
was created by the superintendent solely to advise the superintendent, and because the
superintendent could have interviewed and chosen a candidate without creating a committee,
the committee was not a public body and therefore was not subject to the Open Meeting Law. Note however, that if it had been the school
committee that had the power to choose the new principal, and the school committee decided
to create a committee to interview candidates, the committee would have been a public body
subject to the Open Meeting Law. There are also several statutory exclusions
to the Open Meeting Law’s definition of public body. The Massachusetts state legislature and its
committees are not public bodies. Bodies of the judicial branch, such as judicial
panels or juries, are also not public bodies. Not for profit organizations are not public
bodies. Bodies created by one of the six constitutional
officers solely to advise that constitutional officer are also not public bodies. However, this applies only to the Governor,
the Lt. Governor, the Secretary of State, the Attorney General, the State Auditor and
the Treasurer. In addition, all bodies that are not established
to serve a public purpose are not public bodies for purposes of the Open Meeting Law. For example, an office committee to plan a
retirement party for a colleague will likely not be a public body. Finally, groups that do not take any collective
action are not public bodies. For example, focus groups – where a public
official invites all interested persons to attend a meeting and provide feedback on an
issue of concern, but no votes will be taken, or report produced, and there is no required
number of attendees, such groups generally will not be considered public bodies. There are different types of public bodies:
State, local, regional, district, and county. These distinctions matter only for the process
of filing meeting notices and authorizing remote participation. State public bodies include bodies such as
the Open Meeting Law Advisory Commission, the Massachusetts Gaming Commission, and the
UMass Board of Trustees. Note also that charter school Boards of Trustees
are considered state public bodies, not local. Local public bodies can include the Board
of Selectmen, School Committee, and Planning Board. The governing board of a local housing or
redevelopment authority is also considered a local public body. Regional or district public bodies are those
with a jurisdiction that covers more than one municipality. Regional school committees, water commissions,
and planning commissions are all examples of regional or district public bodies. County public bodies may exist in areas that
still have a county government. Boards of County Commissioners, County Retirement
Boards, and a County Charter Review Commission are some examples of county public bodies. Now here are some examples of entities that
are not public bodies. At the state level, the legislature is statutorily
exempt from the Open Meeting Law. The Judicial Nominating Commission is also
not a public body because it’s a body created to advise a constitutional officer, namely
the Governor. The Massachusetts Municipal Association is
also not a public body because it’s a private, not-for-profit entity. At the regional level, a regional high school
boosters club is also a private organization, so it’s not considered a public body. At the local level, neighborhood watch associations
and parent-teacher organizations are generally private organizations that are not created
by government, and therefore are not public bodies. Local political groups, such as Republican
and Democratic town committees, are not subject to the Open Meeting Law. Once you’ve determined that a group is a
public body, the next step in figuring out whether the Open Meeting Law applies is to
look at what the group is doing, specifically whether it’s deliberating. Deliberation is defined as an oral or written
communication through any medium, including electronic mail, between or among a quorum
of a public body on any public business within its jurisdiction. This is also a very broad definition. It covers any communication, whether in person,
over the phone, or through email, between or among a quorum of a public body. For purposes of the Open Meeting Law, a quorum
is defined as a simple majority of the members of the body, unless otherwise provided in
a general or special law, executive order or other authorizing provision. Fewer than a quorum of a body’s members
can discuss matters within that body’s jurisdiction without that communication being a deliberation. So if three members of a seven-member committee,
for instance, decide to meet to discuss committee business, that would not be a deliberation,
provided those three members are not a subcommittee. However, public body members should be careful
to avoid serial communications between a quorum. For example, if there’s a five-member board,
and member A calls member B, then member B calls member C and relays what he just discussed
with member A, this could constitute a deliberation, because the communication has now reached
3 members which would be a quorum. This is a particular problem with conversations
over email that are forwarded from one member to another, or on which a quorum of the members
are copied. We therefore caution members of public bodies
to avoid email communications except for specific, exempt activities. For instance, members of a public body may
distribute via email or by hand a meeting agenda, procedural or scheduling information,
and generally that will not constitute deliberation. Reports or documents to be discussed at a
meeting can also be distributed to a quorum of a public body without constituting deliberation. These exceptions only apply, though, if the
person distributing the agenda, document, or scheduling information doesn’t express
any opinion on matters within the body’s jurisdiction. For instance, a public body member can email
the rest of the members of the public body a report generated by a consultant to be discussed
at the next meeting. However, the distributor cannot comment in
the email the he or she agrees with the report and thinks the body should approve it at the
next meeting. Finally, there is no deliberation where a
public body, such as Board of Selectmen, discusses whether to recess and continue Town Meeting
due to a weather-related or public safety emergency. Discussion must be limited to this narrow
subject, however. The next important definition is that of meeting. A “meeting” is a deliberation by a public
body with respect to any matter within the body’s jurisdiction. So, if a quorum of the members of a public
body expect to deliberate, they must hold a meeting and provide notice to the public. Again, there are statutory exclusions to this
definition. First, an on-site inspection by a quorum of
a public body is not considered a meeting, provided the members do not deliberate. Thus, members of a school committee may tour
a new school and take notes for discussion at a subsequent open meeting, but may not
deliberate while on the tour. A quorum of a public body may also attend
an event or training, provided they don’t deliberate. So if all the members of the school committee
attend a holiday party, for instance, but they don’t discuss school committee business,
they don’t have to post notice for a meeting. A quorum of a public body may also attend
the meeting of another public body, provided they don’t deliberate. Members of a public body may participate in
the meeting of another public body if they communicate only by open participation, such
as by sitting in the audience and addressing the public body on the same terms as members
of the public, and again, do not deliberate. If a quorum of a public body wants to deliberate
during a meeting of another public body, then the two bodies should notice and hold a joint
meeting. Meetings of quasi-judicial boards for the
sole purpose of making a decision in an adjudicatory proceeding are also not considered meetings
subject to the Open Meeting Law. This exception only applies to certain state
public bodies that conduct adjudicatory proceedings, and it’s not available to local public bodies,
such as Zoning Boards of Appeal or Boards of Health. Finally, sessions of Town Meeting, the formal
legislative session of many municipalities, are not meetings subject to the Open Meeting
Law. The Attorney General interprets this exemption
to mean that all communications between Town Meeting members about Town Meeting are exempt
from the requirements of the Open Meeting Law, even if they occur outside of a session
of Town Meeting. Thus, the Division of Open Government will
not investigate Open Meeting Law complaints concerning such discussions.

Kent Law Clinic


I’m very proud of the work that we’ve
done in employment law, in immigration and nationality law and asylum law and
also in public rights-of-way. We’ve done some landmark asylum cases, achieving asylum for people that has broken new ground and it has had a
tremendously beneficial effect in later applicants for asylum and I think in a
wholly positive and fair way. In employment, we gained hundreds of
thousands of pounds for people by way of compensation in respect of unfair
dismissal. Well I worked on a case last year and
when we first started I met with a client, it was just one client. He
worked as a house parent and in a residential setting. As a house parent, part of your job is remain there overnight and sleep
overnight but the hours we were sleeping we weren’t being kind of paid for. We
were only paid for contact hours if we were woken up. And as it transpired
that’s actually illegal you know if you’re legally obliged to stay at your
place of work and sleep there you are technically still working and legally
they were obliged to pay us for some of the hours which they hadn’t been paying
us for. So we all managed to get our back pay paid and that was a result of the Kent Law Clinic. It would have cost them a hell of a lot to do
it without us but we worked incredibly hard on this case and it was something
that we I think myself and Toni especially felt really quite passionate
about because there was a lot of people missing out on a lot of money. And I
think without us they wouldn’t have known so where to go, what their legal
standpoint was because obviously we had one person come who then went and told other people what where they stood in the the legal area. I think it has made
a contribution, a modest contribution, but where it has contributed I think it has
improved the quality of life of many people and also improved the sense of community that there is a service for people who can’t afford to pay for a
private lawyer. There is a service which can help them, you know, with their problem. It’s one of the most unique features of the Kent Law School because it’s pro
bono work for students and as well as providing legal support for people
that live in the Kent area which they especially for people that can’t afford
legal advice so it’s a good experience on both ends because you
actually get to work with the solicitors you get to learn hands-on experience
working the case work, bundling, going to court. I had the opportunity for example
myself going to court and learning how to cross-examine a defendant. You would
never learn that anywhere else. It gives them tremendous skills that are
valuable vocationally in terms of a career in terms of employability. That’s
the most obvious benefit. It’s not the greatest benefit. I think the greatest
benefit is an improvement in their academic life and their improvement in
their studies. The greatest benefit is to their improved knowledge and
understanding of the law, their analytical abilities. You know, their
ability to reflect upon it and critique the law and to discuss it and to think
about ways that it could work better as well as the ways in which it does work.
And also I think the third benefit is that it’s given them a sense
of the importance of public service. The idea that you can make a difference
with the law that you’re learning at an early stage gives them a sense of, and a
connection with, people, that I think they take with them after they leave Kent. I love the Clinic. I think it’s a fantastic thing. One of the reasons I actually
wanted to come to this university was because of the Law Clinic. I remember seeing John Fitzpatrick speaking on the open days and it was one of the things that I really wanted to involved in. So when I had the opportunity to do it, it was just it was brilliant and this case was such a fantastic case to be a part of
because it had such a huge benefits for so many people and I mean you know. We
settled and the settlements could potentially change people’s lives. So I look back on it with fond memories. And I hope that, well I want to be a part of it for the rest of my life.

Embassy in Crisis: Diplomats and the Tet Offensive – Don North on the Tet Offensive


The Tet Offensive was probably the biggest story that I had in serving over five years in Vietnam, but there were certainly frustrations, I mentioned that I was very disappointed not to be able to interview any of the brave MPs and Marines who were guarding the embassy and who even though they were trained as Building guards they fought as an infantry platoon to defeat these 15 Viet Cong sappers I Was very disappointed of the Embassy’s Reaction to press at that time After the attack on the embassy there seemed to be a curtain drawn an information curtain drawn around the embassy In talking to the Ambassador we had to only report that the source was a senior U.S. diplomat We couldn’t even name him by name the Press attaché at the Embassy Barry Zorthian was very helpful he had experience as a journalist with CBS before he joined the State Department and We considered Barry sort of the sweet voice of reason in an embassy that was often hostile to journalists and Barry would help us as much as possible and of course he was the first one to get on the phone and warn our news agencies that an attack was underway at the embassy and Barry told me that afterwards he was under very strict Reprimand from others at the Embassy for him doing this they felt that he’d spoken prematurely before really a Clear picture of what was happening was going on on some spin could be put on the situation but In many ways You know there was no censorship really in Vietnam toward the journalists Certainly there wasn’t covering the embassy attack there was such confusion and chaos Nobody sort of was a minder and said dawn. You can’t go here. You can’t go there but the worst censorship ironically that I Experienced was from my own company back in New York There was a big difference and divide in the journalists that worked for ABC News between the Vietnam journalists and the New York and Washington journalists the Washington journalists of course were getting briefings having lunch with the president every few days and they were hearing this huge Public relations offensive to convince Americans the war was being won and After the attack and we were all being told to leave the embassy I asked for a few more minutes just to make wrap-up comments what we call a stand offer to conclude our report to television and this is what I said I said since the Lunar New Year the Vietcong and North Vietnamese have proved They are capable of bold military moves that Americans here never dreamed could be achieved but whatever turned the war now takes the attack on this embassy for almost seven hours is a psychological victory For the enemy. Now that was delivered basically 30 minutes after the attack was declared over no time to appoint a committee to Decide and an analyze the situation But just a very quick on the hoof wrap up It never got used some senior producer in New York said Don you’re editorializing, and we’re not going to use it they didn’t and of course the analysis that this indeed was an American military victory but a psychological loss was Very much accepted afterwards, but my poor attempts to say this just thirty minutes after the attack was thwarted

Wait Just a Minute: Former Diplomat Cécile Shea


[MUSIC PLAYING] Most Americans don’t consider
immigration a security threat, but some consider it
an economic threat. We need to speak
to those people, to help them feel more
economically secure, and help them to understand
that, actually, immigration is good for the American economy. The single biggest
thing that we can do to improve national security
is ensure that our intelligence networks are up-to-date so that
we know if the wrong people are trying to enter the US. America has always
been a welcoming place. People look up to America
because we have always taken your poor, your tired,
those yearning to be free, turned them into Americans,
and given them freedom. And the more that we
can present ourselves as that kind of a
country, the safer we are, and the more people
want to emulate us. Two things keep me up at night. The first is global
warming and climate change and what it’s going to mean
for our country in the next 15 years. And the second is the
loss of American prestige around the world
and how hard it is going to be to rely on
our friends in the future because they aren’t going
to respect us anymore. [TIMER CHIMES]