My Husband’s Guilty & The broken gavel!


(energetic music) Linda Fields. Good morning, your honor. Good morning, Linda. This is my wonderful husband. I got the ticket, he was driving my car. I’m not guilty, he is. (audience laughing) Let me explain what happened. I can’t wait. I get the ticket in the mail, and I go, “What’s this?” He says, “Just pay it.” I said, “What happened?” He says, “I’m at the corner of Eddie and Dudley, “and I turned right on a yellow light.” I said, “You went through a yellow light?” He says, “Yeah.” I said, “I’m not paying it, we’re gonna fight this.” You have to fight him. Yeah, so. So anyway, our son was in the hospital, had a very bad car accident. And he was going there three times a day. So I said, “We’re gonna fight this.” So Wednesday, we looked at the video for the first time. And I said, “You went through a red light.” And so, that’s where we stand. So you came here today to tell me he’s guilty. I’m not guilty, the ticket’s in my name. I’m not guilty. No, no, I understand that. You came here today to tell me he’s guilty. So the first thing you did was throw him under the bus. (audience laughing) I’m not throwing myself under. (Frank laughing) You know? So you think he’s really guilty, huh? When I looked at that video, if I was a policeman, I would say he was guilty.
Guilty. (audience laughing) Me too. Raise your right hand and repeat after me. I mean, it was a little bit close. A little bit close. I want you to assume that you’re policeman right now. Okay?
Yeah. You’re wearing Inspector Quinn’s badge, okay? Okay. And you look at the video, and then you look at the time on the video. Let’s see the face sheet, please. See where it says red time. She’s gonna put arrow over there. .3?
It says .3. Do you know what that means?
No. That means he went through the light when it was red for three tenths of a second. Oh, three tenths, so it was close. (audience laughing) Well, you just said he’s definitely guilty. I try to explain to you. Three tenths of a second, that’s not much. All right, now let me finish. (audience laughing)
Okay. You go through this every day? Yes, your honor. (audience laughing) We’ve been happily married for 43 years. Right?
Yes, dear. (audience laughing) You know (laughs). My wife and I meet people, they usually will say, “How long have you been married?” And I say, “We’ve been happily married for five years.” Now my wife is much younger looking than I am. They say, “Oh, you’ve been happily married for five years? “Is she your second or third wife?” I said, “Oh, no, we’ve been married 50 years. “We’ve been happily married for five.” (audience laughing) That’s good. You’ve been happily married for how long? Almost 43 years. 43 years, all right. Now I’m gonna make you a judge, okay? Okay. Can I call you Linda? Linda, that’s fine. All right, Linda, here’s the deal. You’re the judge. The statute that set up this offense, all right, allows two tenths of a second to get through the light and they don’t charge you. Okay, missed it by one. One tenth. (audience laughing) How do you handle this case? It’s three tenths of a second. Do you give him the benefit of the doubt, right, or do you say, hey, three tenths, pay the fine. What do you do? I’ll give him the benefit of the doubt, and he has to take me to dinner. Oh (laughs).
(audience laughing) That’s the deal. Well? I have to agree with her, your honor. (audience laughing) It’s been my policy of the fact. Without the city coming in and proving the calibration, I think the difference between two tenths of a second and three tenths of a second is so small, right? That I usually give the benefit of the doubt. Particularly when they come in with some high powered defense like you. You don’t have to take me to dinner. No, no, I’m not gonna take you dinner. Okay.
(audience laughing) I’ve been happily married for five years. (all laughing) The matter is dismissed. Linda’s husband has found the secret to a long successful marriage. No, it’s not active listening, or meaningful walks on the beach, or mastering the Kamasutra, nope. It’s much simpler than that, it’s two simple words. We’ve been happily married for 43 years. Right?
Yes, dear. (audience laughing) That’s right, the two most important words for a husband to learn are, yes, dear. Repeat that phrase every time she stops talking, and you’re good to go. Pro tip, no charge. Sergio di Susa. How we doing, your honor? Who’s this, your boy here with you? This is my son, he’s two and a half. What’s the little guy’s name? Scavin (laughs). Give him the gavel. Here, let him play with that. Wanna play with that? Look, he gave you something. You be quiet now for a minute. (Sergio laughs) I can’t understand, you have a $25 ticket. Yep. You’ve been here for two hours already. Your son’s breaking our gavel. (all laughing) That’s gonna cost you $50. Yeah, it’s difficult. Judge, I’ve had that 150 years. He’s had it about two seconds and broke it. (all laughing) Just let him go, let him go. So this has to be a good story. Why are you here? Well, I’ve got a ticket, I went to family court. What happened was, I paid for an hour, and then I was gonna walk away, and I thought about it because before I paid for an hour, and I’ve stayed in family court. You never know how long you’re gonna be there, and I stayed longer. Now because it’s that meter, the whole strip, it doesn’t allow me to put for that same car. So what I did was, I put the two tickets. I have them here. In my window. I have them. I put the two tickets in my window, and it doesn’t show that hour. You got the ticket at 10:24. 10:24, yes. So what I’m saying is, I paid for two hours. I was there probably a little before nine. I should’ve gotten until 11 o’clock. First meter allowed you to park until 10:19. You missed by five minutes, the matter is dismissed. Thank you, I appreciate it. I want the gavel back. (all laughing) All right. No, you can’t bring it with you. No, no, no, no, no. (all laughing) Everything in his mouth. Thank you very much, your honor. All right. Come on, how cool was that? If you’d like to see more cases like this one, tune into Caught in Providence every weekday. Excuse me? You didn’t know Caught in Providence is also a TV show? Oh, wow, your life just got substantially better. To find out what channel we’re on, go to caughtinprovidence.com. Click on your local listings, scroll down till you find your hometown, then start doing your happy dance. That’s it, move it, move it, nice. All rise and hit subscribe so you don’t miss the latest viral moments like this one. Share these videos and weigh in on the cases. You be the judge, subscribe now.

Illegally Downloading Music


If you’ve ever used LimeWire to illegally download a very low quality MP3 of Akon’s ‘Smack That’ that’s actually Afroman’s ‘Because I Got High’ but also the file is mislabeled as Sandstorm by Stan, with Eminem in parenthesis and oh! No wait, nevermind, it’s actually just twelve viruses in a trench coat disguised as a song, I have one question to ask you! YOU WOULDN’T DOWNLOAD A FUCKING CAR, WOULD YOU??!? The year is and I am five years old. Aw! Look at his giant head! As I play Space Cadet Pinball on my father’s very heavy-set Windows 98 off-white desktop computer, while farting and-and cumming, over in Massachusetts, Sean Fanning and Shaun Parker, portrayed by Justin Timberlake obviously, launch a little application called Napster. And Napster says: “Hi music industry, I’m Napster and um, I’m gonna set you on fire”. For the very first time there is an easy-to-use tool available to the masses that lets you download all of the music, in all of the lands, and for [bad British accent]
Oh my god, that’s crazy. And this is pretty monumental because music had existed since the- the first time Adam was like, “everybody clap your hands” and Eve was like, “stop it, what is happening? S- cut it out!” And now, thanks to the a.k.a. the MP3 if you didn’t go to college, you didn’t have to buy a physical record or cassette or CD just to listen to one song. CD? More like do you see these songs on my computer? Ya know what I’m sayin’? Now Napster is super important not just because it lets you download “Kryptonite” by 3 Doors Down really slowly and for free, but because it introduced peer-to-peer or P2P file-sharing to the masses. What peer-to-peer means is that instead of one person uploading a file to a central server and then another person downloading that file from a central server, peer-to-peer takes out the middleman and just lets people share files and dirty little secrets directly with each other, dirty little secret obviously being a reference to the All-American Rejects’ smash hit uhh, “Move Along” *awkward laugh* moving-moving along! p2p can be used to transfer all sorts of files, not just MP3s and eventually it will! like… a l-like a lot Laa.. Like a lot of porn. But Napster only let you do MP3s, and Napster gets crazy popular, eventually reaching like, 80 million registered users at its peak, which if you know simple math, you know that that’s more than four! But the AKA RIAA, isn’t having any of that shit. On December 7th, 1999, only months after the launch of Napster, RIAA filed suit on Napster’s buttcheeks on behalf of the 5 major record labels: UMG, SME, WMG, EMI, BMG, KFC, CKY. Between it’s launch in 1999 and its shutdown in 2001, basically everyone and their dog tried to sue Napster. A&M Records, Metallica, Dr. Dre, who is- uh he famously said; But this was a ton of publicity for the app and it only led to more and more people sprinting towards Napster to take advantage of the service before it would inevitably be taken down. The service finally shut down on July 11th, 2001, but dog, it was too late – the effects were irreversible. The entire internet had done a sick-ass Superman seat grab and completely transformed almost overnight. But with no Napster where did people turn? Allow me to introduce you to my friend Kazaa. Oh, have you met Limewire? This is my very lightweight, tiny friend who’s eventually gonna kind of be a huge deal… And his name is BitTorrent! While Kazaa and LimeWire were the apps that were the most popular immediately after Napster’s death in 2001, both of them were a little bit… goofy – um uh-, a lil’, a lil’ Lil’, lil’ A little drunk. Maybe, maybe they were hitting grandma’s bottle cabinet. I don’t know. LimeWire was released in May of 2000 by a dude named Mark Gorton, who has degrees from Harvard, Yale and Stanford and apparently all of them meant nothing when he made LimeWire. And Kazaa was released in 2001 and was developed by some Scandinavian dudes whose names I’m not even gonna attempt to pronounce, but they also would later go on to help develop Skype. What is this, the fucking History Channel? I don’t look like an ice road trucker. But also more extra importantly, both of these were absolute garbage for your computer. I want to talk specifically about Kazaa first. Kazaa here was closed source, which means to this day, people don’t know like exactly how everything worked. For example, the algorithm used to double-check that two files are actually the same thing. Like if two dudes both upload “Say My Name” by Destiny’s Child and it’s trying to like double check that they’re both the same thing so we can organize them, Um, it did not do a good job. Which means that, You could download what you thought was “It’s Been Awhile” by Staind, but surprise, fucker, that’s Weird Al. If you’re downloading some software or video games that have some “.exe”s in them, Um, please dot “Ex”cuse me from my computer before I invite 17 really cool viruses into my home. And hey, you remember our pal RIAA? They were doing it too, yeah! They were fighting the war on illegally downloading music by spreading fake ass corrupt files on Kazaa. Isn’t the Internet so crazy!? Another small, but also like kind of huge bad thing about the app. Um, it was riddled with adware. And malware, and spyw- Basically every “ware” you could think of it-it had it. Warioware? Ace Hardware? But regardless, Kazaa is popping off hard, from like 2001 to 2004 ish So hard that in 2003 are our favorite pal RIAA over here says “you know what?” “Fuck it, if we can’t sue Kazaa, We’re just gonna start suing a bunch of Kazaa users directly for a shit ton of money, like college students. Why? FUCK EM. That’s why. You don’t need a fucking business degree! Society is a lie! Anarchy! dude, gamers are the government!” As you could imagine, traffic starts to die down on Kazaa because users are getting afraid of going to jail and while users scattered to other p2p services like LimeWire, in 2006 Kazaa’s parent company, Sharman is sued by MGM in this huge lawsuit and ends up settling for the little tiny baby amount of a hundred million dollars, which is a lotta – I’ll – I mean I’ll rephrase it for my younger viewers so they could better understand it. It’s like – it’s like if you took four of your mom’s credit cards, yeah, yeah, like, like “So – so many V-bucks!” You get it, i- yeah. I’m proud of you. Okay, so anyways what Kazaa and LimeWire had in common is… all of the bad stuff. Mislabeled files. Viruses Malware. A really cool feature where every song is actually just Bill Clinton saying “I did not have sexual relations with that woman! Miss Lewinsky.” Limewire would even eventually release a version that you could pay for called LimeWire Pro that promised better search results and faster downloads, but because life is hilarious and pirates always find a way around stuff, you could just download LimeWire Pro with LimeWire, which is the funniest thing in the world! It wasn’t perfect. It was probably gonna require your parents computer to go to Planned Parenthood and get tested for every STD imaginable. But goddamn it bro. I gotta download that new Avril Lavigne though! Even though it was a beautiful disaster, LimeWire had a good long run from 2000 till it’s ordered shut down in 2010. when the US District Court claimed that LimeWire and it’s Ivy League creator, Mark Gorton were both found guilty of copyright infringement and unfair competition. Hey, you remember your super low-key chill friend who’s so hilarious and chill! Especially when he suggested that LimeWire owes him 72 TRILLION DOLLARS in damages to the music industry which is more money than the Earth had at that time. Which luckily the judge thought was ridiculous, and they settled for a hundred five million which is like practically nothing. And overtime, music, movies, and TV shows gradually figured things out and evolved with piracy. Unlimited music for like, 10 bucks a month on Spotify is a pretty beautiful evolution of the Internet’s capabilities, and it’s way better than running the risk of downloading the Soulja Boy Travis Barker remix on LimeWire and running the risk of infecting your dad’s computer with a funny disease and also potentially getting sued by RIAA for downloading a Travis Barker production. So what the fuck is the point of all of this? Well, okay. So yeah, people are always gonna want shit for free and that’s never gonna change, but also a lot of people are willing to pay money and support content that they care about If they feel like there’s trust and respect shown on both sides, but more importantly, you can get LimeWire Pro with LimeWire! That’s it for today. I really do hope you’re doing well, and please stay tuned for a message from our sponsor. thank you for viewing the captions Do your clothes look bad? Do your clothes make you feel like when you look at em, you go, “Ah, F***!” Well here at Jakey, Jakey and Jakey, ATTORNEYS AT LAW, WE CAN HELP. We have clothes that can protect you from situations of hazard, such as going to the mall and the guy at the Dairy Queen saying “Hey… we don’t serve bozos like you here, wearing shirts like that!” Or when you go to Ace Hardware and you’re trying to get a lug nut and the guy says “Mmm, nice try, bozo shirt!” Jakey, Jakey and Jakey ATTORNEYS AT LAW can protect you from all of this! Shirts like the “NAKEY & JAKEY SPECIAL VIDEOS UNIT” to let people know when you wear that; “Hey man, I’ve seen a guy die before! I’ve seen a man get boiled, like a hard boiled egg!” *starts losing it* or the “JAKEY, JAKEY AND JAKEY ATTORNEYS AT LAW” logo t-shirt featuring our many mantras that we say as a sort of a cheat sheet. In situations where you don’t know what’s legally going on such as: And we have other shirts now, too and we had them before as well. But they’re still there. If you feel like we can give you the protection that you require today, head on over to: And have Jakey, Jakey and Jakey ATTORNEYS AT LAW handle… *exhales* your case… please buy my merch. I’m gonna go to sleep now.

‘The Politician’: See the Trailer For Ryan Murphy’s Netflix Debut | THR News


“See Gentlemen, I’m going to be President of the United States. I’m merely stating the fact I will be President someday.” Netflix is taking us inside the world of dirty politics in ‘The Politician.’ Ryan Murphy helmed project dropped its official trailer on Monday starring ‘Dear Evan Hanson’s Ben Platt as Payton Hobart, a young man with a dream of becoming president of the United States. The trailer teases a dark tone as Platt’s character warns his classmates not to get in the way of his presidential aspirations. He faces off against his fellow high school candidates and even explodes on his running mate played by Zoey Deutch after discovering a video of her using a gay slur. The first look also flashes across footage of police lights, guns and blood as Platt’s character declares he will win the student election “at all costs.” Murphy recently spoke to ‘The Hollywood Reporter’ in a recent cover story that the series is meant to be a satirical class takedown but with a little bit of a modern post Trump-era twist to it. Co-creator Brad Falchuk even noted that the president’s son-in-law’s curious acceptance into Harvard was the chief inspiration for the show’s storyline. Reports circulated that Kushner’s real estate developer father had pledged $2.5 million to Harvard before his son was admitted. Murphy’s plan for the show, initially envisioned as 5 seasons, is to follow Hobart over the course of his life as he runs in different elections, from student government to the Oval Office. Platt added, ‘The Politician’ will mark Murphy’s first Netflix series since signing his landmark $300 million deal with the streamer in February 2018. The series also stars Gwyneth Paltrow, Jessica Lange, Lucy Boynton and Dylan McDermott. For more trailers and updates head over to THR.com and until next time for The Hollywood Reporter News I’m Neha Joy.

J. Roy Rowland, Reflections on Georgia Politics


BOB SHORT: I’m Bob Short and this is Reflections
on Georgia Politics sponsored by the Richard Russell Library at the University of Georgia
and Young Harris College. Our guest is Dr. Roy Rowland, former member
of the Georgia House of Representatives and a member of Congress from Georgia’s 8th district. Welcome, Dr. Rowland. DR. ROY ROWLAND: Bob, it’s a real pleasure to
be here and I appreciate this opportunity. SHORT: Before we talk about you and your medical
and political careers I’d like to ask you this question. What shall I call you Dr. Rowland, Representative
Rowland or Congressman Rowland? ROWLAND: Well I worked real hard for that
M.D. degree so you know it’s nice being called doctor. It was a high honor and a privilege to serve
in the Congress and in the State House and you know I like those, so why don’t you just
call me Roy. SHORT: Roy okay. All right. Uh, Wrightsville, Georgia. ROWLAND: Wrightsville. SHORT: Was it your dream when you were growing
up in Wrightsville to become a doctor and a congressman? ROWLAND: Well it was my dream to become a
doctor and as a matter of fact my grandfather was a pharmacist. He had a brother who was a pharmacist and
a brother that was a doctor and his father was a doctor. So I kind of grew up in my grandfather’s drug
store and he had a lot of influence on me so my earlier ambitions were to become a physician
and I think I probably decided on that when I was probably around 12 years old. Getting involved in politics was a lot later
in my life. SHORT: Well tell us about growing up in Wrightsville. ROWLAND: I think growing up in Wrightsville
was one of the best situations that I could’ve had or anyone could’ve had during that period. It was back in the 1930s. It was during the Great Depression. The times were hard. My father was an attorney. He had a problem making ends meet. Nobody had any money much but we always had
enough to eat and a place to stay and maybe we didn’t know any different but we didn’t
aspire to much more than what we had because we were pretty comfortable. It was really a great situation. Both grandparents on my father and mother’s
sides of the family lived within two blocks of us and I had uncles and aunts, cousins,
that lived all around. It was really a safe place to grow up. SHORT: So you graduated from Wrightsville
High School? ROWLAND: Yes graduated from Wrightsville High
School in 1943. One thing that I was very proud of was being
an Eagle Scout. I obtained that award in 1942. I didn’t get the Eagle Scout badge until 1945
because the war was going on and they didn’t have Courts of Honor back then but after graduating
from high school I went off to school at Emory at Oxford for a couple of quarters and everybody
was going into the Army, this was 1943, or the Navy or the Marines and so I enlisted
in the Army in 1944, and I wound up in the infantry. That was not exactly where I anticipated going
but I’m very proud of my military service. I was in the military a little over two years,
went with the 13th Armored Division to the European theater in January of 1945 and was
involved in two campaigns in the Rhine and the Central Europe and got the Combat Infantryman
Badge and received two Bronze stars one for valor and one for moratorial service and I’m
real proud of my military service and really proud that I got through without getting injured. So anyway after that I came back and went
back to school. Went to South Georgia College for a couple
of quarters and then came here to the University of Georgia for my pre-med. SHORT: Uh-huh. Then you went to the Medical College? ROWLAND: That’s correct. After a couple of years here I was accepted
to the Medical College of Georgia in Augusta in 1948 and graduated there in 1952. SHORT: What happened after you got your medical
degree? ROWLAND: Well I did an internship and a residency
in Macon at the old Macon Hospital which is now gone and spent about six months in Swainsboro
with a friend of mine. Went in partnership there and then came back
to Dublin and that’s where I’ve been since that time. I came back to Dublin in the latter part of
1954 and I practiced medicine in Dublin after that. SHORT: For 24 years before you ran for the
House of Representatives? ROWLAND: Well yeah the State Representative
Wash Larsen who had that office decided to run for Congress and it left an open seat
and so this was in 1976 and so I decided that I was going to run for the State House. In fact, I hadn’t thought a whole lot about
it and then all of a sudden I said “Well you know I think I’ll do this” and I told my wife
I think I’m going to run for State Representative and she said “Well I’m not surprised” because
my father’s side of the family have always been involved in politics. My grandfather was in the State Legislation,
cousin was State Legislator, my father was a District Attorney and a Superior Court Judge,
brother was a Magistrate who was also a lawyer. So it was a lot of politics in my family. SHORT: Was it hard to do that and leave your
at least part of your medical practice? ROWLAND: At that time it wasn’t because I
had pretty well decided that I wanted to. When I ran for the State House that was a
little different because that was just a part-time proposition and I really liked politics. I liked the debate and the adversarial things
that you had to do in politics and so I enjoyed that and I decided after an opportunity came
to run for the U.S. House that I’d like to make it full time. So it really wasn’t hard for me to leave my
medical practice although let me say that that’s wonderful. I could not have wanted my medical practice
to have been any better than it was. SHORT: So you were elected in 1976 over two
opponents in the primary and one in the runoff. Tell us a little bit about that race. ROWLAND: Well that was for the State House. There were two attorneys who were both good
friends. Now that happens a lot in politics. You are good friends running against each
other. One was Leon Green who lives just down the
street from me now, did then and the other one is Ralph Walk whose family I treated. So it was really kind of odd the way that
worked out. But Ralph lost out in the primary and I was
in a runoff with Leon. We called it after it became apparent to him
that I had won. He was very gracious and called me and congratulated
me and we’ve never had any ill feelings at all. You know if you get mad with someone in politics
before long you’ll be mad with everybody. So you don’t get mad with people in politics. SHORT: So you went off to Atlanta. What was your first reaction to being a member
of the House of Representatives? ROWLAND: Well I was kind of awed at being
there to see how the government worked on a state level. I found out there was a lot of great people
there, a lot of people that I made a lot of good friends there. Tom Murphy I particularly grew fond of. Everybody knows Tom was a pretty abrupt fellow
but always I thought very fair. I tell you a little incident I had with Tom
Murphy. Georgia had not passed the Certificate of
Need which they had to pass in 1977 or maybe it was ’78 but anyway Georgia was going to
lose a lot of federal funds if they did not pass the Certificate of Need legislation for
mental health and addictive diseases and a lot of different things and so George Busbee
was the governor at that time and this was on the last day of the session and they thought
this was would be brought up as kind of a perfunctory thing it wouldn’t be any problem
about it but I was very much opposed to the Certificate of Need and made that known. And I had the opportunity to get in the well
it was around 11:30 in the evening before we would adjourn at 12, to speak against the
Certificate of Need and I took the well and I decided that I would just stay in the well
until the Legislature adjourned and we wouldn’t pass the Certificate of Need. Of course that was not a very smart thing
for me to do because the governor would have to call a special session I suppose to get
it done but Governor Busbee sent his people up to the floor talking to him trying to get
me out of the well and Tom Murphy gave Al Burruss a note to hand to me that said “Get
out of the damn well.” Well you know I had a chance to be a martyr
or get out of the well. You know what I did? I got out of the well. So Certificate of Need passed just before
the session ended that year. SHORT: Well in your opinion after all of these
years has the Certificate of Need been good for Georgia? ROWLAND: I’m not sure. I’m really not sure about that. It was good for those who had it and it wasn’t
good for those who didn’t have it. So I did some research on it back then and
at that time I came to the conclusion the Certificate of Need really did not do what
it was supposed to do, stop the capital expansion of healthcare facilities, capital outlays
for healthcare facilities. I never was sure that it was a good thing
for us to do. SHORT: Incidentally how would you define your
political philosophy? ROWLAND: I’d say I’m moderate. Moderate conservative maybe. SHORT: Good. Well back to your career and the House of
Representatives. You got some pretty good committee assignments. They were assigned to you by the speaker weren’t
they? ROWLAND: They were. You’re talking about the State House now? SHORT: State House. ROWLAND: Yes. Yeah the Speaker made those assignments and
when I came Al Burruss from Marietta was running against Tom Murphy for Speaker at that time
and Tom Murphy asked Ben Jessup from over in Cochran to contact me about voting for
him and I told Ben that Al Burruss had already contacted me on a couple of occasions and
I told Ben that yeah I would like to support Tom but I really did want to get on the health
and ecology committee. The Speaker wasn’t inclined to put doctors
on that committee but anyway he made a commitment to do that if I would vote for him and so
I made that commitment to Tom Murphy in exchange for a seat on the health and ecology committee. SHORT: Do you think that was a good trade? ROWLAND: I think it worked out all right. I admired Tom Murphy as a speaker and he was
kind of an abrupt guy but I thought he was always fair in dealing with members of the
House and fair in his political philosophy too. I liked Tom Murphy. SHORT: You mentioned earlier about political
friends and political enemies. After that race between Murphy and Al Burruss
as heated as it was they became very good friends. ROWLAND: They did. That was amazing. Al worked his way back into a leadership position. He became the Whip after he challenged Tom. So Al and Tom became good friends again. So again you can’t keep a chip on your shoulder
in politics. SHORT: As a member of the health and ecology
committee you helped to address many of the problems involved in the distribution of health
services back then. We often hear the question is healthcare a
privilege or a right. What do you think the answer to that is? ROWLAND: I never thought that healthcare was
a right. I thought it was a responsibility of society
to provide healthcare to those who couldn’t afford it but I wouldn’t say that it was a
right like a right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. But I think the government has a responsibility
to help those people who are not able to help themselves. SHORT: Well in addition to Health and Ecology
you were a member of the Ways and Means Committee. ROWLAND: I was. SHORT: A very powerful committee. ROWLAND: It was and had a good chairman Marcus
Collins. Marcus always said he didn’t have much education
but Marcus had a lot of common sense, and I thought he made a real good chairman of
the Ways and Means Committee and I enjoyed serving on that committee. SHORT: Was that part of your trade with Murphy? ROWLAND: No it was not. That happened later. SHORT: And then you were on the Rules Committee. The most powerful committee in the House. ROWLAND: No I was on the Judiciary Committee. SHORT: Later weren’t you later on the Rules
Committee? ROWLAND: Bob, I think you probably jogged
my memory. I think yes I was. My last term there I was on the Rules Committee. Yes I had forgotten that. Bill Lee was chairman of that committee. That’s correct. SHORT: Yeah well tell us a little bit about
the Rules Committee and how it works. ROWLAND: Well I’m not sure that I can recall
all of that exactly now but the Rules Committee became all powerful during the last 10 days
of the session because if a piece of legislation had not passed out of the Rules Committee
and made it through the House during that period of time it would not be considered
by the Senate. So it was always a scramble to get the legislation
out of the Rules Committee particularly the last 10 days of the session. SHORT: Yeah Legislators had to come in there
and do some begging. ROWLAND: They did. They really did have to do some begging to
get it through but as I recall it turned out pretty well most of the time. I don’t recall many people going away really
angry about what the outcome. SHORT: Putting the bill on the calendar? ROWLAND: Getting the bill on the calendar. SHORT: You mentioned Bill Lee. If you will, let’s take a minute and talk
about some of the other legislators who were in power during that period of the ’70s and
’80s. ROWLAND: Well one person that I really admired
was chairman of the Health and Ecology Committee was Sidney Marcus from Atlanta who later ran
for mayor for Atlanta. I thought he was a really outstanding person
and we’ve already mentioned Al Burruss and Jack Connell from Augusta who was a speaker
pro tem all the time that I was there. Wayne Snow who was chairman of Judiciary Committee
from Chickamauga, Georgia. SHORT: Chickamauga. ROWLAND: I admired him too. There were a lot of people in the State House
that I really thought were outstanding people and did a good job for the State of Georgia. SHORT: You served with Joe Frank Harris I
believe. ROWLAND: Joe Frank was chairman of the Appropriations
Committee. I did and it was when it was all business
and it seemed like he was always running around doing something but never too busy not to
stop and talk. SHORT: Well you served in the State House
three terms. ROWLAND: Three terms. SHORT: For six years and then in 1982 you
decided to run for Congress. ROWLAND: Yes. SHORT: What prompted that decision? ROWLAND: I had originally thought I wanted
to run for governor and in fact got a campaign underway and raised around $35,000 but Speaker
Tom Murphy told me that Joe Frank Harris was going to be the governor, that’s who he was
promoting and that there was no point really in me running for governor and Bo Ginn was
running at that same time and I think Norman Underwood. There were two or three other people I can’t
recall right now but I wasn’t sure what to do and I had some friends tell me that they
didn’t think the current Congressman from Georgia was doing a very good job and thought
it was a good possibility that I could be elected if I decided to run against him and
so I had a friend who did a little poll out of Dublin. They gave me some information that made me
believe that it was possible to unseat the incumbent. So that’s when I made the decision to run
for the U.S. House. SHORT: In the Bloody 8th.. ROWLAND: I guess that’s right the Bloody 8th. SHORT: Why do they call it the Bloody 8th? ROWLAND: I don’t know. It’s such a big it’s a such a long district,
such a big district geographically. I’m not sure why they call it the Bloody 8th
but I do recall it being called that. SHORT: Well you were elected many more times
to Congress but what do you remember about that first election? ROWLAND: Well I remember that I didn’t have
a campaign organization. I had some friends that were helping and it
was kind of like our campaign was held together by baling wire I guess you might say and people
vote mostly against something not for something so they were really voting against the incumbent
I think as much as they were voting for me and there was one other person in that race
and so I got into a runoff with the incumbent. When the incumbents are in a runoff they are
in trouble and so later Billy Lee Evans who was the incumbent told me that he should have
stopped before he did because he realized he wasn’t going to be able to win. But what I remember was the night that the
final returns are in and I had been elected and our campaign headquarters, which was in
a shopping mall in a vacated grocery store building. People came from all around and there was
a lot of ladies. It was like a picnic. I mean it was really a great occasion and
my kids came back. I have three children, and they came back
and it was just a great occasion that night and you know got some calls of congratulations. It was all of a sudden kind of a different
world but you know let me tell you something that was really interesting after that. After I was elected, it was kind of like somehow
or another I was different to my friends. I felt kind of like I was alone or something. You know I’d call my friends up and it was
like they didn’t want to talk to me. It was kind of a weird feeling. I remember that very distinctively. Of course that changed later but I recall
it was a it was kind of an uneasy time. SHORT: Well Bloody 8th was certainly a large
district. How were you able to campaign throughout that
whole district? ROWLAND: Just get in the car and ride and
ride and walk and walk and ride and ride and let me say that my wife Luella, I couldn’t
have been elected without her. I mean she was every morning we would part
ways. She would go one direction and I would go
another. Let me tell you a little story about in Waycross,
Lindsay Thomas who was also elected at the same time lived up in South Georgia — SHORT: Screven. ROWLAND: Yeah. That’s right and there was a function for
Lindsay after the election in Waycross at the Waycross Country Club and Lindsay invited
me to come down because Waycross was in my district and so I did. I went down and Luella didn’t go with me but
when I came in the club and Lindsay was standing there talking to one of his friends I walked
up and his friend he introduced me to his friend and said “This is J. Roy Rowland here”
and the friend looked at me and kept talking to Lindsay and Lindsay said “Where’s Luella?”
and his friend stopped me and said “Oh you’re Luella’s husband.” So that told me she was all over. She had a lot to do with me being elected. SHORT: You had no Republican opposition? ROWLAND: No, and I was the only member that
came to the U.S. House that time that did not have a Republican opponent so after the
primary that was my election. That primary was put off because it got involved
in a court case and we finally had the we had the runoff at the time of the general
election at that time in November and so after I was elected in the Primary in the runoff
and no Republican opponent so we were able to go on to Washington and look for a place
to live and I was the only one in that class of about 78 new members that could do that. SHORT: Of course that did not help your seniority? It just helped you get located in Washington? ROWLAND: That’s all. No it didn’t help me in any seniority. No we were all sworn in at the same time. SHORT: Was moving to Washington a culture
shock? ROWLAND: No not really. Culture shock? No. Luella was with me. It may have been more so if she hadn’t have
been. I mean well it was different in the aspect
that we were living in a townhouse as compared to the home that we lived in and meeting different
kind of people but I didn’t detect the cultures being that much different. SHORT: Shortly after you got there there was
an incident that became a controversy involving the Russians shooting down a Korean airline
flight with Georgia Congressman Larry McDonald on board and there was some feeling as I recall
that McDonald might have been the target of that. Do you recall that situation? ROWLAND: I do and I recall it just as you
did that he may have been the target. It was a 007 Korean airliner that he was on
that was shot down by the Russians. Larry was very, very conservative. He was heavily involved in the John Birch
Society. In fact I think Larry did not vote for Speaker
O’Neill for Speaker the only Democrat in the house that didn’t and he lost his seat on
the Armed Services Committee because of that but I talked with Larry on several occasions
and Larry would admonish me for some of the votes I cast by saying they were too liberal. We had some conversations. I never did consider myself to really be a
close friend of Larry’s but knew him pretty good and I do recall that there was a conspiracy
theory about that plane being targeted because he was on it. SHORT: But there’s no definite conclusions? ROWLAND: Not that I recall. SHORT: When you arrived in Washington it was
1983. ROWLAND: Yes. SHORT: Ronald Reagan had defeated Jimmy Carter
for president and the country was in I guess what you could call a mess. What do you remember about those days? ROWLAND: Well it was high inflation rate,
high unemployment rate and the misery index I think it was referred to at that time. I think that President Reagan had the ability
to make people feel differently about what was going on. He made people feel good about the country
and that the problems could be resolved and the country could be turned around and that
was a principle thing that I think he did. He was a very charismatic person and I know
Pat Schroeder was a member from Colorado and coined the phrase for him the “Teflon president”
because if anything that anybody said about him seemed to just bounce off of him and really
didn’t cause a problem but the two times that I had the opportunity to talk with him and
he would call us he’d call members to the White House to talk with them about various
type of legislation but always a very, I thought a very gracious person and very even with
the way he approached things. SHORT: He was supported by a group of Southern
Democrats known as boll weevils. Were you a boll weevil? ROWLAND: Well they changed the name of that. The boll weevil was the name that was given
to a group of conservative Democrats who were mostly from the south but that became the
Conservative Democratic Forum and yes I was a member of the Conservative Democratic Forum. We probably had about 35 or 40 members, Democrats,
and were able to do some negotiating on some legislation. I don’t think we had as much influence as
the Blue Dogs have now and most of those that were Democrats that were in the Conservative
Democratic Forum either left the Congress, became Republican or were defeated. So there was one time that they were probably
not more than about I don’t know 15 to 20 in that group. SHORT: It’s generally known that most of the
work in Congress is done by committees and in those committees you either defeat or pass
out bills to the floor for a vote. Would you be so kind as to explain to us how
those committees are chosen? ROWLAND: I could tell you on the Democratic
side how the members of the committee are chosen. I think the Republicans have a Republican
conference and I’m not sure just how that works but on the Democratic side it was a
Steering and Policy Committee and there were about 30 members of the Steering and Policy
Committee members of the House. Some of them were regional from different
parts of the country and some of them were appointed by their leadership, some by the
Speaker which of course gave the leadership and the Speaker a lot of power. The last term that I was there I ran for and
was elected to the Steering and Policy Committee to represent Georgia, Alabama and Tennessee
and South Carolina, and the committee assignments were made in the Steering and Policy Committee
and again the Speaker had a great deal to do with who was elected not always but much
of the time. SHORT: Tell us if you will what committees
do. ROWLAND: Well they’re authorizing committees. Like the Energy and Commerce Committee or
the Public Works and Transportation Committee. They pass legislation to authorize the appropriation
of the money for various projects and of course the Ways and Means Committee has to do with
taxation, determining the taxes that would be put in place and the Appropriation Committee
will place money that has been authorized by the authorizing committee but that has
changed a lot since I was there. We didn’t have what they call earmarks now. The Appropriation Committee now can earmark
stuff and they can get money appropriated for something without it having been authorized
but when I was there it had to be authorized before it could be appropriated. There was some monies that were appropriated
before the authorization was done but the authorization eventually had to be done so
committees authorize is what they do and the Ways and Means Committee and the Appropriation
Committee. SHORT: Do you think earmarking is a good idea? ROWLAND: No I really don’t. I think it’s a bad idea. There’s too many trades that can be made that
can affect adversely our country in general. I think that’s one of the things that has
made the deficits escalate so much is earmarking. Any member of the House is going to get what
they can for their district because that helps them get re-elected and that’s not a good
thing in my opinion. SHORT: Bringing home the bacon. ROWLAND: Bringing home the bacon that’s what
it is. SHORT: Voters understand that? ROWLAND: Yes they understand that. SHORT: Well there are few issues in American
politics in my judgment that are as misunderstand as national deficit, debt and deficit spending
and our deficit spending has increased our national debt many fold since you were in
Congress. Will we ever again have a balanced budget? ROWLAND: Probably not. If you mean that the amount of money that
is spent equals the amount of money that is taken in I doubt that that will ever happen
again. They say that if the deficit goes up as a
certain percent of the gross domestic product and that percentage stays the same all the
time it can go up indefinitely and that’s what we did for a number of years but now
the gross domestic product has fallen and the deficit goes up and the distance between
them is much greater now so that puts us in a precarious position. I don’t think we’ll ever have a balanced budget
not in the foreseeable future. SHORT: There were two incidents during your
term up there — terms, excuse me, that I’d like to talk about. One is the Iran-Contra situation and the other
is what was known as the first Gulf War. Would you talk to us about those? ROWLAND: Yes. The Iran-Contra was during I guess it was
maybe the third time that I was there when some monies were taken through a deal with
Iranians and given to the Contras to support them who we supported in opposition to the
Sandinistas who were the Communist type government in Central America and Nicaragua. Interestingly enough, I got involved in that
to an extent that I got the attention of the leadership on the Democrat side and that helped
me get a seat on the Energy and Commerce Committee which I had been denied for three terms before
that but I did have the opportunity to go to Central America to Honduras and visit the
Contra camp there with Sonny Montgomery who was from Mississippi. He was a retired general, and he was the chairman
of the Veterans Affairs Committee, and we went to Tegucigalpa, Honduras, and we boarded
a, later I learned it was an unmarked CIA helicopter, and flew to Baca Valley to this
Contra camp and I recall the pilot was flying just above the treetops, it was very mountainous
and he was staying just above the treetops and I said “Why are you flying so low?” He said “Well if we get up very high we might
get shot down” and I thought “What am I doing here?” I mean I didn’t understand the danger that
we may have been in at that point but this is the same time that Noriega was being overthrown
in Panama and we stopped in Panama on the way there. And if you recall our Ambassador had been
withdrawn from Panama at that time and we went to the Ambassador’s residence and had
dinner but there was no Ambassador there and there were armed guards everywhere and it
was sort of a different time. SHORT: There was a great Congressional investigation
into that. You remember Oliver North and that situation. Do you think President Reagan knew about the
deal with the Contras? ROWLAND: Yeah I think he knew about it but
I think he let Oliver North manage it. Yeah I think he knew about it. President Reagan, and my observation was,
he didn’t micromanage things. He generally knew what was going on and he
had generally he generally said what he wanted done but he left it to the others to take
care of the details. SHORT: Let’s talk about the Gulf War. There was President Bush. ROWLAND: Right. SHORT: Were you in favor of the Gulf War? ROWLAND: Yes. I was in favor of the Gulf War because I thought
that Saddam Hussein was the same kind of person that Adolf Hitler was. I thought that Saddam Hussein wanted to control
all the oil in the Middle East, control the economy of the world. And I felt that he had to be stopped and that’s
essentially what the Gulf War did for a time and I learned later that the reason that we
stopped and did not depose him at that time was of course Iraq and Iran were bitter enemies
and they had been in a war for several years prior to that and the general feeling was
that if Saddam Hussein was taken out that Iran would become dominant and in fact we
have seen that happen after he was taken out with the war that’s going on over there now. So I was in favor of that and I thought it
was the right thing to do to stop him. SHORT: I remember watching it on television
and marveling at our ability to drop those bombs through a window. ROWLAND: Yeah. SHORT: Wasn’t that awesome? ROWLAND: That was awesome. It really was. I mean those cruise missiles where they could
put it in a bucket somewhere. It was amazing. SHORT: It was amazing. Do you think that we accomplished what we
should have accomplished over there during that first war? Should we have continued until we brought
down Saddam Hussein or did we withdraw at the proper time? ROWLAND: Well in hindsight it probably would
have been better to have gone ahead and done that and had a different proposal to follow
up on the war and I think that’s what happened with this invasion of Iraq and what’s going
on over there now. We didn’t have any follow up. We didn’t have any plan. We didn’t have any way. We had not planned how to deal with it after
he was removed. SHORT: What do you think that these wars have
done to the financial aspects of the American government? ROWLAND: Made a lot of money. People have made a lot of money out of wars. As a matter of fact I think World War II brought
us out of the depression and it made a lot of money for I think it was President Eisenhower
said “Beware the military industrial complex” and yeah I think there’s been a lot of money
made out of it. SHORT: Let’s get back for a minute to President
Reagan. He was accused during his administration of
overspending on defense at the expense of programs, social and domestic programs, that
needed attention. Is that a fair accusation? ROWLAND: I think President Reagan with what
he did in defense spending, we simply out spent the Soviet Union, and I think that’s
what brought them down. So I give him and his philosophy and what
he did a lot of credit for ending the Cold War although it created tremendous deficits. SHORT: Let’s talk for a minute now about healthcare. You’re a doctor, a very successful doctor,
a very popular doctor. You were in the Georgia Legislature and in
the U.S. Congress at a time when healthcare happened to be a big issue. Have we made any progress over the years in
solving some of our healthcare delivery issues? ROWLAND: Well I don’t think we’ve made many
significant progress in the delivery of healthcare in making it available to people who can’t
afford it. That’s a really difficult very difficult proposition
to have to deal with. It gets caught up in the politics of the time
because there’s a lot of divisiveness. There’s so many different entities out there
that are concerned with money that they might not make or money they’ll lose and that’s
what it evolves around largely the reason I think that we’re not able to get some healthcare
legislation passed that will make healthcare available to everyone. SHORT: Let’s talk about our federal programs,
our Medicare and Medicaid some of the other children’s programs. Are they effective? ROWLAND: They’re effective I think the Medicare
is very effective for the elderly and of course Medicaid for people who are poor. As a matter of fact, they do a lot more than
they probably need to do. There’s probably more money spent than needs
to be spent. We’ve got you know we’ve got PeachCare in
Georgia now for children which is certainly a good thing but the delivery of healthcare
still is a conundrum that is very difficult to deal with. How do you pay for it? How do you determine who is going to get what
kind of care? You know there’s a lot of different reasons
why healthcare cost so much. I mean look at the wonderful technology that
we have now in diagnostic and treatment. That’s expensive and of course there’s always
a thing the trial lawyers will disagree but that’s certainly defensive medicine the liability
problem certainly adds to the cost of it. We’ve moved so far in technology and healthcare
now I think we’ve gotten to the place where we really can’t pay for it for everyone. SHORT: Well is there a solution to that? ROWLAND: Well yes but then you get into a
biomedical ethical area. I mean how are you going to decide who is
going to get what? For example, in United Kingdom people after
they’ve passed a certain age can’t get renal dialysis. You have to they make a decision about that. Well if you’re in this country anybody can
get dialysis who has end-stage renal disease under the Medicare program. So there’s some biomedical ethical issues
that you get into that you have to deal with and it’s hard. SHORT: What do you think of means testing? ROWLAND: I think that’s a good idea. In fact we had some legislation that I was
involved with while I was there. We wanted to create some community health
centers around the country. I wanted to create a network of community
health centers that would be financed by the federal, the state and the local government. Everyone would invest in them and the people
that went to those centers would be provided care on a means tested basis. So you know if you were able to pay you paid. You paid whatever you were able to pay and
if you’re not able to pay anything then you didn’t pay anything and I thought this was
a way that we could provide outpatient care to many, many people in our country. SHORT: Would means testing be a good idea
for Social Security? ROWLAND: I think you have to consider that
as a possibility. I think for Medicare as well to means test
it. People who are very wealthy get the same kind
of Medicare as people who are not. So I think the people who are very wealthy
should pay a little more. SHORT: Let’s talk for a minute if you will
about Georgia’s delegation in Congress when you were a member. Georgia has always been in a very powerful
position in the Congress. We’ve had Carl Vinson and Phil Landrum and
others but as they left they were replaced by a group of what I considered to be very
bright and efficient members like yourself for example and Ed Jenkins. You served with Ed. Tell us about Ed. ROWLAND: Ed is a great guy, very bright. Ed was on the Ways and Means. We were good friends. Ed got along with almost everybody. There’s one time that Ed was being pushed
to run for majority letter in the House but he did not. I think he would have had a real good chance
of being elected to that position had he chose to run but yeah Ed was very good. Doug Barnard. SHORT: Doug, banking. ROWLAND: Yeah Doug had a lot of background
as you know in politics in Georgia and he was into the banking area and had a lot of
information about that. SHORT: Elliott Levitas. ROWLAND: Yeah Elliott was there when I came. He was a really super guy. I was kind of stunned when Elliott was not
re-elected one time. I think Georgia and the country lost a great
leader when Elliott was not re-elected. Lindsay Thomas who went when I at the same
time that I did. Richard Ray. Richard really outstanding and a very patriotic
guy and you know he was Sam Nunn’s Chief of Staff for a number of years. So he really knew what was going on in Washington. He knew the process. SHORT: You also served with Wyche Fowler who
was elected to the Senate. ROWLAND: Yes. Wyche was. I never did get to know Wyche really well. He ran for the Senate not long after that. Wyche was a great storyteller. SHORT: And Buddy Darden. ROWLAND: Buddy is a very dear friend. I’ve known Buddy for a long time. We were in the Georgia House together, and
Buddy’s wife, Lillian, her father was a Methodist minister and I knew of her family and Buddy
came from down in Hancock County. Buddy is a real good friend. I think he was an excellent legislator. I’m sorry when he was not re-elected. SHORT: How deeply are you involved in politics
today? ROWLAND: Well some. Not really deeply. I mean there are people that I support because
I think they are good people or because I think they’ll make good leaders. I’m still involved to some extent. I don’t think I have as much influence as
some people say I might have. Folks come to me and say “Well I’d like for
you to so and so and help me.” I say, you know, “I don’t have that much influence
anymore. I don’t have any leverage anymore you know
so.” SHORT: Well I would like to now move ahead
to the present day. We’re at the University of Georgia. It’s 2009. We’re involved in wars and deficits and a
very deep economic depression. I say depression. That might not be the word but where are we
headed? ROWLAND: Well that’s hard to say where we’re
headed but where I think we are right now we are in a sort of an unstable economic situation
because of the tremendous deficits that we have seen built up over the last several years. I think the last time we didn’t have a deficit
— well President Clinton did not have much of a deficit but these deficits have really
built up. There’s been an awful lot of spending by the
government on security, on the military, a lot that has been spent socially, social welfare
as well. You know we’re approaching an area of deflation
in my opinion as compared to inflation. Deflation can be just as bad. I’m not an economist but we’ve got more goods
and services out there than we have money and credit and so we see the price of things
have come down a lot and that can be just as devastating to the economy as inflation
which is just the opposite of that. I was for putting the money out as a stimulus
but I think the secretary of the treasury and the Federal Reserve they did not look
after the money. I think Secretary Paulson he just they put
the money out there and the financial community took it and there’s no accounting for it and
it didn’t do what it was intended to do. I really kind of subscribe to the Keynesian
theory of economics and that really at bad times that the government can step in and
help but when times are good then that money needs to be repaid. So I think we’re in a period right now where
the government needs to help some but that money needs to be repaid when times get better. SHORT: Uh-huh. How much are we in danger of China? ROWLAND: You mean financially? Economically? SHORT: Financially. ROWLAND: Well I think that’s a real danger
because they can manufacture goods so much cheaper than we can and people want to buy
things as cheap as they can. So I think that that is a real problem but
it’s not just China. It’s all of the countries in the Pacific rim
and the Far East that are doing this and Central America, South America. I mean they produce stuff so much cheaper
than we do in this country and that puts us in a pretty unstable situation. SHORT: Well while we’re on that subject let
me ask you this question. What would you say our role should be in world
affairs? Should we be as aggressive as we have been
in recent times? ROWLAND: I don’t think we can be the world
policeman. I really don’t. I think that we’ve been sort of forced into
that role because we are the pre-eminent military power in the world so almost every other country
looks to us when there’s a problem to intervene. Then when we intervene it’s not appreciated
as much as it’s just really not appreciated. So while I’m not an isolationist at all I
think we are stretched too thin now our commitments militarily. SHORT: There are those in the country who
think that we spend too much money with our allies. What do you think of that? ROWLAND: Well we do spend a lot of money with
Israel. I always thought about Israel as being almost
an extension of our country and I feel like they looked after our interest in the Middle
East to a large extent. You know then there’s an humanitarian thing
what goes on in Africa all of the ravages of disease and hunger and all that is almost
as though you can’t stand to the side and not do something, not be involved in some
of that. It’s just I think we’re caught in a position
we’re in because we have been the pre-eminent military power. We have been the pre-eminent economic power
in the world. So I mean it seems that that mantle sort of
falls to us. SHORT: I heard an economist say the other
day that we have reset our economy and it will be a long time before we get back to
where we were. Do you think that’s a possibility? ROWLAND: I’m not sure what they mean by where
we were. Get back to where we were? SHORT: Before all of our national debt and
all of the deficit spending we’ve been doing and the effect it has had on the national
economy, the stock market, Wall Street. ROWLAND: Yeah I think we’ll get back some
time. I really do. But it’s going to be a while and I’m not enough
of an economist to put all this together in my head but I have enough faith in this country
and the people in this country that I feel that we’ll get back. SHORT: What do you think about all these bailouts? ROWLAND: Well the bailouts of the financial
institutions was necessary I believe but the money was not tracked as it should’ve been. It was not accounted for as it should’ve been. I don’t think that we could’ve let our financial
institutions follow through. I mean then we would’ve certainly been like
we were back in after 1929. We would’ve been right back where we were
in the 1930s, and I think that’s probably one of the reasons we had the Great Depression
is because President Hoover at that time did not intervene. He just let he said it’ll take care of itself. The business community and Wall Street it’ll
take care of itself and we don’t need to do anything. Well it didn’t happen that way. SHORT: Let’s talk for a minute about the war
on terror. Are we going about it in the right way? ROWLAND: Well we must be doing something right. We haven’t had an attack in this country now
since 9/11 so I’m not into that enough to make any comment about it other than to say
that I feel pretty safe. SHORT: Let’s get back for a minute Dr. Rowland
to your role in the National Healthcare System as a member of the House Energy and Commerce
Committee. There’s been a lingering fear that the Medicare
and Medicaid programs might run out of money. Is that a possibility? ROWLAND: Well, that’s what the actuaries say. That Medicare is in jeopardy. I don’t know what the latest figures are 10
or 12 years down the road it may get to the point where it’s not able to finance itself
and the same for Social Security some time further down the road. That’s certainly a danger. I mean there’s many more people retired now
for those who are working as there were for example when it first started. SHORT: What if that happens? What if we run out of money? ROWLAND: I don’t think we’ll run out of money. I think the full faith and credit of the United
States government will see that that does not happen. I mean I think the people will the value of
the money may not be as much as it is, worth as much as it is now, but I just don’t have
that fear. SHORT: Well you know much more about this
than I but as I recall the last effort to develop a national health policy was a Clinton
proposal in 1993. You were in Congress at that time. Do you think that it was a workable plan? ROWLAND: I don’t think his was what the country
needed. I was very much involved in that as you recall
putting Mrs. Clinton in charge of that and had a health policy person come from New England
Hour magazine and they met for many months in the old executive office building and they
put this plan together and excluded everyone that would be a stakeholder, the providers
I mean. The medical community was excluded, the health
insurance centers, the pharmaceutical industry. They wrote what they wanted and if it had
some commercials called “Harry and Louise” who really took after this but I think that
they went about it in the wrong way. They didn’t include the people that should
have been included and something may have come out of that, not what they presented,
may have come out of that but it was my feeling at the time that there were some things that
we could do and there was a couple of pieces of legislation that I worked with with a member
from Florida, Mike Bilirakis. We had a bipartisan piece of legislation that
would address such things as administrative simplification, insurance reform, critical
community health centers around the country, a network of them where people could go to
get their care and they would get it on a means tested basis as well but we were never
able to get it out of committee in 1993 or 1994. In 1994 there was several other pieces of
healthcare legislation. Bob Michaels, the minority leader, had one,
Jim McDermott, who was a psychiatrist from Washington State he had one, the President
had one, we had one bipartisan. There was a couple of others. Dick Gephardt told me in the summer of 1994
that after the August recess that he was going to take up all of these pieces of legislation
but after the August recess I heard that it wasn’t going to happen and I went to see him
and he said “Well people are not interested in that now.” So we never did get anything out of the Congress. John Dingle who was chairman of the Energy
and Commerce Committee told me he said “Roy your legislation will never see the light
of day out of my committee.” I mean John Dingle was from Michigan, and
his father had introduced a socialistic piece of health legislation when he was in the Congress
back in the 30’s and Chairman Dingle had re-introduced that legislation every Congress since then
and he didn’t want to see anything happen that was any variation much from what his
father had originally introduced but I think we had an excellent opportunity to get something
done then but it got caught up in the politics of the time and (indiscernible-audio gap). SHORT: We were talking about the Clinton healthcare
program in 1993. ROWLAND: Right. Well the Clintons didn’t include all the stake
holders in their proposal. Consequently there were a lot of people that
were very much opposed to it. President Clinton would call small groups
of members of the House to come down and he would make a pitch to them and I had an opportunity
to go one time and I told him at that time that I thought it was very important for him
to include the medical community and the pharmaceutical community, the different groups that were
going to be providers, in the discussions about doing the reform. He kind of shook his head. I wasn’t sure whether he shook his head yes
or no. I mean he was a hard fellow to pin down and
so I asked him. I said “Mr. President if you were going to
do some reform in the judicial system would you exclude lawyers?’ And he didn’t answer the question. Obviously he wouldn’t exclude lawyers but
as that moved along I had some communication with Mrs. Clinton who of course was in charge
of it and she wrote me some letters saying that she would look forward to working with
me on healthcare reform but I could never get a seat with the group that was working
on it in the old executive office building. So in 1994 I had become chairman of the Hospital
and Healthcare Subcommittee of the Veterans Affairs Committee and they had designated
one person from that committee that subcommittee to come and the designee gave me his slot. I took his slot to go to those meetings and
it ended before I ever attended any of those meetings but I felt that the President was
very devious and somewhat deceitful in dealing with members of the House, and I think he
thought that he could do everything without having to consult anyone else and in the Democrat
Caucus I recall the leadership Dick Gephardt particularly who was the majority leader at
that time saying “We can get healthcare reform passed and we don’t need the Republicans. We can do it without them.” and of course that was the downfall of the
whole effort to reform healthcare is because it became so partisan. And the piece of legislation that I had worked
on there were five Democrats, five Republicans that worked on this legislation. We produced two different bills. The last one we produced the Congressional
budget office scored us real well on it and they said we could insure 94% of the people
in the country in five years and reduce the deficit by $90 million over that period of
time. At that time full employment was considered
if you had 6% unemployment. So if we were able to cover 94% of the people
and 6% not being covered we figured we’d pretty well been able to cover most of the people
in the country but we were never able to get it out of the committee, never able to get
a good hearing on it and in fact 10 people worked on it, five Democrats and five Republicans. It was a good experience. I guess that that healthcare reform legislation
was my best and worst moments in the Congress. I think it was the best thing that I did but
it was the worst thing that happened to me not getting it out. SHORT: As you look back over your career is
there anything you would’ve done differently? ROWLAND: Not that I can think of right now. I worked really hard to try to get that legislation
I think I served my constituents well. I had over 300 town meetings in the 12 years
I was there, and I came home every weekend. My wife and I spent 11 weekends in Washington
in the 12 years that I was there. Sometimes we went somewhere else but most
every weekend we was at home. SHORT: So you could probably say that your
proudest moment as a Congressman was your work in healthcare and your biggest disappointment
— ROWLAND: That’s correct. SHORT: — In Congress was your work in healthcare. ROWLAND: That’s right. That’s correct. SHORT: Do you think there’s a way to unite
healthcare providers, doctors and pharmaceutical companies and pharmacists and nurses and…? ROWLAND: You know money is the root of all
evil and that’s where the problem lies. I think the various providers, the various
stakeholders, are concerns about the money that they might lose or the money that they
won’t make. I think if you could get the leadership and
the various providers to come together and talk about some kind of reform that would
provide care on a cost efficient basis, quality care, yeah I think it can be done. I really do. SHORT: What role should the government play
in that? ROWLAND: The government has got to play a
significant role in it because there’s got to be some regulation about it, so the government
has got to play some regulatory function in it. I think that not only the federal government
but state and local governments ought to be involved in investing in it too. If you invest in something, you’re going to
look after it better and see that it works better and so I think that it ought to be
a combination of financing, not just at the federal level. SHORT: Some people say we’re headed toward
socialized medicine. ROWLAND: You already got some socialized medicine. We’ve got Medicare and Medicaid, PeachCare. We’ve got several programs that are socialized
medicine already. SHORT: There’s nothing wrong with it? ROWLAND: Well, financing it is a problem. That and then the greed. I mean there are providers who take advantage
of it. Money again is quite a big problem is. SHORT: Older people that I get from AARP,
which I’m a member seem to feel that that Obama plan might affect them more drastically
than it would others because of their age and they question whether or not you want
to give a 90-year-old person a new knee or a new hip, should we worry about that or should
we do it? ROWLAND: Well that you get into a medical
ethical — SHORT: Yeah. ROWLAND: — kind of situation there when you
decide whether or not somebody is going to get something that the doctor says that they
may need and the government will make the decision about that. We really need to have a biomedical ethical
board and by the way we did when I was in the Congress we
did in 1984, Bill Gradison who was from Ohio and Henry Waxman from California got some
legislation passed creating a biomedical ethical board to try to look at those biomedical ethical
issues and we had two meetings. The first time we met the subject of abortion
came up, and the second time we met the subject of abortion came up again and the debates
became so heated about it that the committee never met anymore. There should be some kind of public policy
and we would have talk to the medical ethicist people who are involved in that area to get
some guidance about what needs to be done in that area. So that gets back to what would you do for
somebody if it’s somebody that needs renal dialysis. If they are past a certain age or they have
certain diseases or whatever should they get it. A lot of decisions like that would have to
be made so it becomes very complex. SHORT: How can the majority of Americans afford
private health insurance these days? ROWLAND: I don’t think they can. I think that the private health insurance
is far more expensive than individuals who don’t have some kind of group insurance can
afford. Individuals have no leverage in purchasing
health insurance. The leverage is by companies or employers
that buy large groups and I think the health insurance industry takes advantage of these
people who try to buy insurance individually. I think there needs to be more insight into
what health insurance companies do. I think there needs to be more information
about their reserves, how much money do they have in reserves, how much are they making. I don’t know that this information is available. It wasn’t available at one time and I don’t
know whether it is now or not but I think health insurance companies really take advantage
in many instances. SHORT: Would more government regulations correct
that? ROWLAND: Well yeah the insurance industry
is largely regulated on a state basis now but I don’t know how effective that is. The federal government may have to be involved
in it because you have so many different states that may have different requirements that
it may need to look at it on a federal standpoint just like you’ve got the Drug Enforcement
Administration that regulates drugs, pharmaceuticals and you know habit forming, and so you know
we may have to look at something like that for the health insurance industry which I
know they would oppose. SHORT: Yeah. Well let’s get back to a little politics. How has politics changed since you got involved? ROWLAND: How has it changed since I got in? SHORT: Except for the cost of seeking public
office. ROWLAND: Yeah well it’s changed that way. I don’t know that politics has really changed. It seems to me it’s pretty much the way it
always has been. You’ve just got the, if you want to get involved
in politics you’ve got to get out and convince as many people as you can that you’re the
right person for whatever office you’re running for but yes it does take a lot more money
now. I believe that my first campaign was around
$350,000. SHORT: That’s for Congress? ROWLAND: For Congress and that included runoff. I mean that was about what I spent and now
what is it now $3 million or $4 million? I don’t know. SHORT: I would say at least. ROWLAND: It’s out of sight. SHORT: Yeah. Well has politics changed you? ROWLAND: I think it’s made me a better person
and more appreciative of the country that we live in. I have a better understanding about it. I find myself not being as critical as I could’ve
been had I not been involved and learned something about it and the process and what all goes
on. I think that gives me an understanding. I hope it makes me a better person. SHORT: Well your old district as we said the
Bloody Eight has remained in Democratic hands since you left Congress. ROWLAND: Well let’s see. Charlie Norwood had part of it and — SHORT: Well that’s after reapportionment though. ROWLAND: Yes. SHORT: We haven’t talked about reapportionment. That affected you when you were in Congress. ROWLAND: It did. It did. SHORT: They reapportioned your district. ROWLAND: Yeah the last term I was there I
got I had 32 counties or portions of counties. I got a lot of area I didn’t have, Valdosta,
Albany, part of Warner Robins that I didn’t have before. So yeah it changed it a lot. Yeah reapportionment makes a lot of changes
and it put some people out. SHORT: Yes it did. But still that 8th has been Democratic and
the reason I mentioned that is that the Republicans in Georgia have made a great effort to capture
the 8th district and despite the fact that they have won other districts handedly they
have yet to have a Republican from the current 8th. ROWLAND: Right. Well you know I don’t think I think probably
Jim Marshall he may not even have an opponent this next time a, Republican opponent because
they’ve thrown everything they could at him three times and he got by all three times. SHORT: Well let’s talk a little bit about
party politics in Georgia. What do you think is the reason for the Republican
party to take over after so many years of Democratic rule? ROWLAND: Well I think the Democrats “messed
up”. I think again I think people vote against
something more than they vote for something and I think the reason we lost the governorship
is because the people were voting against the incumbent and I’m not sure about why the
legislature changed as dramatically as it did unless it followed that Republican sweep. SHORT: Well the Republican party has been
very active in the state. They have as I see it you know just outmaneuvered
the Democrats with local grass roots effort. ROWLAND: Yeah. SHORT: And they have recruited good candidates
and they worked hard for those candidates and those candidates have won but what do
you think it would take if it’s possible for the Democrats to regain the governorship and
the Legislature? ROWLAND: Well I think it will happen. It always does. It swings back and forth and who knows when
it’ll happen. I think there’s a reasonable chance that the
Democrats could get the governorship in this upcoming election. I don’t believe the Legislature will change
that much. Maybe there will be some better Democratic
candidates. You know after you’ve been in office for a
while though so many people become complacent with what they’ve got and they don’t work
as hard. SHORT: Yeah. Many disenchanted I guess is the word Democrats
feel that the state party is too urban and too dependent on minorities and labor unions. Do you think that’s true? ROWLAND: I think that has a significant effect
on it. I do. The make up of it is largely a minority. The Republican party doesn’t have that many
minority and they do lean toward more labor unions and we a right-to-work state here. So the general population I think doesn’t
go along with that and maybe that’s again because they are voting against something
rather than for something. SHORT: Did you ever consider switching parties? ROWLAND: No. SHORT: Would you switch parties? ROWLAND: No. SHORT: Why wouldn’t you switch parties? ROWLAND: Well Democratic tradition. I mean it’s just a tradition. I could be a well I have supported Republican
candidates. I was still a Democrat. I can call myself a Democrat but when I thought
the Republican candidate might be the best person for the job again I’m kind of a moderate
conservative partisan. I’m not fiercely partisan but I do consider
myself to be a Democrat. SHORT: Well that brings up the question of
cross voting and party registration. Now do you support registration by party in
Georgia? ROWLAND: Not necessarily no. No not really. I think you ought to be able to cross vote
if you want to. SHORT: Do you favor term limits? ROWLAND: No. The people can limit terms. SHORT: That’s right. A lot of people don’t understand that. ROWLAND: Yeah. SHORT: When I hear complaints about something
I say well look you already got term limits. If you don’t like ’em kick ’em out. ROWLAND: You take ’em out and that happens. You know I look at the U.S. House now and
the membership of the U.S. House now and I bet they are not. There’s 450 members in the House. I bet there’s not 75 members there that was
there when I left. SHORT: Really? ROWLAND: Yeah. I think it’s I haven’t counted that but I’m
just looking at it generally. SHORT: The cost of campaigning as we talked
about has really increased with television and computer ads and that sort of thing. Do you favor public financing of federal elections? ROWLAND: I think that’s all right. I think it’s okay to have public financing. I think it’s okay like we have now. I’m not opposed to that. SHORT: Well it’s been a pleasure talking with
you but I’d like to ask you a final question. If you were a candidate today, for the Congress,
what would be your platform? ROWLAND: My preference? SHORT: Your platform. ROWLAND: Oh my platform? To get healthcare legislation to get some
kind of healthcare legislation passed because that’s a thing that I’m most familiar with
and I would again support a Constitutional Amendment for a balanced budget. I think that is really important. Those would be the two things that I would
be most interested in and then of course I come from a rural area. So you know the farmers are difficult. That’s a hard avocation. The farmers need some help and so you know
I would look at that as part of a platform too. SHORT: Well you certainly had a very exciting
and successful career in both medicine and politics, and we appreciate what you’ve done
for Georgia and I want to thank you on behalf of Young Harris College and the Richard B.
Russell Library at the University of Georgia for being our guest. ROWLAND: Thank you very much. It’s been an honor and a privilege to be in
public office in the State House and the U.S. House and I really do appreciate the opportunity
to come here and talk about this. Thank you very much. SHORT: Thank you. [END OF RECORDING]

“Abe’s export curbs on S. Korea based on politics and will hurt U.S.”: U.S. experts


Experts from Washington analyzed that Japan’s
export curbs on South Korea come from Abe’s political calculations and in the end, they
will have a negative impact on the U.S. At a seminar held in New York on Wednesday,
Scott Seaman, director for Asia at political consulting firm Eurasia Group said the Seoul-Tokyo
trade dispute comes from the PM’s efforts to use diplomatic issues to distract the Japanese
people from the struggling local economy. Another expert at the seminar said Abe is
weaponizing Japan’s asymmetric inter-dependence with Korea. Analysts warned that worsening Korea-Japan
relations will also hurt America and will be an opportunity for China and Russia. But they saw little possibility of President
Trump getting involved in the issue as both countries are allies with the U.S.

I Prevail – Bow Down (Official Music Video)


Get on your knees and bow down Yea, I come alive, I’ll survive, take on anything So paint a target on my back let ’em come for me I don’t fall, don’t quit, don’t ever sleep Cuz I’m on another level that you’ll never
reach If you seek forgiveness You’ll get nothing, you’ll get nothing from me You will never know, it’s the price I pay Look into my eyes, we are not the same Yea this is where you fall apart Yea this is where you break Cuz I’m in control and you’ll know my name Cuz I gave my life, gave it everything Yea this is where you fall apart Yea this is where you break To everybody who doubted Get on your knees and bow down Get on your knees and bow down You better recognize You wanna talk that shit, time to back it up Cuz the best of your best ain’t good enough Playing with my name, now I know you really
fucked up Keep runnin your mouth and I’ma call your
bluff You will never know, it’s the price I pay Look into my eyes, we are not the same Yea this is where you fall apart Yea this is where you break Cuz I’m in control and you’ll know my name Cuz I gave my life, gave it everything Yea this is where you fall apart Yea this is where you break To everybody who doubted Get on your knees and (you’re never gonna be enough) So I had this dream, it meant everything and I watched it come alive Then I let you in, underneath my skin and I learned to love the lies Now I lay awake and I contemplate, have I become what I hate Can I take it back, cuz it’s all I have? Will it get the best of me? Have you ever had a dream? Would you fight for it? Would you go to war? Would you die for it? So now I’ll take my stand, now I’ll make you
see That if you seek forgiveness You’ll get nothing from me You’ll get nothing from me, You’ll get nothing from me You’ll get nothing from me To everybody who doubted To everybody who doubted To everybody who doubted Get on your knees and bow down Bow down Bow down

Sikander | Best Full Punjabi Movie | Latest Action Movies 2014 | Most Popular Indian Films


It has been four years since I have moved from
Mansa to Chandigarh It takes a while to know the real character of the
capital city. Big city has its own comforts. But how brutal a city can be. You learn only when you live there. Every evening the gang of leaders, policemen
and bureaucrats reaches here, after plundering the two states. When they throw thousands of Rupees away
on a drink of alcohol, they often forgot how the 83 crore people of our country
survive under 20 Rupees. Situation in University is weird. The group of Harjang has been winning
the election of youth president with ease. But, this year Fateh’s group has challenged them… …as a formidable rival. Wise men have said, every dog has its day, and that day has to end too. Think again. We have won, after all A tree in the middle of your path
is an obstruction after all. So, how are you ‘Amitabh Bachchan’ Rascal, you should better grow up first, then dream of being a leader. then dream of being a leader. Bloody Hell, if this Sister fucker were a dialogue writer of some film Pandit, a guy like him will then go to
Pune film institute, will do a course in film direction and make a film ‘ Putt jattaN de’ [ Peasent Sons ] You can ask me to sing for it, I have quite a melodious voice, you bastard. Ask Pandit, Tell him Pandit. Hands up. Just get out. Pandit, what a timing you have. You have seen lot of ‘Govinda’ films it seems. Feud between student groups took an ugly turn, When Student president Harjang tried to kill
Fateh Singh. Harjangg fled from the spot. Police has claimed that they will capture the culprits soon. Mritka Kanwar, University Campus, Day and Night News Who the hell told you to open fire there? Don’t scare me. I know you are hot blooded. So were we, once. But now, we are not in power. Now, we are in power, and we will hire your group. I will guarantee you the bail. But, You will have to surrender for sure. No, I can’t surrender. Trust me. It is not a bad deal. Also, I know very well, the plight of your group. So kid, what do you say? Let us think over it. So, Harjang Singh. You shat in your pants? You would not survive son, I will screw you We will see, who will screw whom. Babbu has sent me. I will stay here for two three days You are the one who has come from village
to learn guitar, right? But brother I am unable to recognize you? Why do you want to recognize,
Want to marry your sister to him? Isn’t he telling you? Look with care, he is an ancestral Pandit. See! He has worn a ‘tilak’ too. Get him talk on phone, bro. By the way, whose apartment is this? Babbu’s Why do you care to ask him then? Get inside, I will teach you the tunes too. So Mr. Sikander. You have enrolled in the University?
It means only God can rescue this University. Can’t we forget the past? You can forget incidents of the past. But, you can’t forget character of people. So how is it going? What does your sweetheart say? What would the sweetheart say? She is doing perfect. So have you tasted the curry? Or are these fake burps? Do you need to consult Gods to taste the curry? Bloody Jatt, you have shown your true colors? Give it to me. I am alright, perfectly alright. So, what is the topic of your PhD? All the love legends of Punjab Heer Ranjha, Sassi Punnu. and heroines of these legends. What stuff were they made of? And, in present day,
what responsibilities do we owe to them? This is the subject of my research. See, we sing the legends of Heer, Sassi, SahibaaN… But we are afraid,
they might not take birth in our own home. I am not interested in these calculations. My focus is… ..can we convert brutal defeats of these women
into glorious victories of today? Why do you talk about these complexities? It would make it hard for you to get a job. This threat has been given to me many times. See, to live life, you need two things. One is reason, other is resources. And these questions are my reason. Ok then. From now on you don’t need to climb stairs
to get the books. My feet can be your resources. So, your friend didn’t meet you that day? So, your friend didn’t meet you that day? Have it, little one He chews tobacco first,
Sukha hits the wheel, then. How are you brother? How are you brother? It’s all right See, this is Sikander. He is Bala bhinmber. This is Bhinda Fancy Brother, he is not Bhinda Fancy anymore. He is Bhinda gallon now. Earlier he would get ‘Fancy’s’ bottle. But now he gets the 10 liters gallon filled up. It saves time of both him and the chemist, you see! Ok, quite a good scheme you’ve developed. Thank you, Brother. This is Bittu Bottle. He keeps a bottle of alcohol with him always. This is Sukha Nachar (dancer). Have you seen ‘Putt JattaN de’ (Peasant Sons)? In that, does not Jageara ask, Who Sukha? He is that dancer boy. Brother, Why are you after me? So how are you ‘Bhutta’ boy? How is your collegiate girl? Brother, he fell for trash. She is like a reformed eunuch. Ok then. See you guys later. Ok brother This will hit the mark now Go One second, my boy, stop here. What happened? No, you said my boy. It reminded me of somebody. My elder brother used to say it. He got killed in the ‘Terrorism’ times. Brother, Brother, this is Sikander. He is from around my village. He is a useful guy. Bring him Sikander Fateh Sikander Lets go downstairs Brother, your girl has left. Hey, Shut this tring tring of yours. Starts playing with his ‘mother’
early in the morning. Let us sleep. Am I a dog, barking here? Lick it now. Tries to be some ‘Bappi Lehri’ You, bloody fucker! Hand this thing to me, I will fix it forever. So now, the tring tring-ster. It is broken, rockstar. Tai tai tai tai tai Brother, he will not be able to show
his face to someone now. How can I cover the stain in my chunri (scarve) . How can I return home now. Dhillon, go towards the riverside and look. What happened? The catch has got away, brother. They might not have gone far, come. Janggi, rascals have come to kill us. Pundit, you are scared. Right? Look at your face,
swollen like a buffalo’s bosom. take care of the kid. So Dhillon, Shall I loosen your … pant Is it required to explain with context? Where did you find him FEW MONTHS LATER Brother, what could we do to them? Rascals killed our brother. Let him go It is not important to kill him, but it is important to finish him. Him, and his entire group! Means? See, Harjang can’t enter the university now. It is the right moment to assert power over all the groups. How? With love, with bullet! The way the rival wants. What are we waiting for then? University elections. They are after two months. You must fight elections. Tejvir will try to create problems. This is not right Lala. How can you field him? Buddy, you can be. I can be. But that rascal pimp Sikander does not deserve it. I know you neither like me nor Sikander much. But the group is with us. You must think. Next time it can be you. In the name of freedom, in the name of legacy,
What we have been given to the youth? Fee remittance applications? SC / BC certificates? Short cuts to pass examinations? Guide books, pocket guide books.
AK 47s, SLRs. We were killed as terrorists.
We were killed as army soldiers. This society that calls us drug addicts,
idlers, and unemployed. Those who can just think about running
away to abroad. I would say.. where ever we are today.. the society is responsible for this. And today we stand to this day and say, we shall govern, we need power, at any cost and in every possible way. All of them are fraudsters.. But they are in the battleground. We can be there too. There is a difference between ‘can be there’
and ‘being there’. Elections! Elections are not solution to any problem. But it can be tried in the university at least. He is like AK57 rifle, brother! He talks with bull’s aggression. See, I have foresight of an eagle. It was me who recognized him. That is true, brother. It was you who recognized me too. No?
Or I came by myself? Leave it. Your problems have been solved and we have done it with muscle power. All these new kids on the block speak like bovines. All these minions are in illusion, my friends, that they can cage the Lion. Forget it, it is impossible. The foggy clouds never ever rain, my friends. whether state government is by their side, or Obama government is by their side. They would not win. They should not win. Come Pundit, sit. So Mansa boy, will you win? If you won, I can sing on the celebrations. Quite a talented singer I am. Pundit, I have seen people betting on horses. But Lala has bet on this mule. We just want to clear your delusion in the elections. After that you can either be a horse
of Arabian breed or not. But we will make you run the same. I request you all that in the influence of drugs
don’t vote for any Rascal. That Harjang, one with dented face. He is unable to fix his own dents. What good can he do for you? One day I got 20 rupees from my ‘Fancy’ fund and gave it to one of their group members. And said go and do away with dents of your leader. But the denting guy said he cannot fix
his dents in 20 Rupees. You must see. If a group has such bad financial conditions,
that they can’t fix their leader’s dents.. what good they can do for you? You must vote for me. I assure you. Your hostel tap might not have water supply. But there would be unlimited supply of ‘Fancy’ syrup. What is this? It was just a small rehearsal. I will just leave. Listen, you must reduce your ‘Fancy’ intake. You don’t remain in your senses. Brother, I got reminded of something
from the mention of ‘senses’ I cannot gain senses until I drink ‘Fancy’. I must have one. Get the hell out of here, rascal! Do not provoke me to beat you up. Pundit, How could he win from us? Ok, you dance rascal, Dance
on your father’s wedding! I will get you the modeling role. Don’t worry Pundit, next time! Brother, lets have one more round. Don’t beat him like this, friends. He is my buddy. I swear by the holy cow, he studied with me. Pundit,
why are you getting your skin whipped. Be a good boy and tell us ‘Janggi’ ‘s location. Bravo! Don’t take me for a mere priest. I will not
tell you his location for few pennies. Nice, he now delivers dialogues. Will you kill me here, or outside? Leave him Alexander the Great. Neither you are that Alexander, nor he is that Porus. He is a Pundit, after all. One should have two or more rivals, this keeps his feet to the ground. Group was looking beyond the presidential elections. Now the group started to work in an organized manner. They neither have dearth of opportunities nor of places. It started with occupation of cycle stand.. Then it started, the drive to capture the river resources.. Money, arms, everything was used. The ambition was one: Power. Group neither lacked sympathizers nor new recruits. They spread their poisonous roots everywhere. Group tried everything to make its allied
political party happy. And in the Panchayat elections, they supported the party
open heartedly. In such an environment, one day: We are not that strangers that we cannot talk. We were strangers, of course. Did you add sugar? That’s why we could not understand
each other’s character. See Sikander. It is not love, it is your stubbornness. Our relationship has died. And we should not carry the corpse along. Be clear, that is what is lacking in you. Also the kind of political advances you are making. They will show you your true worth, in mere seconds. But how can I forget you? It is upon you to think. Hey my boy. You love her very much? Brother, she is not someone who can be beaten up
and made to accept you. She has quite an attitude in her head, brother! She will break but not bend. My boy let me tell you something about these leaders. But the truth is, brother, we are good … …till we have power. If we lose the power, we will have to face Harjang’s fate. Keep my words in mind. We can’t return now. Beant used to call me, ‘My boy’. Tobacco of ‘Telu Ram’s’ shop has immersed
in ‘Sukha’s’ joints. Here, take it Bittu, Hurry up! Run away! Hurry up! Rascal! What is this trash you are
handing me over? See son, don’t you get roughed up
instead of roughing up tobacco. You go away, bloody rascal! You come to house. I will tell you. Who are you.. a DC or what? I will thrash the bottle in your head, rascal! Brother, go soon! go soon! Ha ha ha ha. So how are you chinki pinki! You must talk to me sometime. She won’t be hitched, I guess. She has gone. Come with me Give me a cup of tea. Neither can you get a girl, nor a visa. What will happen of you Mr. Sukha! What is your problem? I was just practicing. I know. You enjoy saying things like chinki pinki to girls. Who the hell are you? Apologize to her! The Jatt’s days are not that bad yet. Forget it! What does that mean? It is like, the newcomer witch asks for half of
the graveyard’s control. 15 years! It has been 15 years since we have been working
in the cable business in this city. And you! some new kids.. want all the cable network of the city
in your palate. Why don’t you say it to my face that you want to
capture it all! You should have little less.. come here all, listen.. there is this man.. Let me see, brother.. yes, he looks a man.. yo.. yo.. What is wrong with him? Brother.. he watched a film.. Mirza the untold story.. 2012 Brother! I would not be able to kill someone.. I can’t kill,
understand.. I can’t kill.. Give it to him.. He will kill… yo yo.. Hey, are you crazy? We are not killing him… We just have to break his legs.. legs means only legs .. So my lord, hope you liked our services? Hey, if the lords don’t speak at least you should tell. Yes.. Yes.. how many more? Inquire quickly.. Call me.. Yes, tell.. Yes, Where are they both? Call them.. Call them.. quick.. They are from Muktsar side? I might know any of them.. At least listen to me brother? That time has gone.. See young lady, you are like a sister to me… if you won’t cooperate with us, how will we catch them? They are the elite brats… you can just imitate catching them… Yes, we imitate and what do you do? don’t you know? What state those guys are put by somebody now? You might know this atleast.. or not? See young lady, whatever information you have.. you must share that with us.. You have killed them? You have come to get your reward now? Brother, that cable guy you remember? He is in the market? What shall we do? Make him dance.. You bloody rascal, get out of here.. You just kill somebody whenever you want.. Rascals think of it as their father’s fiefdom.. Don’t curse, brother! What will you do then? Sikander.. Brother, it’s not a big deal.. One minute Lala, let him speak.. Do you have any idea how much Chief Minister is angry with you? I admit, it’s my mistake.. but can’t tolerate the curse.. Sikander, brother, I beg to you.. let me talk, ok? You must go, my brother.. you are like my younger brother.. but this boy can’t be trusted even a bit.. Don’t worry, I will advise him.. See, we had a deal.. you will listen to us and we will do whatever possible we can.. If you will show us eyes, we will take out those eyes.. What does your Sikander do in this now. What you will do.. it’s up to you.. Hey daredevil keep your shirt buttons closed, Ok? You can catch cold, ok.. Lets go my kid.. ok Lala, we must do something about the kid.. he is too much into drugs.. he will die .. and we will be considered responsible for it.. He is just talking nonsense, brother.. also what is there to be considered responsible for it.. He is been like this since brother Fateh’s death.. He took it to the heart.. Brother, actually we should not leave him like this..
we should not abandon him.. It is not like that.. I was just talking in general.. Huh, talking in general.. I will tell you brother.. Yesterday, kid’s parents came to take him.. he did not want to go.. how can we send him to home forcefully.. What should we do? If he lives here, he will actually die.. Isn’t it, my boy? If you have thought so, why do you need to ask? I have finished my PhD thesis.. Presentation is tommrow.. at 11.. You don’t have dearth of resources to come and I am giving you the reason.. Presentation will start only when you will come.. Shameer, it has been long, shall we start? they will come.. Wait for five more minutes, otherwise cancel it.. Shameer.. Friends, I apologize for the delay.. but it’s said no task can be successful without the participation of the collective.. this research will be attributed to me though..but it is not just mine.. Friends.. we have celebrated Punjabi love legends with
vigour and fervour.. All these legends.. are not tales of distant past.. they have an intense bond with our life.. The question that needs to be asked is what is the relation of burning Sassi
in the desert heat and drowning Sohni in the River Chenab with girl childs being murdered
in the wombs today? The issue is do we want to keep relationship with Sassi,Sohni,SahibaaN, Heer and Laila of lovers only, or Can we envisage a responsible relationship according
to present society.. we think of them as someone else’s daughters
and hence an object of sexual desires.. We never think of them as equals.. let’s not consider them as sisters if we can’t.. but consider them as cotemporary counterparts.. consider them as friends.. Our society has not been by their side in Sassi’s fight against the desert and Sohni’s fight against the flooding river.. but now… …we can identify these deserts and rivers from a fresh perspective and the women stuck in them are not fighting their own battle.. it’s our battle, as humans and as a society it’s our collective battle.. and we can’t be mere spectators. the day we perceive these women as fellow humans, as relatives, and from the context of their aspirations .. that day we can understand the complexity of our life too.. if we can learn to live peacefully with these intricacies then the essence of being heer.. will be in our veins.. then we would not need to look outside. Kid has died, brother. Let him go. He won’t die. Search Harjang As soon as possible. Yes..let me call you back in a while Harjang is back you will shoot him. Sikander, Lala.. listen to be friends.. we should think about it buddy.. Elections are in just 4-5 days.. right buddy?.. I don’t care what will you think of me, but I don’t want to lose.. R u coming or not? My boy.. brother I am not stopping you.. they killed our brother Fateh.. they are responsible for kid’s death.. we won’t leave son of bitch alive.. We will not back off.. but this can be done after 4 days too? he is better than us.. At least he does not lie for his corruption.. Brother, there is a news.. Hey.. either you pant or you talk? Sorry brother.. your boat will rock now.. Beant is fighting the elections and many groups are supporting her.. against us.. a girl is fighting the election of student president and it is keenly awaited, Can Beant win this election and create a new history, or not.. we accept that these are our own boys.. but are puppets at the hands of these political leaders.. But if they will stretch their hands to our throats, we can simply forget, that they are our own boys.. because if the hand of tyrant can be raised, it can be cut off too. We will have to think… …how these groups of eve teasers… …can become occupiers. friends we will have to identify who are those Guru Gobind Singh’s Sikhs who have not written
the Bedava (application to desert the battlefield).. those who did not betray Punjab. What hymns they are singing.. vote for us.. we will have a concert of some deadly singer.. the loud ones are very popular these days too. Brother, I would suggest a better plan.. lets make Bittu drink alcohol and you will see how he will create havoc like a Bull does
in the village.. If you want more of a scene then make me drink 3-4 bottles of ‘Fancy’ cough syrup.. Didn’t say it to you Brother you will see how I will tear away the posters. It’s all to bewilder you.. these guys don’t have a real issue to rally on.. that’s why they speak whatever comes to their mind. But we don’t need your support.. Still we will. I won’t share stage at all. As you say my lord.. Alright then. Happy? Support them.. Its not supporting them.. its kneeling to them. The entity of Sikander has an old relation with us.. that Sikander.. the one who started on a voyage to win the world.. his invasion was contained by our forefathers too.. these Sikanders.. who are hellbent on enslaving the third world.. they are on rampage from Vietnam to Iraq.. these Sikanders.. but people don’t let them win. and the third, this Sikander .. who want to occupy everything from University to all of the Punjab… friends there faces maybe different but they are of the same breed. Our guy must not lose.. What we have done with Harjangg.. we can do the same with them. Brother, these people can just clap on these lectures… …but won’t vote. Beat them equal. Dude, don’t you think we are playing a friendly match? Either you win or your girl, throne will in our house still? Shut up you rascal.. somebody will listen.. these are matters of heart.. we won’t get to know.. We accept that whatever that has happened with that woman.. .. is very bad.. and we condemn it.. and we have full sympathy with Beant. We know the meaning of their sympathy.. we get beaten up.. we get looted.. and we get ashamed and humiliated too.. These people should be ashamed and humiliated.. those who perpetrate such crimes. University has 76% girl students.. and if they could gather their conscience.. they can overthrow.. look, don’t run from the field, ok? What relation Sikander has with battlefields? You know very well.. These 76% girls of your and their lovers.. can vote for just one film.. remember.. Crammed multiplication tables never work always. One must be afraid If an old friend is the rival.. he is dangerous because he knows your weaknesses.. Then you must fear.. In the ongoing university electioncampaign,During a brawl erupted
due to issue of Poster tearing, A student leader got killed in the shootout. Police has stated that killer has not been identified yet. Whatever you have done.. we don’t need to know
its meaning from you .. All the junkies like you of the world together can’t be Shameer.. We didn’t kill on purpose.. Weapon can be in your hand or someone else’s .. we are getting killed.. You think the world works at your will? our Gurus have told final victory is to be of the Khalsa, the pure and virtuous.. My name is Sikander. My name is Beant, and there is no end to my being. There is an order to close the University… Election has been canceled. It’s not hard to kill a man There is another way… Friends, we have lost one of our comrades… who had challenged the University to the Educational system… this is that Education system… ..from where we hope that… …it would produce better human beings… … not the mechanical tools who can be good for administration… Last year, a group killed one guy of another group,
but you know very well.. University was not closed… But it has been closed this time… tomorrow the hostel will be closed… day after
tomorrow there will be curfew… … fourth day, there would be arrests… …and all of this will happen in front of you… …and if we don’t stop it now… … then it will go on like this for ages. Catching the criminal is far.. police has not registered an FIR yet. If we ran to our homes today, we will keep running all our lives.. and all our generation will be called the generation of escapists. Friends, In those times Singhs have to decide. it’s time to tear away the Bedava.. let’s not miss this time.. Long live the Students unity! Long live! Long live! Shameer your killers are dogs! We won’t let them go scot free! Sat Sri Akal ji.. you have suffered a big loss, kid We need your help.. Our organization is with you.. I will have to talk to others. Alright In a quick turn of events… 30 people’s organizations of Punjab have decided to support the students movement in the University. Support of people’s organizations can be cause issues for the University administration and Punjab government. The gang of goons that has killed our boy.. the hooliganism they have unleashed in Punjab.. it’s an open secret. These goons have support of large political parties. they have support of the ruling government.. they have support of bureaucracy.. but people’s power can overthrow even the biggest tyrants. This hypocrite chief minister who tells, the martyred boy to be his son.. he is the one who is protecting the killers.. we have to hold his collar and ask him… …what relation does he have with the killers. this struggle is not of the students alone.. this political goon combine has martyred 5 farmer laborers in last 2 years. this struggle is not just confined to Chandigarh.. this struggle is spread from Gurdaspur to Mansa. Our killers have a delusion that we might be two or four, friends.. How many revenges they take, our long line would
not break, friends.. Down with Goon-police-political nexus! Down with! Down with! Our heartiest thanks all the people’s organizations.. We have decided that we will ‘gherao’ the assembly on 25th of this month.. and we will bring the whole Chandigarh to halt.. We will remove the hooliganism! We will throttle the goons! You have nothing in your hands now… 30 organization are supporting them. now the matter is with government now.. whatever needs to be done.. we will do. Lala.. Sikander.. you can leave now. I will leave the group right now. second thing.. keep your hands and weapons in control. It’s yours that goes out of control. see Sikander.. this group is not just yours.. it’s ours too.. also my friend why are you in these matters? You are a lover boy… must indulge in love somewhere… and we you have yet to understood whose side are you on?.. Forget me, think of yourself. Come Lala.. come sit.. I had told you.. this man can not be trusted.. but you didn’t hear me.. wise men say, a man is like a dog.. anyway.. lets forget what has happened.. we would not talk about it at all.. Oh, how forgetful I have become.. you must know these guys? Yes, speak… Brother, I have to meet you once… I am at Anandpur Sahib, Hola Mahalla… Alright, I will call when I reach… What will you do now? … Harjang… Pandit… All of your group is on that side… Even your Lala is on that side… … Its all planned to finish you. What do you want from me? Whatever you did, you did according to what he said… speak it in Press… I will guarantee you protection for life… …if you says yes, call me… … take your time……which you already have very little. He rejected the call…? There is no matter. Call again. Hello you must come to Naina Devi road on the backside
of Charan Ganga river.. and listen, come by the streets and come downwards by the hill.. you must reach here somehow.. Hey Pandit, where are you man? Its like the house is on fire and the dog is standing on the wall. There is lot of rush here.. Be quick. Where is Lala? He was around here.. Come to my streets sometime too, o my Sikander… we are standing in wait.. how that idiot is standing in the middle.. take him away. spread and search for the Rascal.. friends.. I don’t feel like killing brother Sikander.. what do you say? So.. he will shoot Sikander… thinks of himself as Gama wrestler.. I swear by Guru Granth Sahib friends.. think about it friends.. they killed our brother Fateh.. the kid died.. and we have took up weapons for them? Shall we go home? Bala, shoot him.. Alright, give the pistol to me.. Don’t look back brother.. Hello Mr. Sikander Singh.. don’t you waste all the firecrackers before Diwali? If you are a real man, come in front.. Bad luck.. you miss.. I hit.. There is this monkey.. thinks of himself as king Sikander.. says there is nothing in this world.. Sikander went empty handed.. you are leaving the festival of the world? Nobody wants to leave the festival of world.. So Sikander, do you agree? This is called melody.. But you know nothing about music.. it’s all by God Bhole Nath’s blessing my friend.. you have to leave finally.. Sat Sri Akal.. Lala, take me to Beant, my friend.. my boy.. Out Sikander Sikander, Brother My Boy wake up, fucker! How can you die.. rascal.. you didn’t listen.. nobody could rescue you.. you were supposed to die. we had to die.

Mod-03 Lec-16 The Augustans


Hello, and welcome back to NP-TEL, The National
Program on Technology Enhanced Learning, a joint venture of Indian Institutes of Technology
and Indian Institute of Science. As we are aware, these lectures offer students
in the IITs and other engineering colleges, the role of humanities and social sciences
is quite significant, in the curriculum of engineering students. Why literature; we may ask that why it is
so important for the study of engineering. We think that a course on humanities and social
sciences, sensitizes a student’s vocabulary; not only that, and interface between society,
between shared individual experiences and ultimately, the aesthetic proportions of sharing
other experiences, and individual thoughts and ultimately, leads to a different interface
of studies. Well, I am Krishna Barua. I have been teaching English at the department
of humanities and social science at IIT, Guwahati, and we are presently, in the lecture series;
language and literature, and this is module 3 of the series title history of English literature,
and we are in lecture 4 of this module titled, The Augustans age. Let us recap of what we have done in lecture
1. This was where, we had gone into the necessity
of studying literature for understanding the series of poems and grammars and short stories
and essays we brought before you. We want you to be introduced to the spirit
of the age, and ideas of the nation’s history. Many students asked me what is this need of
the background of understanding the historical significance or the cultural significance
or the social significance of the age. I think it is very essential, somewhere or
the other, the exchanges which come between one age to the other, is essential for your
understanding of a text or of a writer. We should enjoy the literary journey of poems,
stories and plays, and the socio political milieu from the Victorian era, or even as
far back as Chaucer’s time. When we went to the first lecture, the Anglo-Saxon
literature, it was five striking characteristics while, we are doing the different stages of
investigation, we will see how there have been convergences and divergences from one
age to the other, whether there have been some after striking features, which has been
continuing and somewhere, there has been a change; specially, the meaning of freedom,
the meaning of expression, the meaning of representation. In the Anglo-Saxon literature, we have seen
that there was this love of freedom, the love of liberty, reverence for womanhood, and most
of the poems or literature was alliterative, and a ruling motive in every warrior’s life;
devotion to glory. In lecture 2, we have gone and that was in
lecture 1, we had the age of Chaucer, the first major father of, you can say, English
poetry, even English novel and the English short story. When we come to the age of Shakespeare where
Shakespeare as a person, as a dramatist, as a poet; dominates the entire age we have seen. His achievement was largely, made possible
by the work of his immediate predecessors like Spenser and Sidney, in the mastery of
verse, Marlow and the university wits, especially, in drama and then, how the change was coming
more on the way that concentration of man, and the power of human reason to interpret
man and nature. Here, for the first time, we find that the
dignity of modern English as a literary medium. In lecture 3 we came to Milton and his times
and this is where, we were quite interesting, it was quite interesting to see how Shakespeare
and Milton were the two figures that towered conspicuously, till now. Each was representative of this age one that
produced him. One was the force of impulse in Shakespeare,
and the force of fixed purpose in Milton. Now, we come to the Augustan age, lecture
4 and in English literature, the Augustan age, roughly from 1700 to 1745, was the neoclassical
age that to bring out the analogy between the; first, it was a self-conscious imitation
of the age of Augustus, which was supposed to be the classic age. Latin literature of the days of Virgil and
Horace; the classical period of Latin literature, and it also refers to literature with the
predominant laws and rules of refinement where, there was attention to the detail to clarity,
elegance and balance of judgment, recalling the golden age by examining the enduring truths
of human nature. This age in the 18th century, we find, is
also has been termed the age of reason or enlightenment. You have to remember in the European continent,
we have seen how enlightenment had taken place, especially, the Augustan age was the period
after the restoration era to the death of Alexander Pope. You can come a bit earlier from 1690 to 1744. Enlightenment; what was enlightened about? Enlightenment about in Europe; it contrasted
with the darkness of irrationality, and superstition which, characterized the middle ages; it was
the age of reason, belief in progress, and in the power of reason increased, and it was
a distinctive trait of the period, which is also known as the age of reason. Characteristics of this period included observing
human nature, as well as nature, by itself in landscape which, were considered unchanging
and constant. Major writers of this period were Pope and
John Dryden, in poetry; Jonathan Swift and Joseph Addison, in prose; to mention only
a few. So, we have to go back to the historical background,
right. So, three historical events deeply, influenced
the literary movements of the time. We had just mentioned the restoration of the
year 1660; that was the restoration of the monarchy, just after the puritan government
fell, I mean, Cromwell’s government fell, and there was this restoration of the monarchy;
the Roman Catholic controversy that raged during the latter half of Charles 2’s reign,
and the revolution of the year 1688. So, the prior period; let us go back; the
period prior to the Augustan age was the restoration. So, because brighten also falls in that period,
it will be necessary for us to also talk about the restoration while, we are talking about the
Augustan age. After the Augustan age, will come romanticism. The English of Augustan age spanned 1700 to
1740, with the reign of queen Anne, King George and King George second. Pope is a dominant figure in this period’s
poetry. Dryden also, is mentioned four times in pope’s
essay on criticism, though Dryden and Pope are classical, as neoclassical writers; I
do not think they were aware of enduring this lifetime, right. So, this restoration and the 18th century,
If we look into general characteristics, if we look in to the political spectrum, if we
look in to the background, which is necessary to understand how, political developments
also, added to the representation in literature. So, begins in 1660, and you remember that
during the puritan, during the parliamentary form of government, and Cromwell, we found
that what had happened; that the year in which, King Charles, the second was restored to the
English throne. There was a closing of the theatres and with
the reopening of the English theaters, closed during Cromwell’s puritan regime and the restoration
of the Church of England as the national church. We find there was a play of excesses, specially,
in drama. Then, again, there was another change in the
exclusion crisis, after the Stuart’s monarchy, because King Charles, the second, didn’t
have an heir, therefore, it created modern political parties, and the Tories, who had
first come, who supported the king and their Whigs, who opposed him. So, this was the raise of the Whigs and the
Tories. It is almost, a precursor of the modern system
of government in UK. England, Scotland and Wales were united for
the first time here, by the 1707 act of union, and most important aspect over here; we will
go into this later to the raise of the middle classes. Increased importance was placed on the private
individual life as is evident in literary forms, such as diaries, letters and the novels. Emergence of social ideas; people became more
responsible, a new rhetoric of liberty and rights sentiment and sympathy. When we look at 1714 to 1727, just after Queen
Anne, Queen Anne was succeeded by George 1, who was a descendent of the Stuarts. Then, during George’s reign, transition to
the modern system of cabinet government which, we just see now; this laid the foundation
for that form of parliamentary monarchy, which has been in existence in England, ever since. So, the restoration if we go into that, we
see, refers to the restoration of the monarchy, when Charles second was restored, and of course,
this eleven year common wealth period during which, the country was governed by parliament,
under the direction of the puritan general, Oliver Cromwell. Political event coincides with changes in
the literary, scientific and cultural life; it was very important. So, the exchanges, which were going on, and
this discourse, this approach that was going on between the parliamentary, between what
was happening in the political field, in the social field, was equally represented in literature. So, this history or the restoration of Charles
second, brought about a revolution in English literature. With the collapse of the puritan government,
there sprang up activities that had been so long suppressed; that they flew to violent
excesses. The commonwealth had insisted on gravity and
decorum. In all things, we had done in the previous
lecture, that there was always a rule, there was a limit to what one had to say, and the
restoration encouraged a levity that often, became immoral and indecent. Along with much that is sane and powerful,
this latter tendency is prominent in the writing of the times, especially, in the comedies. We find the comedy of manuals, especially,
during this time. Now, if we look into the history of the period,
this revolution of 1688; this was an event. Why was it important; which banished the last
of the Stuart kings, and called William of orange, to the throne; marks the end of a
long struggle for political freedom in England. Now, we find modern England was firmly, established
by the revolution, which was brought about by the excesses of the restoration. Most important, most significant aspect in
studying this age was this history of the book. Thereafter, the Englishmen spent this tremendous
energy, which we have found that there was discourse of liberty, discourse of freedom,
which was there; passion was there; in the Elizabethan age. From the Anglo-Saxon age to the puritan age
which, his forbears had largely, spent in fighting for freedom in endless political
discussions, and in efforts to improve his government. Now, we find that there was the social responsibility
and political responsibility that one could be governed, and the question of governance
came in. In order to bring about reforms, therefore,
votes were now necessary, and to influence the public opinion; therefore, there have
to be dissemination of ideas, facts, arguments, information. So, the newspaper was born. The rise of the middle classes, the printing
press, everything led to the dissemination of the spread of knowledge and literature
in its wider sense, including the book, the newspaper, the magazine became the chief instrument
of the nation’s progress; not to speak of the novel which came just after that. Therefore, when we look into this literature
from 1660 to 1785, what we see; we find that it can be divided into three shorter periods
of 40 years each. First period is 1660 to 1700; death of John
Dryden where, we have a neoclassical period where, emphasis on decorum or critical principles;
based on what is elegant, fit and right; the neoclassic age. Then, comes 1700 to 1745; deaths of Jonathan
Swift and Alexander Pope in 1744; another stage where, emphasis on satire, and more
on satire, and on wider public leadership. Then, 1700 to 1745, when we look into that,
the Augustan era of writers like Swift Defoe, Pope Addison Steele, was rich in satire, and
new prose forms that blended fact and fiction, such as news, criminal biographies, travelogues. So, these are new genres of literary representation
which, came into existence; political allegories and romantic tales. So, therefore, early 18th century drama even,
saw a development of sentimental comedy, which we had referred to just now; the excesses
which were there, is the early restoration period in which, goodness and high moral sentiments
are emphasized, and the audience is moved not only to laughter, but also to sympathetic
tears. Well, some of the great figures of the restoration
literature from 1600 to 1700, and we find that Dryden, Butler, Wycherley, Congreve,
Bunyan, Evelyn; not in great order, but yes, you can get an idea about that. Who was John Dryden? He was a greater writer of the age, voiced
general complaint; when he said that in his prose and poetry, he was drawing the outlines
of a new art, because the passion of the Elizabethens and the purpose of the puritan age somewhere,
did not have any effect upon this new age. He wanted to draw the outlines of a new art,
but he mourned that he had no teacher to instruct him. The writers of the age developed two marked
tendencies of their own. What were these new tendencies? The tendency towards realism, the representation
of reality as such, and a different style or technique of writing, which was in the
preciseness, simplicity and elegance of expression. So, this new classicism, if you note this
by the year 1660, Elizabethan romanticism had all, but spent itself. John Milton, we have seen, had still to write
Paradise Lost, but in everything, Milton was of the past, even at this time. At the restoration, he retired and worked
in obscurity, he was blind; you remember, and his great poem reveals no signs of the
time in which, his later years were cast. The age which produced Newton’s principia,
Milton’s Paradise Lost; this is the age, 18th century; Dryden’s Absalom and Achitophel,
Purcell’s music and Wren’s churches, and all the varied interests and curiosities of the
daily life, recorded by Evelyn and Pepys; such an age was one of the greatest for English
genius and civilization. Many think that the Augustan age was a significant
age for English genius and civilization; it could not have been what it was, without the
printing press, of course, granted that; yet, it is remarkable, what a small amount of printing,
served its turn. In every preceding age which we have seen,
eventually, especially, the poetical works which constitute the glory of English literature,
had already remarked that the glory of an age is its poetry, but now for the first time,
we must chronicle the triumph of English prose. A multitude of practical interests, arising
from the new social and political conditions; we have seen that there was development in
the social field; there was development in the political field, and there was the age
of reason and enlightenment which, led to a new thinking of every man. Every man was almost literate, you can call
that, and everyone was aware, and that demanded expression, not simply in books, but most
especially, in pamphlets, magazines and news papers. So, poetry was inadequate for such a task. If we look at the Elizabethan age, we find
that the age of Shakespeare; it was where, people sang they did not talk, but here, people
wrote in prose, and the graceful elegance, if you look into Addison’s essays, the terse
vigor of Swift’s satires, the artistic finish of Fielding’s novels, the sonorous eloquence
of Gibbon’s history and Burke’s orations; these have no parallel in the poetry of the
age. Indeed, poetry itself became prosaic. We see the reversal of the trend, in this
respect that it was used not for a creative works of imagination, but for essays, for
satire, for criticism and for exactly, the same practical ends, as was prose. The poetry of the first half of the century,
as typified in the work of Pope and Dryden, is polished and witty enough, but somehow,
there is that lack of spontaneity; it lacks fire, enthusiasm, the glow of the Elizabethan
age. In a word, it interests us as a study of life;
yes, rather than delights or inspires us by its appeal to the imagination. So, we concentrate in this age on the prose;
the triumph of prose. The variety and excellence of prose works
and the development of a serviceable prose style, which had been begun by Dryden; these
are the chief literary glories of the 18th centuries. Therefore, I had referred to it all together
already, in the beginning of the lecture that why do we study literature, right. In studying the different stages of the development
of history of English literature, we find that the whole opening up of our ecstatic
of our intellectual domain, or in the way that it had developed through the evaluation
of ideas which has come in, helps us to understand that there has been so many things, which
has gone into the making of literature of a period. It is not that we forget the past; it is the
past, which determines the present, and at the same time, we are aware, we are not ignorant
of what is happening all around. May be, this is what was said by TS Eliot
when he said that a writer must have the historical sense, and when one has the historical sense,
one has to be aware of what is going on all around, and only then, can you write of something,
or you can represent something, which is of your own type, and of the people surrounding
you. Well, this was the age of satire. Writers were often found observing nature,
therefore, in their attempts to express their beliefs. So, satire comes for the first time in English literature. Human nature was considered a constant that
observation and reason could be applied to for the advancement of knowledge. Within these circumstances, the age of satire
was born. You could analyze yourself; you could laugh
at yourself; and at the same time, you can become a subject of observation. So, it became the most popular form of literary
tool that was utilized by the writers of the time, and with the help of satire, writers
were able to educate the public through literature. So, you might ask what is the role of satire
and comedy. In comedy too, also, we have satire, but it
is very graceful. The border line between satire and the comedy
is thin. At the same time, we find that the purpose
is almost, where, we expose human frailties probably, and at the same time, we tried to
redeem the false, which are there. So, when we come to John Dryden, who towers
over this age, not as Milton towers over his age, or as Shakespeare had towered over his
age, and that is why, we have termed the age of Shakespeare or the age of Milton, and not
the age of Dryden here, or the Augustan period; because we have many scholars, many writers,
who are equally important to discuss. So, Dryden is the greatest literary figure
of the restoration, and this is a quote from William J Long, and he says that if we can
think for a moment of literature, as a canal of water; we are talking about a literary
journey that we are taking, isn’t it, from the beginning to the moderns; we may appreciate
the figure that Dryden is the lock by which, the waters of English poetry were let
down, from the mountains of Shakespeare and Milton to the plain of Pope. So, we have gone from the heights to the real
pavilions pope; that is he stands between two very different ages, and serves as a transition
from one to the other; beautiful quote, this is from William J Long. So, when we look at Dryden; what do we see,
what did he write about? He wrote in every form important to the period;
Annus Mirabilis, a narrative poem, All for Love, which was written in blank verse. Then, tragedy, heroic plays, odes, satires,
translations of classical work, his Absalom and Achitophel has been undoubtedly, the most
powerful political satire in the language in English literature and restoration prose
style, somehow, grew out of this, and it became more witty, and it became not rural, not pastoral;
it became urbane, confined to the towns, to the cities, to the upper class; urbane conversation
and less like a intricate rhetorical style of previous writers, like John Milton and
John Donne, simultaneously, we have found that restoration literature continued to appeal
to heroic ideals of love and honor, particularly, on stage in heroic tragedy. So, the religious question, when we come back
into this, we find the strength of the religious political passions of the time is reflected
also, in the current literature. There was a prevalent suspicion of the Catholics. The famous poem of Dryden, which we have referred
to just now; Absalom and Achitophel, is an outstanding example of a kind of poem that
abounded during those troubled years. So, it was a critique of the time of what
was going on; the conflict between the search and governance. At the restoration, the break with the past
was almost, absolute. Subject and style took on a new spirit and
outlook, as Dryden said, I was trying to find out new avenues, which will suit the age,
a different attitude and aim. Hence, the post restoration period is often,
set up as the converse and antithesis of the previous Elizabethan stage. If you want to show the dividing line, then
you will find that it was the post restoration; it serves as a dividing line between the previous
Elizabethan age. It is called classical as opposed to the Elizabethan
romanticism. The period, which will come just after the
Augustan age is also called the romantic age; romanticism, but this romanticism is different
from the Elizabethan romanticism. Though, the contrast between the two epochs
need not be over emphasized, yet the differences are very great. You find striking dissimilarities and when
we see that, the first thing that strikes you was the interest in reading and publishing
houses. Which, we have already said that it was not
the age of poetry; it was the age of prose. Here, the reading and publishing houses; they
became very alert and active, and the rising interest in politics, witnesses the decline
of drama. It resulted in a remarkable increase in the
number of reading public, and they became the forerunners of modern public houses. They employed hack writers of the period;
they lived in miserable hovels in the Grub Street. The rise of the middle class, which is a very
important sociological dimension to the age of this period, the Augustan age, and this
period of literature, saw the emergence of a powerful middle class. The supremacy of the middle class made it
an age of tolerance, moderation and common sense. It sought to refine manners, introduce into
life; the rule of sweet reasonableness. The industrial revolution was just, sometime
away. The middle class writers were greatly, influenced
by moral considerations; therefore, it was an era of assimilation of the aristocracy
and the middle class. Middle class tried to bring in all the manners
of the aristocracy. They tried not to imitate, but to bring in
their own standards of living. So, may be, there was the difference in class;
there was a difference in the aristocracy of the middle class. The emergence of middle class led to the rise
of sentimentalism, feelings and emotions, which influenced the literature of the latter
half of the 18th century. Therefore, the first half of the 18th century
was remarkable for the rapid social development in England. While we are doing this age; you must have
noted that we are giving more emphasis to the social and the political background, more
than the literary representation. Of course, the literary representation is
coming, but at the same time, we cannot ignore what is happening on the surroundings. For the first time, they began themselves,
the task of learning art of living together, in a single generation. Nearly, 2000 public coffeehouses sprang up
in London alone. This new social status had a superb effect
in polishing men’s words and manners. First number of ‘The Tatler’ Steele announces
that the activities of his new journal will be based upon the clubs, the coffee clubs. All accounts of gallantry, pleasure, everything;
shall be under the article of White’s chocolate-house, etc. Then, comes the question of copy-right, which
we are so much concerned with, nowadays. During this reign, the law of copy-right,
1709 was passed and the freedom of the press was restored in 1682, and large numbers of
periodicals appeared and flourished in their different fashion. We have Steele, who published this Tatler,
spectator; we have Johnson, he also published others short lived periodicals. Let us see in what respects therefore, this
new spirit is shown. Therefore, we find this completely, new concentration
on something, which is different from the other ages. First, we will see the imitation of the ancients,
because it was called the Augustan age. Lacking the genius of the Elizabethans, the
authors of this period, turned to the great classical writers, and that was in the beginning
to the Latin writers for guidance and inspiration, and as we have seen, during the time of Dryden,
deepened and hardened during the succeeding era of Pope- so much so that the latter laid
down as a final test of excellence. Pope had said that the imitation of the ancients,
learn hence for ancient rules, a just esteem to copy nature, is to copy them. Though, Dryden and Pope are classified as
neoclassical writers, and about nature in neoclassicism is returning to the classics. Aside from the Dryden, pope also commends
Aristotle, Homer, Horace, etc. Now, imitation of French, especially, in the
comedies; Charles second had spent most of his years of exile, in France. Naturally, he will bring in the influences
of the French court. In particular, the effects of this, penetrated
very deeply into the drama of French comedy. Moliere was the outstanding exponent and his
influence was very great. Development of the literary forms, therefore,
viewed as a whole; this period is seen to be one of transition, isn’t it? So, the Elizabethan fervor had spent itself,
and the new classicism was still in the making. Yet the time is important in the development
of literary, new literary forms. Political and social changes exhibiting the
supremacy of good sense, rationality, on the literature of days of age of Pope and Doctor
Johnson, and why it is called age of prose and reason; we have to see, not of poetry,
because a large number of practical interests arising from the new social and political
conditions, demanded expression; not simply in books, but in pamphlets, magazines and
news papers. The poetry of the first half of the 18th century
was represented by the works of Pope and polished and witty ,but lacks fire feeling. Matthew Arnold rightly, calls the 18th century,
the age of prose. Well, when we had talked about Satire, then
will see that the predominance of Satire is an important literary characteristic of the
age. Nearly, every writer of the first half of
the 18th century was used and rewarded by the two parties; the Whigs or Tories, for
satirizing their enemies. They were employed by these two different
groups, and Pope was an exception, but he too was a satirist par excellence, and WJ
Long writes now, satire that is a literary work which, searches out the faults of men
or institutions, in order to hold them up to ridicule, is at best a destructive type
of criticism; so, where it had a negative dimension to it. Restoration literary movement; when we go
back to the restoration, having its impact upon the Augustan age, we find, were extremely
varied, with philosophical, political or sexual elements. Pastoral literature, somewhere or the other,
was present during the restoration, but the Augustan age focuses,
not on country life. The school of nature poetry uses a contrary
definition of nature to pope’s; this is wild and grand. Then, poetry, we find the lyric. So, little change in bulk; it is inconsiderable
for the lyrical, largely abeyance. Outside Dryden, who is the best of the lyrical
poets, we have the slight work of the courtiers, the Earl of Dorset, and Sir Charles Sedly,
and the Earl of Rochester. Epic poetry; we come into epic poetry, how
it was; somehow, have limitation. Long narrative poems on heroic subjects, mark
the best work of classical Greek. We have seen how, latter in Paradise Lost. John Dryden also wrote epic poetry, but on
classical and biblical poems. The comic parody of the epic form; we have
the mock heroic, as we have found in Dryden where, he experimented with that, and the
best example is Pope’s; the Rape of the Lock. Though Dryden’s work is little read today,
it leads to a the best poetry of the mid 18th century, is the comic writing of Alexander
Pope and pope is the best regarded comic writer and satirist of English poetry. Among his many masterpieces, the mock heroic
is the Rape of the Lock. The ode, once more, Dryden towers are eminent
in this class of poem. His two odes on the anniversary of Saint Cecilias
day, and his other ode on the death of Mrs. Anne Killigrew, are among the best of any
period and we have already done that. Drama, therefore, we will have to see how
from the sentimental comedy that tragedy and to the heroic play. So, tragedy, the most novel in the matter
of form is the heroic play. The tragical faculty is weakening, all through
the period even in comparison, with the post Shakespearean plays. Other major dramatic genre was the restoration,
which was a very significant mark. Comedy of manners; which emphasizes sexual
intrigue and satirizes the elite’s social behavior with very witty dialogue. So, it was the dialogue which was this, at
the stage of this place. Comedy of humours is dying out, though considerable
traces of it; Johnson’s, Ben Johnson’s comedy of humours, was still visible and was replaced
by the comedy of manners. So, restoration comedy; when we look into
it, were no longer prohibited on the death of Oliver Cromwell. A new kind of comic drama, which dealt with
issues of sexual politics among the wealthy, and the bourgeois arose, and this is restoration
comedy. Many lack merit, many say, but the best drama
uses the restoration convention for a serious examination of contemporary morality, a play
which exemplifies this well is the country wife by William Wycherley. The theatre in England during the 18thcentury,
therefore, was dominated by the actor David Garrick. His performances had a tremendous impact on
the art of acting from which, ultimately, grew movements such as realism and naturalism. Of course, there were plays which dealt with
ordinary people as characters, such as in she stoops to conquer by Oliver Goldsmith,
and we have the school for scandal by Richard Sheridan. The growing desire for freedom, both in Europe
and North America; it was also in the 18th century that commercial theatre began to make
its appearance in the colonies of North America. Well, in prose, therefore, when we say that
it is the time of prose in this age, with the exception of the work of Dryden and Bunyan;
the prose work of the time was of little moment, even then. Dryden’s prose is almost entirely, devoted
to literary criticism. Bunyan’s contribution shows a remarkable development
of the prose allegory, and Samuel Johnson and his literary and intellectual circle,
when we come to the prose work, we find that he had the greatest early novels of the English
language comes in; Richardson’s Clarissa and Henry Fielding’s Tom Jones; this was in 1749. By the year 1700, during the reign of Charles
second, the term Whig party stood for the pre eminance of personal freedom as opposed,
the Hanoverian succession, whereas the Tories were Jacobites. So, this age was also, the age of literary
patronage; the age of journalism and periodical essay. When we look at the essay in our lecture on
genres, we had done that; that the Tatler and the spectator, the names which sang very
permanently, are those of Joseph Addison and Richard Steele, and how the breezy conversational
style or a journalistic prose of our times, went back to these days, to these efforts. When we look into the historical rise of the
political parties, therefore, as we have seen that a Whig and the Tory, first became current,
and the domestic affairs, where also, somehow influencing the representation of the type,
and after the succession of the house of Hanover, the first half of the 18th century
was a period of stabilization, and steadily growing wealth and prosperity. Their neoclassical style employed Roman forms,
such as the ode, as we have seen, and emphasized over emotion and elegance over brevity. When we come to Alexander Pope from 1688 to
1744, we can see Pope’s work into three groups, corresponding to the early, middle and later
period of his life. The first part are the pastorals. . The second is the translations of Homer, and
the third is the Dunciad and the Epistles. The latter containing the famous essay on
man, and the epistle to doctor Arbuthnot. So, the literature of this period which, conformed
to Pope’s aesthetic principles; I had remarked that this was the growing of the aesthetic
principles, which was coming into the literature, and could thus, qualify as being Augustan,
is distinguished by its striving for harmony of form and precision. So, it was a different form of aesthetic,
a different form of technique which, they were looking at. So, it became literature, became a tool of
representation, and its urbanity and its imitation of classical models, such as homer, Cicero,
Virgil and Horace. So, when we come after pope, the emergence
of new literary themes and mode, we see that with the death of Samuel Johnson in 1784,
novelists became better known than poets, and intellectual prose forms, such as the
essay proliferated. Mid 18th century is often, referred to as
the age of Johnson 2, after the renowned essayist, Samuel Johnson, who in 1755, wrote one of
the first English dictionaries, to define word meanings. So, the first English dictionary is attributed
to him, by employing quotations, taken from the best English writers, past and present,
and also, by the 1740s, the novel rose to dominate the literary marketplace with writers
like Henry Fielding, Samuel Richardson, Laurence Sterne, defining the form and its mode of
representing the private lives of individuals. So, mind you; while we are doing these forms,
what do you think of; literature as representation or literature as imitation; you must be going
through so many different ways of reading a text, of interpreting a text, and when we
look into it, we sometimes think that literature has different dimensions of understanding
an individual or a society. These writers, in different ways, were occupied,
preoccupied, with form with a way of representation, with the way of how literature can be written;
right. Therefore, I feel that you as students of
technical field also, will understand the importance of form, the importance of system
takes in writing something, which is of imagination, may be; but ultimately, it leads to a technique
in representation. So, when we come to Samuel Johnson; what did
he say; a book says Dr Johnson should help us, either to enjoy life or to endure it. So, the question of aesthetic pleasure or
delight is something which, we must take into consideration, when we study language and
literature, right. It is somewhere, another dimension, another
perspective in which, we understand literature. Judged by this standard, one is puzzled what
to recommend among Johnson’s numerous books, we have seen, are his dictionary and his lives
of the poets, which were almost like biographies of all the leading writers of
the time. He was also called the greatest essayist of
all time, especially, to the Tatler and the Spectator and where, colloquial English, language
of the people was shown, and also written in elevated prose. With Johnson, who succeeded Dryden and Pope,
in the chief place of English letters, the classic movement had largely spent its forms. So, now we can see that how it had taken its
form through the different period, through the different writers, and the latter half
of the 18th century, gives us an imposing array of writers, who differ so widely that
it was almost, impossible to classify them. In general, three schools of writers are noticeable. First, the classicists just after Dr Johnson,
and the Johnson leads; second, the romantic poets. The pre-romantics like Collins, Gray Thompson
and Burns, who were the precursors of the romanticism, and also, the early novelists
like Defoe and Fielding, who introduced a new type of literature. So, when we come into Daniel Defoe, we can
see that he shows an account of a historian; it is almost, as if he is documenting what
is going on around him. When a survey is demanded of Queen Annes,
England, and its everyday life, our thoughts always, turn to Daniel Defoe; riding solitary
and observant through the countryside. This is what Trevelyan has said in the social
history of English literature. He first perfected the art of the reporter,
and you have to see; it was not Addison and Steele, but it was Daniel Defoe, who could
report on what he had seen and put it into literature. Even his novels, such as Robinson Crusoe and
Moll Flanders, are imaginary reports of daily life, whether on a desert island or in a thief’s
den. For Defoe was one of the first, who saw the
old world through a pair of sharp modern eyes. So, the first modern, you can term him. Who was the first novelist, therefore? If you can say that it was Spanish Cerventes
and the very English Daniel Defoe. So, both of them can occupy the same position. Verily, the novel became the dominant form
of creative literature in the mid 18th century. Daniel Defoe and his novel Robinson Crusoe
in 1719, and later, Moll Flanders, 1722; the reading public has increased, and you see
that it was something that he had a great followers. Then, comes Samuel Richardson’s Pamela, published
in 1740; supposed to be the first mature novel; Henry fielding with characters, became prominent
and essential quality to the novel appear; the bildungsroman or whatever, you call it;
how a character develops in the process of the whole novel and the rise of the novel
in the 18th century, written by Defoe, Richardson and fielding, was partly due to its milieu
and particularly, the changing political, social, economic shifts as a result of the
industrial revolution, granted this. You have to grant that it was the milieu,
which ultimately, gave place to the rise of the novel. So, the industrial revolution from 1750 to
1850 became the dominant form of creative literature, even in the mid 19th century. When we go to the romantic age, will find
that it was, apart from poetry, it was also one of the dominant genres. Though, neoclassicism was spread in the English
Augustine period, there were other movements during the period. What was coming around after Johnson? There was the graveyard poets, had a melancholy
tone, both movements presuppose the oncoming romanticism literary movement. Serious poetry of the period is well represented
by the neoclassical Thomas Gray, from 1716 to 1771, whose elegy written in a country
such as, this is a poem I think each one of you should read, and it is an excellent poem,
and a classic poem, virtually perfects the elegant style, favored at the time. Some critics also, place the end of the 18th
century at 1776, linking it to the American Revolution; others at 1789, the beginning
of the French Revolution; still, others in 1798, and the publication of Wordsworth and
Coleridge’s lyrical ballads. So, you have to note these landmarks; you
have to note these times; whether it was the French revolution, or it was the American
revolution, or the publication of Wordsworth and Coleridge’s lyrical ballads, because it
shows a link or it shows the dividing line between one age and the other. So, this transition between the Augustan period
and the romantic period was a drastic shift in literary ideas. The Augustans followed the works of former
classical writers as we have seen, such as Horace, Virgil and Homer. The attention to detail, the attention to
the rules, the attention to the perfection, and elegance of prose; where, everything was
somehow went under great scrutiny; everything was not just spontaneous imagination or spontaneous
overflow of feelings. To them, this was a proper and only way to
write. They followed the views of Aristotle, which
led them to an empirical way of teaching. Therefore, some characteristics of Augustan
poetry are the concept of individualism versus society; the imitation of the classics, if
you look into that; political and social issues, which are equally important; satire and irony;
irony that is a way that rhetoric or prosodic come into form empiricism and comedy. Let us sum up. The social and historical aspects of restoration
period; though, you have seen the rise of neo classicism, imitations of the ancient
masters and their impact on the writings of the restoration age; you can say it was a
conscious imitation of the classics and introduction of correctness and appropriateness, as well
as formalism and realism in their writings. So, when we talk about the imitation, the
conscious imitation of the classic, then we know that it was a self conscious imitation,
and somewhere that national character of the literature was lost flown; somewhere, it was
way of imitation, which gave a hurdle, place the hurdle to representation. It also speaks of the prose and verse of the
age. The emphasis is placed on the dramatic activities
of restoration age, especially, the birth of new tragedy called heroic tragedy, and
comedy called comedy of manners, on the decline and decay of drama, during restoration age. The political time, therefore, the reign of
Queen Anne in early 18th century, England was called the Augustan age and the style
in motion, employed Roman forms such as ode, emphasized common sense, moderation, the transitional
period from rapid social development in England. They, themselves, began the task of learning
art of living together. The emancipation of the political parties
by the year 1700, the term Whig party stood for the pre eminence of personal freedom,
as opposed the Hanoverian succession . The spirit of the age, the clubs and the coffee
houses, periodical and publishing houses the new morality; so, the transition between the
Augustan period and the romantic period was a drastic shift in literary ideas. We will see in the next lecture, the Augustans
followed the works of former classical writers. To them, this was the proper and only way
to write; they followed the views of Aristotle. Therefore, we have to see how, we look into
this age and how it became the precursor of the next age. So, in the discussion, let us see; describe
briefly the social development of the 18th century; what effect did this have on literature;
what accounts for the prevalence of prose; why was it, the prose became the hallmark
of that age; what influence did the first newspapers exert on life and literature; how
do the readers of this age compared with those of the age of Elizabeth, and when you do the
difference stages of English history, especially, the history of English literature; you will
have to see the different genres that has become very prominent during these ages. How do you explain the fact that satire was
largely, based on both prose and poetry; name the principal satires of the age, whether
it was in drama, whether it was in poetry, whether it was in prose; what is the meaning
of the term classicism, as applied to the literature of this age; did the classicism
of Johnson, for instance, have any relation to classic literature in its true sense; you
have to go and explore how, the classic literature after the Latin period after period of Augustans,
had the same elements of decorum or elegance of prose or the system of writing. Why is this period called the Augustan age? Why was Shakespeare, not regarded by this
age as a classical writer? In what respect, is Pope a unique writer? How does he reflect the critical spirit of
his age in different ways, whether it is in his poetry or in his prose? What are the chief characteristics of his
poetry? What great work did Addison and Steele do
for literature? So, they were the beginners, initiators of
the journals of thesis. How is their work, a preparation for the novel? For what is, Dr Johnson is famous in literature? Can you explain his great influence? You know, not only, was he hallmark; you can
call him a pioneer, an icon, in biography, but also in the way that he was the first,
who had brought out the dictionary. What is meant by the modern novel; how does
it differ from the early romances and from the adventure story? Refer texts, especially, if you want to look
into any history of English literature. One text that you will find very helpful for
you, especially, for engineering students is Edward Albert’s history of English literature,
and William J Long’s English literature; its history and its significance. If you want to see the English social history
the GM Trevelyan’s, and then, AW Ward of Cambridge history of English literature, and David Daiches,
which is a must for every student of English literature, but you can also go through that
critical history of English literature, which is in four volumes, and Margaret Drabble,
Robert Scholes’ elements of literature where, you see how literature is to be enjoyed, and
how you can give more time to understanding different texts. Thank you.

Prairie Pulse 1305; Heidi Czerwiec, Elisa Korenne “The Next Big Thing”


(mellow rock music) – Hello and welcome
to Prairie Pulse. I’m John Harris and coming
up later in the show, we’ll see a music video
from Elisa Korenne about the Nonpartisan League
founder, A.C. Townley. But first joining us now
on the set is our guest, UND English professor
and poet, Heidi Czerwiec. And Heidi, thanks
for joining us today. – A pleasure to be here. – As we get started, and as
we always do, tell the folks a little bit about
yourself, your background, where you’re originally from,
and how you ended up at UND. – I’m originally
from North Carolina. My folks still live
in the Raleigh area. Then as I was going
through grad school, ended up in Utah
where I got my PhD and then taught there for a
few years until a job opened up in creative writing, which
is actually rarer and rarer, so I had no problem
moving to North Dakota even if it meant (chuckles)
moving to North Dakota in January, which I did, to get a job in teaching
creative writing. And it’s been a really
wonderful 10 years there. – Well now how did you
choose this career? – I actually started
out as a music major and had taken a class in the structure of poetry,
the meters of it, the music, the rhyme schemes, and
a lot of the language that’s used for it is the
exact same language (chuckles) that’s used for music, and
it made complete sense to me. It was just a lateral move, and I had written
poetry for fun, but had never really
done anything with it and showed some
to the professor. And he said, “Oh you should
pursue this” (laughs) and ended up switching over
and pursuing graduate school in English and creative writing. – Well in fact,
you’re here to talk about some of your writings. And in fact, we’re gonna
talk about your new book of poems, little bit, your
“Self-Portrait as Bettie Page.” Why Bettie Page? The famous pin-up and
what are the poems about? – Well the poems are
somewhat about Bettie Page and her life and the
contradiction that she poses and about my fascination
with her that she was such an interesting character that I had been
fascinated with for years. I got interested in her when I was a grad student and about the same time
that the Rockabilly resurgence with
people swing dancing and wearing pompadours,
but also with tattoos and dyeing their
(laughs) hair purple, so it was this very strange
moment, but her image popped up in a lot of places, and I
was fascinated with her. And everyone thought
she was dead. And then she pops back up, and it turns out, no
she’s actually alive, and that made me want to
know more about her and started researching her,
still just as an amateur, just for fun, but she’d always
been sort of in my head. And then I started working on a
project of poems about her and realized there were a lot
of parallels between our lives in some weird ways and
started exploring that. Hence, the self-portrait
because it blurs that boundary a lot. – Yeah well, what’s been the
reaction thus far to the book? – Lot of people really
like it because Bettie Page is thought of as a edgy, sort of slightly
racy character. The book of poems are written in a pretty strict sonnet
form for the most part, and sonnets are usually seen as being outdated and boring and too conservative. And so the pairing of the two
has been very interesting. And even people who have
said, “Oh I don’t really like “formal poetry” have thought,
“That’s really an interesting “way to pair the two together,”
that because she was known for the sort of
early bondage work where she’s posing in corsets and has a whip (laughs) and things that sound racy,
but when you go back and look at the photographs, they’re
actually sort of cheesecake and cute (chuckles) and silly. But the pairing of the
bondage with the idea of a strict form like the sonnet actually works
really well together. – Well then yeah the
contradictions in her life and why she fascinates you, so did that draw you to write
the poems or what was it? – Yeah the original
way I found my way into writing about her was that I was sort of starting to
do some research on her and had found a statement that someone made
about wearing corsets that said, “It seems
like it would be “really restrictive, but it’s
actually very liberating.” And I had heard any
number of poets who write in formal poetry say
the exact same thing that it seems like it would
be really restrictive, and it’s actually very freeing,
and that’s when the project clicked, and I thought, “I’m
gonna write sonnets (laughs) “about Bettie Page.” But it wasn’t until I
started writing them and started realizing that
there were a lot of overlaps between us and
that I was a woman writing about her just as many of the
photographers who took the best-known photos
of her were also female and trying to figure
out, what does that mean. Am I another woman in
a long line of women who exploited her, or is
there some sort of feminist argument to be made here? I wasn’t entirely sure, so I was using the
poems to explore that. – Mm-hmm, well who’ve
been your poetry and literary influences coming up through your career? – Oh sure, my
influences sort of come from all over the place. There’s John Dunne and George
Herbert from the 17th century, who mostly wrote
sonnets, but very witty, very playful. I love the language of someone
like Lucie Brock-Broido. The vocabulary she uses
just really excites me. I like narrative in the
works of Robert Frost and David Mason and let’s see,
Brigit Pegeen Kelly and T. S. Eliot for ambition. I’m not sure I would say
my poetry’s like Eliot, but I definitely have those
ambitions of trying to pull from lots of different
sources and somehow put it all on the page and have
it make sense together. – Okay well let’s talk
about your style of poetry and that you call yourself (laughter)
a high modernist? – Yeah. I did at one point. And I think that was because of a sense of form and how that worked
in my poetry, that I
was very interested in form, even when
I’m not writing a fixed form like a sonnet that I’m very interested in how lines of poetry work,
how the shape of the poem is contributing to
what it’s saying. And even now that I’ve been
moving in and out of form that I’ve started straying
off into other areas that are more hybrid forms
like the lyric essay, I’ve still been very,
very conscious of form, so I think that’s where
the high modernist and also that I tend to not
write about myself very much. I think many people have
an idea of poetry as, “Oh I’m just writing
about my feelings.” And I rarely even include
myself in the poems, so the fact of
including me at all in the “Self-Portrait
as Bettie Page” was sort of a departure. Although they aren’t
always truths too, that sometimes they’re lies, and sometimes they’re
half-truths as well, but yeah I tend to do
research on a topic like Bettie Page, like conjoined twins, like
the Bakken oil boom and then write work about that as opposed to really
including myself. – Well with that said,
would you read us, you wanna start
with Bettie Page, and could you read a couple
– [Heidi] Sure. – [John] of poems from there? – [Heidi] Yeah. – [John] And of
course I’ll ask you, just kind of set it up for us. – Sure. This one’s called
“Betty-Shaped Space,” which is talking about the mystery,
the enigma that she was because she disappeared. In 1957, after doing pictures
for many years, decided to become a
born-again Christian. And while she never repudiated
her work, and in fact, was very proud of it and
didn’t see what the problem was that she just no
longer did the photos ’cause she got interested
in doing missionary work and so on. But because she disappeared that added to the
myth surrounding her. “Bettie-Shaped Space. “Bettie, you are 80, a mystery. “You disappeared in ’57,
left a Bettie-shaped space “in photography. “None since have had
your levity or your heft. “Curvaceous question
mark, fame’s runaway “gone incommunicado,
absence, rift. “You are/become poetic
silence to fill with words, “to graft on you
our whims at will. “Bettie, you are 80. “You’ve never been more popular. “You had the mystique
of an icon who died: “a Monroe, a Dean. “Fame’s fugitive, you
stay teasingly oblique. “You lived long past your
falsely-rumored death. “And dying, you
dissolve into the myth.” And then this poem is the
last poem in the collection, and it’s called
“Autobioerotic” and is one of the self-portraits
where I’m really talking about me, but in
terms of her and using writing in
form as a parallel to posing in bondage. (laughs) “Autobioerotic. “You started innocently: first
a pair of words that rhyme, “a sweet pentameter that
left you wanting more. “And so you wrote, for fun. “And it was good. “Someone took note. “Young girl, new style, but
thought you needed edge, “put you onto sonnets, with
just a smidge of sapphics, “titillating, but
still, quite tame. “You got a kick out of it. “It was a game. “But then you get a
penchant for harder stuff: “ballads, rondeaus. “Those French ticklers
not enough for you. “You published hardcore
villanelles for magazines “with certain clienteles. “You’re verse’s vixen. “Where do you go from here? “You keep composing,
or you disappear.” – So what do you hope
people get when they read this set of poems here? – Well first of all,
pleasure. (laughs) Just enjoying the
sound of the words. I think that it’s important to keep Bettie Page in the
consciousness in a way, thinking about women, women’s issues,
women’s bodies, and how women in art are perceived and how they
help or hurt each other, so I think those are
interesting issues and to see the sonnet as something contemporary and interesting and
challenging and playful. – Okay, well let’s turn to some of your other pieces of work. Can you talk about “North
Dakota Is Everywhere?” – Yeah that’s a new anthology that just came out
this past March from the North Dakota
Institute of Regional Studies at NDSU. And while I was visiting
schools around the state as part of Poetry Out loud, I was looking for poems
about North Dakota and by North Dakota poets, especially living ones to
share with the students to say, “No, poetry
comes from right here,” that poetry doesn’t have
to happen in Britain or 200 years ago. It can be written by people
right here, right now. And I couldn’t find a book. There’s one collection that
exists that has some poetry in it, but it also
contains a lot of prose, and it didn’t help as much. So I thought, “Okay I’ll
put one (chuckles) together” and started contacting poets
and saying, “Are you in?” And fortunately, everybody
was really gracious and really excited, felt glad
that someone was doing this ’cause they thought, “Yeah,
this needs to exist,” so I was able to get 17 poets from around the state
to participate in this and collect together a number of voices of people who
grew up in North Dakota and some of which
have moved elsewhere, some of which have lived
here their entire lives, some of which have moved
here from other places. But all of the poems
in here are talking about North Dakota in some way. – And you recently completed a poetry manuscript called “Maternal Imagination.”
– [Heidi] Yes. – [Heidi] Yeah it’s a
kind of weird manuscript. I’m trying to place it now, but it’s mostly dealing with
birth defects. (chuckles) At the time, I was in the
process of adopting my son and got probably wrongly
fascinated (laughs) with it ’cause it can be
sort of disturbing. But as late as the 18th century, maternal imagination
was considered a cause of monstrous births, the
idea that the mother sees something horrible, and
it imprints on the child, and the child is
born monstrous, so most of the poems have to
do (laughs) with that idea and motherhood. – Now did you always
write as a young child, or did you develop
later in life? – I always wrote. I can remember being small
before I could even write physically, like
making up little songs while I was swinging. And then later once I
could write, writing poems, I think my very first
published poem was about the Easter Bunny and
was hung outside the room (laughter)
of my third-grade class. But it was always
just sort of for fun until later on. – Well now I understand,
have been told that you’ve been published
in different journals and magazines and that
you’ve been nominated for a Pushcart Prize. So can you maybe tell
us about all that? – Sure, the way that
most writers get started is publishing, especially poets, is publishing in
journals and magazines, sending out your work and
getting those published. Most places before they’ll
publish a book would like to see that there’s a market for you
(chuckles) that other people are reading your work
and are interested in it. It’s also part of
sharing your work with a larger readership. The Pushcart Prize, editors nominate you. They usually have two from everything that
they publish that year. They can nominate two poets per year. And then someone reads
all of those and picks out who actually wins
the Pushcart Prizes. (John chuckles)
I have not won one yet, but I’ve been
nominated four times, which is still really exciting. – Well indeed. Are young people or your
students, obviously you teach at UND, are they good
writers, good poets? Has that been lost in
all the new technologies and things that are
going on out there? – No I don’t think
that it has been lost. Intro to Creative Writing
at UND is taught as a gen ed class that counts
for fine arts credits, so I get a lot of
students in there who are not English majors
and may have never written anything creatively
before in their life. They’re just there
because they want (laughter)
that fine arts credit. So my job is to woo
them (laughs) and
to get them starting to think about language
and how you can use it and manipulate it to
create certain effects on your reader and
that that can be used anywhere else in their life, that it’s not just
limited to this only works if you’re writing a poem, but that you can
manipulate language to affect readers in certain
ways for your clients, for your proposals,
anything like that. They can take that
away with them. – Well I also understand that you translate
Spanish poetry. (Heidi laughs)
^Who do you do that for? – I’m one half of
a translation team. My partner, Claudia Routon, who is a Spanish
professor at UND, she and I, between us, make one good
translator. (laughs) So she does a lot of
the trots in Spanish, like the first
translations of a poem. And then I work on shaping it as a poem and getting the sound into it. And then we go back and forth on whether this is
accurate or not. And we’ve had some success with publishing those poems as well.
– [John] Well I always hear – [John] the phrase
lost in translation, or it loses something
in translation. Does that ever
happen? (chuckles) – Oh definitely! I think the translation,
while the idea or the content of the poem is given to you, the words that ultimately
get used are yours, are not the original
author’s, so yeah, but I do think it’s a good
way of allowing cultures to read each other’s work. – Okay well we’d like you
to read just a little more, and I think you’ve got
some pieces picked out. Can you tell us what you wanna read for us today?
– [Heidi] Sure. – [Heidi] I’ll
read one poem from the “North Dakota Is
Everywhere” anthology. And like I said,
many of these writers included here were writing about growing up in North
Dakota and living here and so as a contrast, I thought
that I would include a poem that was about moving to
North Dakota in January and the first impressions
of that, which for me were also paired with the
breakup of a marriage too because my then-husband in the process of moving
to North Dakota said, “I’m not living here” and left and went
back to Utah, so yeah, this is about all
those (chuckles) things. It’s called “Sedating the Cats.” “Each morning, they hid. “The drug’s tuna
taste fooling no one. ‘It’ll make the move easier,’ “I said, pinning them myself. ‘Because they like you
better than me,’ he said. “Soon they’d
stagger like drunks. “Meows thick in their mouths. “Inner eyelids drifting back
and forth uncontrollably “across their sight. “I draped their carrier
against the cold with a blanket “also to calm them as one
would a horse or a parrot. “Despite my deceptions, each
night they’d pin down my limbs, “kneading me with
their nearness. “Their weight, not
the same as his weight “in a different bed,
in the same room. “Each morning, the
drug and me crying “until I couldn’t see straight. “Once we slid off the icy road. “Then even their slurred
murmuring went silent. “I was shaking
uncontrollably from shock, “from sub-zero cold. “The man who accompanied
me was the same man “who would abandon
me once we arrived. “Each morning, the drug. “Each morning, me wishing for
something to make it easier. “When we arrived, they
hid from me for a week.” – And I think we may
have time for one more. – Okay, I’ll read
a short one from a new group called “Sweet Crude: A
Bakken Boom Cycle” that will be published next
April, and it’s a lyric essay, so a crossover between
poetry and nonfiction. “North Dakota is a foreign
country, alien, a flyover state, “even from space. “When we show our
foreign friend a photo “of a satellite flyover,
he’s astonished. “At nightfall, light clusters
on the frozen prairie. “Phantom city emerged from
among the ghost towns. “A blooming midnight meridian. “Stars in a lake of blackness. “A constellation
of ignited eyes. “The natural gas that
emerges alongside the oil “costs more to
capture than flare. “The foreign companies
that drill here burn money, “a billion a year
in flames and fines. “A little Kuwait on the
prairie, whose dread watch fires “smelter under the dark, more
brightly than Minneapolis, “more broadly than Chicago. “In winter, truckers cluster
for warmth beneath the flares, “which fling their
flapping rags of fire “six yards into space, toward
the stars and satellites “and passing planes. “Foreigner, flyover passenger, “when you peer out your
window, what do you see? “What lies beneath you?” – Heidi, thank you for all of
that, but we are out of time. But if people want more
information about your books or your poetry,
where can they go? – They can go to my website
at heidiczerwiec.com, or they can look on
Amazon or Google me. (laughter)
– Okay well Heidi, thanks so much for joining us today.
– [Heidi] Thanks a lot. – [John] Stay tuned for more. (upbeat rock music) Nonpartisan League
founder, A. C. Townley, was a critical part
of both Minnesota and North Dakota politics. His life is played out
through music by Elisa Korenne in her original song titled
“The Next Big Thing.” (jaunty jazz music) (car squeals)
(cars clang) – Well that’s all we have on
Prairie Pulse for this week. And as always,
thanks for watching. – [Voiceover] Funding for
Minnesota Legacy programs are provided by a grant from the Minnesota Arts
and Cultural Heritage Fund with money from the vote
of the people of Minnesota on November 4th, 2008 and by the members
of Prairie Public.