Republican Party (United States) | Wikipedia audio article


The Republican Party, also referred to as
the GOP (Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States,
the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party. The party is named after republicanism,
a major ideology of the American Revolution. Founded by anti-slavery activists, economic
modernizers, ex-National Republicans, ex-Free Soilers and Whigs in 1854, the Republicans
largely dominated politics nationally and in the majority of northern states between
1860 and 1932.Originally, the GOP subscribed to what is referred to as classical liberalism
with ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. The party was usually
dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912,
Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive (“Bull Moose”) Party after being rejected
by the GOP and ran as a candidate. He called for many social reforms, some of which were
later championed by New Deal Democrats in the 1930s. He lost the election, and when
most of his supporters returned to the GOP, they were at odds with the new conservative
economic stance, leading to them leaving for the Democratic Party and an ideological shift
to the right in the Republican Party. The liberal New Deal Democrats dominated the Fifth
Party System at the national level. The liberal Republican element was overwhelmed by a conservative
surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 and fulfilled during the Reagan Era.Currently,
their ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats’ liberal platform
and progressive wing. The GOP’s political platform supports lower taxes, free market
capitalism, free enterprise, a strong national defense, gun rights, deregulation and restrictions
on labor unions. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican
Party is socially conservative and seeks to uphold traditional values based largely on
Judeo-Christian ethics. The GOP was strongly committed to protectionism and tariffs from
its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest. Since
1952, there has been a reversal against protectionism and for free trade. After the Civil Rights
Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party’s core base shifted, with the Southern
states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern
states becoming more reliably Democratic. After the 1960s, whites increasingly identified
with the Republican Party. After the Roe v. Wade 1973 Supreme Court ruling, the Republican
Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its
support among Evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican party was firmly aligned with Christian conservatism.
The party’s core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains,
the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. Catholics were long the backbone of
the Democratic Party, but since the 1970s have split about evenly, as well as racially,
with white Catholics moving to the Republicans. Mormons are heavily Republican.Along with
the GOP winning 24 of the last 40 presidential elections there have been a total of 19 Republican
Presidents, the most from any one party. The first was 16th President Abraham Lincoln,
who served from 1861 until his assassination in 1865; the most recent being the 45th and
current president Donald Trump, who took the oath of office on January 20, 2017. However,
the Republicans have lost the popular vote in six out of the last seven Presidential
elections, as its traditional demographic is reducing as a proportion of the US population.As
of 2018, the Republican Party is the primary party in power in the United States, holding
the presidency (Donald Trump), majorities in both the House of Representatives and the
Senate, a majority of governorships and state legislatures (full control of 32/50, split
control of five others). Furthermore, the GOP presently hold “trifectas” (the executive
branch and both chambers of the legislative branch) in a majority of states (26/50), and
a “trifecta plus” (executive, legislative, and judicial branches) at the federal level,
as five of the nine current Supreme Court justices were appointed by Republican presidents.==History=====19th century===Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by
abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party quickly became
the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the briefly popular Know Nothing
Party. The main cause was opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the
Missouri Compromise by which slavery was kept out of Kansas. The Northern Republicans saw
the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska
movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was
held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin. The name was partly chosen
to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson’s Republican Party.The first official party convention
was held on July 6, 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. By 1858, the Republicans dominated nearly
all Northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860
when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, Abraham Lincoln, was elected
President. It oversaw the preserving of the Union, the end of slavery and the provision
of equal rights to all men in the American Civil War and Reconstruction (1861–1877).
The Republicans’ initial base was in the Northeast and the upper Midwest. With the realignment
of parties and voters in the Third Party System, the strong run of John C. Frémont in the
1856 United States Presidential Election demonstrated it dominated most Northern states.
Early Republican ideology was reflected in the 1856 slogan “free labor, free land, free
men”, which had been coined by Salmon P. Chase, a Senator from Ohio (and future Secretary
of the Treasury and Chief Justice of the United States). “Free labor” referred to the Republican
opposition to slave labor and belief in independent artisans and businessmen. “Free land” referred
to Republican opposition to the plantation system whereby slave owners could buy up all
the good farmland, leaving the yeoman independent farmers the leftovers. The party strove to
contain the expansion of slavery, which would cause the collapse of the slave power and
the expansion of freedom. Representing the fast-growing Western states,
Lincoln won the Republican nomination in 1860 and subsequently won the presidency. The party
took on the mission of preserving the Union and destroying slavery during the American
Civil War and over Reconstruction. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats
to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. The Republican Party was at
the center of Andrew Johnson’s impeachment in 1868.
The party’s success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that
Reconstruction had been accomplished, and was continued mostly to promote the large-scale
corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency.
The Stalwarts defended Grant and the spoils system whereas the Half-Breeds, led by Chester
A. Arthur, pushed for reform of the civil service in the Pendleton Civil Service Reform
Act of 1883. The Republican Party supported business generally,
hard money (i.e. the gold standard), high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages
and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, and (after 1893) the annexation
of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted
demands for Prohibition. As the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry,
railroads, mines, fast-growing cities, and prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took
credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth.
The GOP was usually dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System (1850s–1890s).
However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate
Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers.
The high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide
in the off-year elections, even defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover
Cleveland in 1884 and 1892. The election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence
of Republican dominance that lasted (except for 1912 and 1916) until 1932. McKinley promised
that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Panic of 1893 and that Republicans
would guarantee a sort of pluralism in which all groups would benefit.The Republican Civil
War era program included free homestead farms, a federally subsidized transcontinental railroad,
a national banking system, a large national debt, land grants for higher education, a
new national banking system, a wartime income tax and permanent high tariffs to promote
industrial growth and high wages. By the 1870s, they had adopted as well a hard money system
based on the gold standard and fought off efforts to promote inflation through Free
Silver. They created the foundations of the modern welfare state through an extensive
program of pensions for Union veterans. Foreign-policy issues were rarely a matter of partisan dispute,
but briefly in the 1893–1904 period the GOP supported imperialistic expansion regarding
Hawaii, the Philippines and the Panama Canal.===20th century===The 1896 realignment cemented the Republicans
as the party of big business while Theodore Roosevelt added more small business support
by his embrace of trust busting. He handpicked his successor William Howard Taft in 1908,
but they became enemies as the party split down the middle. Taft defeated Roosevelt for
the 1912 nomination and Roosevelt ran on the ticket of his new Progressive (“Bull Moose”)
Party. He called for social reforms, many of which were later championed by New Deal
Democrats in the 1930s. He lost and when most of his supporters returned to the GOP they
found they did not agree with the new conservative economic thinking, leading to an ideological
shift to the right in the Republican Party. The Republicans returned to the White House
throughout the 1920s, running on platforms of normalcy, business-oriented efficiency
and high tariffs. The national party avoided the prohibition issue after it became law
in 1920. Warren G. Harding, Calvin Coolidge and Herbert
Hoover were resoundingly elected in 1920, 1924 and 1928 respectively. The Teapot Dome
scandal threatened to hurt the party but Harding died and Coolidge blamed everything on him
as the opposition splintered in 1924. The pro-business policies of the decade seemed
to produce an unprecedented prosperity until the Wall Street Crash of 1929 heralded the
Great Depression.====New Deal era====The New Deal coalition of Democrat Franklin
D. Roosevelt controlled American politics for most of the next three decades, excepting
the two-term presidency of Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower. Blacks moved into the Democratic
Party during the New Deal era as they could vote in the North, but not in the South. After
Roosevelt took office in 1933, New Deal legislation sailed through Congress and the economy moved
sharply upward from its nadir in early 1933. However, long-term unemployment remained a
drag until 1940. In the 1934 midterm elections, 10 Republican senators went down to defeat,
leaving them with only 25 against 71 Democrats. The House of Representatives likewise had
overwhelming Democratic majorities. The Republican Party split into a majority
“Old Right” (based in the Midwest) and a liberal wing based in the North-east that supported
much of the New Deal. The Old Right sharply attacked the “Second New Deal” and said it
represented class warfare and socialism. Roosevelt was re-elected in a landslide in 1936, but
as his second term began the economy declined, strikes soared and he failed to take control
of the Supreme Court or to purge the Southern conservatives in the Democratic Party. Republicans
made a major comeback in the 1938 elections and had new rising stars such as Robert A.
Taft of Ohio on the right and Thomas E. Dewey of New York on the left. Southern conservatives
joined with most Republicans to form the conservative coalition, which dominated domestic issues
in Congress until 1964. Both parties split on foreign policy issues, with the anti-war
isolationists dominant in the Republican Party and the interventionists who wanted to stop
Adolf Hitler dominant in the Democratic Party. Roosevelt won a third and fourth term in 1940
and 1944. Conservatives abolished most of the New Deal during the war, but they did
not attempt to reverse Social Security or the agencies that regulated business. Historian George H. Nash argues: Unlike the
“moderate”, internationalist, largely eastern bloc of Republicans who accepted (or at least
acquiesced in) some of the “Roosevelt Revolution” and the essential premises of President Truman’s
foreign policy, the Republican Right at heart was counterrevolutionary, anti-collectivist,
anti-Communist, anti-New Deal, passionately committed to limited government, free market
economics, and congressional (as opposed to executive) prerogatives, the G.O.P. conservatives
were obliged from the start to wage a constant two-front war: against liberal Democrats from
without and “me-too” Republicans from within. The Democrats elected majorities to Congress
almost continuously after 1932 (the GOP won only in 1946 and 1952), but the conservative
coalition blocked practically all major liberal proposals in domestic policy. After 1945,
the internationalist wing of the GOP cooperated with Harry S. Truman’s Cold War foreign policy,
funded the Marshall Plan and supported NATO, despite the continued isolationism of the
Old Right. The second half of the 20th century saw election
or succession of Republican presidents Dwight D. Eisenhower, Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford,
Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush. Eisenhower had defeated conservative leader Senator Robert
A. Taft for the 1952 nomination, but conservatives dominated the domestic policies of the Eisenhower
administration. Voters liked Eisenhower much more than they liked the GOP and he proved
unable to shift the party to a more moderate position. After 1970, the liberal wing began
to fade away. Ever since he left office in 1989, Reagan
has been the iconic conservative Republican and Republican presidential candidates frequently
claim to share his views and aim to establish themselves and their policies as the more
appropriate heir to his legacy.In 1994, the party, led by House Minority Whip Newt Gingrich
campaigning on the “Contract with America”, was elected to majorities in both Houses of
Congress during the Republican Revolution. However, as House Speaker Gingrich was unable
to deliver on much of its promises, including a balanced-budget amendment and term limits
for members of Congress. During the impeachment and acquittal of President Bill Clinton, Republicans
suffered surprise losses in the 1998 midterm elections; Gingrich took the blame and announced
his retirement. Since Reagan’s day, presidential elections have been close. However, since
1992, the Republican presidential candidate has won a majority of the popular vote only
once, in 2004. In 2000 and 2016, Republicans were elected despite losing the popular vote.===21st century===
The Senate majority lasted until 2001 when the Senate became split evenly, but it was
regained in the 2002 elections. Both Republican majorities in the House and Senate were held
until the Democrats regained control in the mid-term elections of 2006. The Republican
Party has since been defined by social conservatism, a preemptive war foreign policy intended to
defeat terrorism and promote global democracy, a more powerful executive branch, supply side
economics, support for gun ownership and deregulation. In the presidential election of 2008, the
party’s nominees were Senator John McCain of Arizona for President and Alaska Governor
Sarah Palin for Vice President. They were defeated by Senator Barack Obama of Illinois
and Senator Joe Biden of Delaware. In 2009, Republicans Chris Christie and Bob McDonnell
were elected to the governorships of New Jersey and Virginia.
2010 was a year of electoral success for the Republicans, starting with the upset win of
Scott Brown in the Massachusetts special Senate election for the seat held for many decades
by the Democratic Kennedy brothers. In the November elections, Republicans recaptured
control of the House, increased their number of seats in the Senate and gained a majority
of governorships.In the presidential election of 2012, the Republican nominees were former
Governor Mitt Romney of Massachusetts for President and Representative Paul Ryan of
Wisconsin for Vice President. The Democrats nominated incumbents Barack Obama and Joe
Biden. The campaign focused largely on the Affordable Care Act and President Obama’s
stewardship of the economy, with the country facing high unemployment numbers and a rising
national debt four years after his first election. Romney and Ryan were defeated by Obama and
Biden. In addition, while Republicans lost 7 seats in the House in the November congressional
elections, they still retained control. However, Republicans were not able to gain control
of the Senate, continuing their minority status with a net loss of 2 seats.
After the 2014 midterm elections, the Republican Party took control of the Senate by gaining
nine seats. With a final total of 247 seats (57%) in the House and 54 seats in the Senate,
the Republicans ultimately achieved their largest majority in the Congress since the
71st Congress in 1929. After the 2016 elections, Republicans maintained
a majority in the Senate, House, Governorships and elected Donald Trump as President. The
Republican Party controls 69 of 99 state legislative chambers in 2017, the most it has held in
history; and at least 33 governorships, the most it has held since 1922. The party has
total control of government (legislative chambers and governorship) in 25 states, the most since
1952; while the opposing Democratic Party has full control in five states.====Recent trends====
For most of the post-World War II era, Republicans had little presence at the state legislative
level. This trend began to reverse in the late 1990s, with Republicans increasing their
state legislative presence and taking control of state legislatures in the south, which
had begun to vote for Republican presidential candidates decades earlier, but had retained
Democrats in the legislatures. From 2004 to 2014, the Republican State Leadership Committee
(RSLC) raised over $140 million targeted to state legislature races while the Democratic
Legislative Campaign Committee (DLSC) raised less than half that during that time period.
Following the 2014 midterm elections, Republicans control 68 of 98 partisan state legislative
houses, the most in the party’s history and have control of both the governorship and
state legislatures in 24 states as opposed to only 7 states with Democratic governors
and state legislatures. According to a January 2015 poll by the Pew Research Center, 41%
of Americans view the Republicans favorably while 46% view the Democrats favorably.With
the inauguration of Republican George W. Bush as President, the Republican Party remained
fairly cohesive for much of the 2000s as both strong economic libertarians and social conservatives
opposed the Democrats, whom they saw as the party of bloated and more secular, liberal
government. The Bush-era rise of what were known as “pro-government conservatives”, a
core part of the President’s base, meant that a considerable group of the Republicans advocated
for increased government spending and greater regulations covering both the economy and
people’s personal lives as well as for an activist, interventionist foreign policy.
Survey groups such as the Pew Research Center found that social conservatives and free market
advocates remained the other two main groups within the party’s coalition of support, with
all three being roughly of the same number.However, libertarians and libertarian-leaning conservatives
increasingly found fault with what they saw as Republicans’ restricting of vital civil
liberties while corporate welfare and the national debt hiked considerably under Bush’s
tenure. For example, Doug Bandow, former Special Assistant to President Ronald Reagan, criticized
in The American Conservative how many Republican defenders of Bush thought that opposition
to any Bush “decision is treason” as well as how many Bush defenders charged “critics
with a lack of patriotism”. In contrast, some social conservatives expressed dissatisfaction
with the party’s support for economic policies that they saw as sometimes in conflict with
their moral values.In March 2013, National Committee Chairman Reince Priebus gave a stinging
report on the party’s failures in 2012, calling on Republicans to reinvent themselves and
officially endorse immigration reform. He said: “There’s no one reason we lost. Our
message was weak; our ground game was insufficient; we weren’t inclusive; we were behind in both
data and digital, and our primary and debate process needed improvement”. He proposed 219
reforms that included a $10 million marketing campaign to reach women, minorities and gays
as well as setting a shorter, more controlled primary season and creating better data collection
facilities.With a majority of Republicans and Republican-leaning independents under
the age of 49 supporting legal recognition of same-sex marriages versus the opposition
remaining from those over 50, the issue remains a particular divide within the party. Former
House Speaker Newt Gingrich has remarked that the “[p]arty is going to be torn on this issue”
with some constituents “going to flake off”. A Reuters/Ipsos survey from April 2015 found
that 68% of Americans overall would attend the same-sex wedding of a loved one, with
56% of Republicans agreeing. Reuters journalist Jeff Mason remarked that “Republicans who
stake out strong opposition to gay marriage could be on shaky political ground if their
ultimate goal is to win the White House” given the divide between the social conservative
stalwarts and the rest of the United States that opposes them.The Republican candidate
for President in 2012, Mitt Romney, lost to incumbent President Barack Obama, the fifth
time in six elections the Republican candidate received fewer votes than his Democratic counterpart.
In the aftermath of the loss, some prominent Republicans spoke out against their own party.
For example, 1996 Republican Presidential candidate and longtime former Senator Bob
Dole said that “today’s GOP members are too conservative and overly partisan. They ought
to put a sign on the National Committee doors that says closed for repairs”. Former Senator
Olympia Snowe of Maine stated as well that she was in agreement with Dole. Former Chairman
of the Joint Chiefs (under George H.W. Bush) and former Secretary of State (under George
W. Bush) Colin Powell remarked that the GOP has “a dark vein of intolerance in some parts
of the party”, commenting about the birther movement “[w]hy do senior Republican leaders
tolerate this kind of discussion within the party?” and “I think the party has to take
a look at itself”. The College Republican National Committee (CRNC) released a report
in June 2013 that was highly critical of the party, being titled “Grand Old Party for a
Brand New Generation”.==Name and symbols==The party’s founding members chose the name
Republican Party in the mid-1850s as homage to the values of republicanism promoted by
Thomas Jefferson’s Republican Party. The idea for the name came from an editorial by the
party’s leading publicist, Horace Greeley, who called for “some simple name like ‘Republican’
[that] would more fitly designate those who had united to restore the Union to its true
mission of champion and promulgator of Liberty rather than propagandist of slavery”. The
name reflects the 1776 republican values of civic virtue and opposition to aristocracy
and corruption. It is important to note that “republican” has a variety of meanings around
the world and the Republican Party has evolved such that the meanings no longer always align.The
term “Grand Old Party” is a traditional nickname for the Republican Party and the abbreviation
“GOP” is a commonly used designation. The term originated in 1875 in the Congressional
Record, referring to the party associated with the successful military defense of the
Union as “this gallant old party”. The following year in an article in the Cincinnati Commercial,
the term was modified to “grand old party”. The first use of the abbreviation is dated
1884.The traditional mascot of the party is the elephant. A political cartoon by Thomas
Nast, published in Harper’s Weekly on November 7, 1874, is considered the first important
use of the symbol. An alternate symbol of the Republican Party in states such as Indiana,
New York and Ohio is the bald eagle as opposed to the Democratic rooster or the Democratic
five-pointed star. In Kentucky, the log cabin is a symbol of the Republican Party (not related
to the gay Log Cabin Republicans organization).Traditionally the party had no consistent color identity.
After the 2000 election, the color red became associated with Republicans. During and after
the election, the major broadcast networks used the same color scheme for the electoral
map: states won by Republican nominee George W. Bush were colored red and states won by
Democratic nominee Al Gore were colored blue. Due to the weeks-long dispute over the election
results, these color associations became firmly ingrained, persisting in subsequent years.
Although the assignment of colors to political parties is unofficial and informal, the media
has come to represent the respective political parties using these colors. The party and
its candidates have also come to embrace the color red.==Structure and organization==The Republican National Committee (RNC) is
responsible for promoting Republican campaign activities. It is responsible for developing
and promoting the Republican political platform as well as coordinating fundraising and election
strategy. Its current chairwoman is Ronna Romney McDaniel. The chair of the RNC is chosen
by the President when the Republicans have the White House or otherwise by the party’s
state committees. Under the direction of the party’s presidential
candidate, the RNC supervises the Republican National Convention (the highest body in the
party) and raises funds for candidates. On the local level, there are similar state committees
in every state and most large cities, counties and legislative districts, but they have far
less money and influence than the national body.
The Republican House and Senate caucuses have separate fundraising and strategy committees.
The National Republican Congressional Committee (NRCC) assists in House races while the National
Republican Senatorial Committee (NRSC) does so in Senate races. They each raise over $100
million per election cycle and play important roles in recruiting strong state candidates
while the Republican Governors Association (RGA) assists in state gubernatorial races.
In 2016, it is chaired by Governor Susana Martinez of New Mexico.==Positions=====Economic policies===Republicans strongly believe that free markets
and individual achievement are the primary factors behind economic prosperity. To this
end, they advocate the elimination of government-run welfare programs in favor of private sector
nonprofits and encouraging personal responsibility. Republicans also frequently advocate in favor
of fiscal conservatism during Democratic administrations, but have shown themselves willing to increase
federal debt when they are in charge of the government, such as the implementation of
the Bush tax cuts, Medicare Part D and the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017.Modern Republicans
advocate the theory of supply side economics, which holds that lower tax rates increase
economic growth. Many Republicans oppose higher tax rates for higher earners, which they believe
are unfairly targeted at those who create jobs and wealth. They believe private spending
is more efficient than government spending. Republicans believe individuals should take
responsibility for their own circumstances. They also believe the private sector is more
effective in helping the poor through charity than the government is through welfare programs
and that social assistance programs often cause government dependency. 2016 and 2017
polls also found that an overwhelming majority of Republicans support protectionism and autarky
and oppose free trade.Republicans believe corporations should be able to establish their
own employment practices, including benefits and wages, with the free market deciding the
price of work. Since the 1920s, Republicans have generally been opposed by labor union
organizations and members. At the national level, Republicans supported the Taft-Hartley
Act of 1947, which gives workers the right not to participate in unions. Modern Republicans
at the state level generally support various “right-to-work” laws that weaken unions.Most
Republicans tend to oppose increases in the minimum wage, believing that such increases
hurt businesses by forcing them to cut and outsource jobs and pass costs along to consumers.
The party opposes a single-payer health care system, claiming such a system constitutes
socialized medicine. The party was originally opposed to the Affordable Care Act, but once
the law grew in popularity with voters, some Republicans softened their opposition. The
Republican Party has a mixed record of supporting the historically popular Social Security,
Medicare and Medicaid programs.===Separation of powers and balance of powers
===Many contemporary Republicans voice support
of strict constructionism, the judicial philosophy that the Constitution should be interpreted
as close to the original intent as is practicable.Republicans believe in federalism, with limitations on
federal authorities and a larger role for states. As such, they often take a less expansive
reading of congressional power under the Commerce Clause.===Environmental policies===Historically, progressive leaders in the Republican
Party supported environmental protection. Republican President Theodore Roosevelt was
a prominent conservationist whose policies eventually led to the creation of the National
Park Service. While Republican President Richard Nixon was not an environmentalist, he signed
legislation to create the Environmental Protection Agency in 1970 and had a comprehensive environmental
program. However, this position has changed since the 1980s and the administration of
President Ronald Reagan, who labeled environmental regulations a burden on the economy. Since
then, Republicans have increasingly taken positions against environmental regulation.Since
the 1990s, a significant part of the American conservative movement has worked to challenge
climate science and climate policy. While the scientific consensus for human activity
created climate-warming is around 97%, according to a Pew Research survey 44% of American adults
in the general public acknowledged human activity as the cause of climate change and 23% of
Republicans. Republican views on global warming and scientific consensus on climate change
show a similar trend and few Republican lawmakers support climate policy that builds on international
consensus. In 2006, then California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger
broke from Republican orthodoxy to sign several bills imposing caps on carbon emissions in
California. Then President George W. Bush opposed mandatory caps at a national level.
Bush’s decision not to regulate carbon dioxide as a pollutant was challenged in the supreme
court by 12 states, with the court ruling against the Bush administration in 2007. Bush
also publicly opposed ratification of the Kyoto Protocols which sought to limit greenhouse
gas emissions and thereby combat climate change, a decision heavily criticized by climate scientists. Senator John McCain also previously proposed
laws regulating carbon emissions, such as the McCain-Lieberman Climate Stewardship Act,
although his position on climate change is unusual among high-ranking party members.
Some Republican candidates have supported the development of alternative fuels in order
to achieve energy independence for the United States. The Republican Party rejects cap-and-trade
policy to limit carbon emissions. Some Republicans support increased oil drilling in protected
areas such as the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, a position that has drawn criticism
from activists.Many Republicans during the presidency of Barack Obama had opposed then
President’s new environmental regulations, such as those on carbon emissions from coal.
In particular, many Republicans support building the Keystone Pipeline, which is supported
by businesses, but opposed by indigenous peoples’ groups and environmental activists.The Republican
Party is unique in denying anthropogenic climate change among conservative political parties
across the Western world. From 2008 to 2017, the Republican Party went from “debating how
to combat human-caused climate change to arguing that it does not exist”, according to The
New York Times. In 2011, “more than half of the Republicans in the House and three-quarters
of Republican senators” said “that the threat of global warming, as a man-made and highly
threatening phenomenon, is at best an exaggeration and at worst an utter ‘hoax'”, according to
Judith Warner writing in The New York Times Magazine. In 2014, more than 55% of congressional
Republicans were climate change deniers, according to NBC News. According to PolitiFact in May
2014, “relatively few Republican members of Congress…accept the prevailing scientific
conclusion that global warming is both real and man-made…eight out of 278, or about
3 percent”.In 2014, Democrats scored 87% and Republican 4% on the National Environmental
Scorecard of the League of Conservation Voters. In 2016, the average House Republican score
was 5%; the average Senate Republican score was 14%; the average House Democrat score
was 94%; and the average Senate Democrat score was 95%.===Immigration===Republicans are divided on how to confront
illegal immigration between a platform that allows for migrant workers and a path to citizenship
(supported by establishment types), versus a position focused on securing the border
and deporting illegal immigrants (supported by populists). In 2006, the White House supported
and Republican-led Senate passed comprehensive immigration reform that would eventually allow
millions of illegal immigrants to become citizens, but the House (also led by Republicans) did
not advance the bill.After the defeat in the 2012 presidential election, particularly among
Latinos, several Republicans advocated a friendlier approach to immigrants. However, in 2016 the
field of candidates took a sharp position against illegal immigration, with leading
candidate Donald Trump proposing building a wall along the southern border.
Proposals calling for immigration reform with a path to citizenship have attracted broad
Republican support in some polls. In a 2013 poll, 60% of Republicans supported the pathway
concept.===Foreign policy and national defense===Some in the Republican Party support unilateralism
on issues of national security, believing in the ability and right of the United States
to act without external support in matters of its national defense. In general, Republican
thinking on defense and international relations is heavily influenced by the theories of neorealism
and realism, characterizing conflicts between nations as struggles between faceless forces
of international structure as opposed to being the result of the ideas and actions of individual
leaders. The realist school’s influence shows in Reagan’s Evil Empire stance on the Soviet
Union and George W. Bush’s Axis of evil stance. Since the September 11, 2001 attacks, many
in the party have supported neoconservative policies with regard to the War on Terror,
including the 2001 war in Afghanistan and the 2003 invasion of Iraq. The George W. Bush
administration took the position that the Geneva Conventions do not apply to unlawful
combatants, while other prominent Republicans strongly oppose the use of enhanced interrogation
techniques, which they view as torture.Republicans have frequently advocated for restricting
foreign aid as a means of asserting the national security and immigration interests of the
United States.The Republican Party generally supports a strong alliance with Israel and
efforts to secure peace in the Middle East between Israel and its Arab neighbors. In
recent years, Republicans have begun to move away from the two-state solution approach
to resolving the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. In a 2014 poll, 59% of Republicans favored
doing less abroad and focusing on the country’s own problems instead.According to the 2016
platform, the party’s stance on the status of Taiwan is: “We oppose any unilateral steps
by either side to alter the status quo in the Taiwan Straits on the principle that all
issues regarding the island’s future must be resolved peacefully, through dialogue,
and be agreeable to the people of Taiwan”. In addition, if “China were to violate those
principles, the United States, in accord with the Taiwan Relations Act, will help Taiwan
defend itself”.===Social policies===
The Republican Party is generally associated with social conservative policies, although
it does have dissenting centrist and libertarian factions. The social conservatives want laws
that uphold their traditional values, such as opposition to same-sex marriage, abortion
and marijuana. Most conservative Republicans also oppose gun control, affirmative action
and illegal immigration.====Abortion and embryonic stem cell research
====A majority of the party’s national and state
candidates are pro-life and oppose elective abortion on religious or moral grounds. While
many advocate exceptions in the case of incest, rape or the mother’s life being at risk, in
2012 the party approved a platform advocating banning abortions without exception. There
were not highly polarized differences between the Democratic Party and the Republican Party
prior to the Roe v. Wade 1976 Supreme Court ruling (which made prohibitions on abortion
rights unconstitutional), but after the Supreme Court ruling, opposition to abortion became
a key national platform for the Republican Party. As a result, Evangelicals gravitated
towards the Republican Party.They oppose government and tax-payer funding for abortion providers,
notably Planned Parenthood.Until its dissolution in 2018, Republican Majority for Choice, a
pro-choice PAC, advocated for amending the GOP platform to include pro-choice members.
According to an NBC/Wall Street Journal poll, 52% of Republicans support the Roe v. Wade
decision while 39% want the decision overturned. In a 2014 Gallup poll, 69% of Republicans
self-identified as pro-life and 27% self-identified as pro-choice.Although Republicans have voted
for increases in government funding of scientific research, members of the Republican Party
actively oppose the federal funding of embryonic stem cell research beyond the original lines
because it involves the destruction of human embryos. In 2010, a poll conducted by Gallup
found that 54% of Republicans opposed embryonic stem-cell research while 40% support it.====Civil rights====
Republicans are generally against affirmative action for women and some minorities, often
describing it as a “quota system” and believing that it is not meritocratic and that it is
counter-productive socially by only further promoting discrimination. Many Republicans
support race-neutral admissions policies in universities, but support taking into account
the socioeconomic status of the student.====Gun ownership====
Republicans generally support gun ownership rights and oppose laws regulating guns.====Drugs====Republicans have historically supported the
War on Drugs and oppose the legalization of drugs. More recently, several prominent Republicans
have advocated for the reduction and reform of mandatory sentencing laws with regards
to drugs.====LGBT issues====
Owing largely to the prominence of the religious right in conservative politics in the United
States, the Republican Party has taken positions regarded as outwardly hostile to the gay rights
movement. Republicans have historically strongly opposed same-sex marriage (the party’s overall
attitude on civil unions is much more divided, with some in favor and others opposed), with
the issue a galvanizing one that many believe helped George W. Bush win re-election in 2004.
In both 2004 and 2006, congressional Republican leaders promoted the Federal Marriage Amendment,
a proposed constitutional amendment which would legally restrict the definition of marriage
to heterosexual couples. In both attempts, the amendment failed to secure enough votes
to invoke cloture and thus ultimately was never passed. As more states legalized same-sex
marriage in the 2010s, Republicans increasingly supported allowing each state to decide its
own marriage policy.The Republican Party platform has opposed the inclusion of gay people in
the military since 1992. LGBT groups within the Republican Party include
the Log Cabin Republicans. A 2014 Pew Research poll indicated that 61% of Millennial Republicans
are in favor of same-sex marriage.The Republican Party opposed the inclusion of sexual preference
in anti-discrimination statutes from 1992 to 2004. The 2008 and 2012 Republican Party
platform supported anti-discrimination statues based on sex, race, age, religion, creed,
disability, or national origin, but both platforms were silent on sexual orientation and gender
identity.A 2013 poll found that 61% of Republicans support laws protecting gay and lesbian people
against employment discrimination and a 2007 poll showed 60% of Republicans supported expanding
federal hate crime laws to include sexual orientation and gender identity. A 2009 poll
by the Pew Research Center found that 48% of Republicans supported civil unions for
same-sex couples. Another poll, in 2012, from CBS News/New York Times, showed that approximately
“half of Republicans” do not support legal recognition of any kind for same-sex couples.
A poll conducted in 2018 by Gallup revealed that 44% of Republicans support same-sex marriage.====Voting rights====
Virtually all restrictions on voting have in recent years been implemented by Republicans.
Republicans argue that the voting restrictions – such as requiring certain photo IDs, purging
voter rolls and limiting voting locations and method of voting – are need to combat
voter fraud. However, research shows that voter fraud is extremely rare, and numerous
court rulings have found that Republicans introduced voting restrictions with partisan
intent.==Composition==
Prior to the formation of the conservative coalition, which helped realign the Democratic
and Republican party ideologies in the mid-1960s, the party had historically advocated classical
liberalism and progressivism. The party is a full member of the conservative International
Democrat Union as well as the Asia Pacific Democrat Union. It is also an associate member
of the Alliance of Conservatives and Reformists in Europe, which has close relations to the
Conservative Party of the United Kingdom. According to the most recent Gallup poll,
25% of Americans identify as Republican and 16% identify as leaning Republican. In comparison,
30% identify as Democratic and 16% identify as leaning Democratic. The Democratic Party
has typically held an overall edge in party identification since Gallup began polling
on the issue in 1991. In another Gallup poll, 42% of Republicans and Republican-leaning
independents identified as economically and socially conservative, followed by 24% as
socially and economically moderate or liberal, 20% as socially moderate or liberal and fiscally
conservative and 10% as socially conservative and fiscally moderate or liberal.Historically,
the Republican base initially consisted of Northern white Protestants and African Americans
nationwide, with the first presidential candidate John C. Frémont receiving almost no votes
in the South. This trend continued into the 20th century, with 1944 Republican presidential
candidate Thomas E. Dewey having only 10% of his popular votes in the South. After passage
of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of 1965, the Southern states became
more reliably Republican in presidential politics with the Northeastern states becoming more
reliably Democratic. Studies show that Southern whites shifted to the Republican Party due
to racial conservatism. The 1994 election has been described as a realigning election
at the congressional level as Republicans obtained a majority of House and Senate seats
for the first time since Reconstruction.The party’s current base consists of groups such
as white, married Protestants, rural and suburban citizens and non-union workers without college
degrees, with urban residents, ethnic minorities, the unmarried and union workers having shifted
to the Democratic Party.===Factions===The modern Republican Party includes conservatives,
social conservatives, economic liberals, neoconservatives, paleoconservatives, populists, moderates,
libertarians and the religious right. In 2018, Gallup polling found that 69% of Republicans
described themselves as ‘conservative’ while 25% opted for the term ‘moderate’ and another
5% self-identified as ‘liberal’ according to the survey results.When ideology is separated
into social and economic issues, a 2015 Gallup poll found that 53% of Republicans called
themselves ‘socially conservative,’ 34% chose the label ‘socially moderate,’ and 11% called
themselves ‘socially liberal.’ On economic issues, the same 2015 poll revealed that 64%
of Republicans chose the label ‘economic conservative’ to describe their views on fiscal policy while
27% selected the label ‘economic moderate’ and 7% opted for ‘economic liberal’ to describe
their fiscal policy.====Establishment vs. anti-establishment
====In addition to splits over ideology, the party
can be broadly divided into the establishment and anti-establishment.
Nationwide polls of Republican voters in 2014 by the Pew Center identified a growing split
in the Republican coalition, between “business conservatives” or “establishment conservatives”
and “steadfast conservatives” or “populist conservatives”.The Tea Party movement is typically
aligned with the Republican Party, but it feuds with the pro-business wing of the party,
which it sees as too moderate and too willing to compromise.In Congress, Eric Cantor’s position
as Majority Leader went to California Congressman Kevin McCarthy, who had been an advocate of
the Export-Import Bank. It finances overseas purchases of American products, especially
airplanes. However, McCarthy changed positions after meeting with populist Congressmen and
decided to support the termination of the Bank.====Conservatives, moderates, liberals and
progressives====Republican conservatives are strongest in
the South, Mountain West and Midwest, where they draw support from social conservatives.
The moderates tend to dominate the party in New England and used to be well represented
in all states. From the 1940s to the 1970s under such leaders as Dwight D. Eisenhower,
Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford, they usually dominated the presidential-wing of the party.
Since the 1970s, they have been less powerful, though they are always represented in the
cabinets of Republican Presidents. In Vermont, Jim Jeffords, a Republican Senator became
an independent in 2001 due to growing disagreement with President Bush and the party leadership.
In addition, moderate Republicans have recently held the governorships in several New England
states while Lincoln Chafee, a former moderate Republican senator is an independent-turned-Democrat
former governor of Rhode Island. Former Senator Olympia Snowe and current Senator Susan Collins,
both of Maine; and former Senator Scott Brown of Massachusetts are notable moderate and
pro-choice Republicans from New England. Former Senator Mark Kirk is another example of a
moderate Republican from a Democratic stronghold, Illinois, who held the Senate seat once held
by President Barack Obama. Senator Lisa Murkowski is a high-profile moderate Republican who
broke with her party by voting against repealing the Affordable Care Act and against the confirmation
of Brett Kavanaugh to the Supreme Court. From 1991 to 2007, moderate Republicans served
as governors of Massachusetts. Prominent Republican moderates have included former Presidents
Eisenhower, Nixon, Ford and Bush Sr. as well as former Senate leaders Howard Baker and
Bob Dole, former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney and former New York City Mayors Rudy
Giuliani and Michael Bloomberg. Some well-known conservative and libertarian
conservative radio hosts, including national figures such as Rush Limbaugh, Sean Hannity,
Larry Elder, Glenn Beck, Alex Jones, Mark Levin, Dana Loesch, Hugh Hewitt, Mike Gallagher,
Neal Boortz, Laura Ingraham, Dennis Prager, Michael Reagan, Howie Carr and Michael Savage,
as well as many local commentators support Republican causes while vocally opposing those
of the Democrats. Historically, the Republican Party has included
a liberal-wing made up of individuals who like members of the liberal wing of the Democratic
Party believe in the power of government to improve people’s lives. Before 1932, leading
progressive Republicans included Theodore Roosevelt, Robert M. La Follette Sr., Charles
Evan Hughes, Hiram Johnson, William Borah, George W. Norris, and Fiorello La Guardia.
Prominent liberal Republicans from 1936 to the 1970s included Alf Landon, Wendell Willkie,
Earl Warren, Thomas E. Dewey, Prescott Bush, Nelson Rockefeller, Henry Cabot Lodge Jr.,
George W. Romney, William Scranton, Charles Mathias, Lowell Weicker and Jacob Javits.
Since 1976, liberalism has virtually faded out of the Republican Party, apart from a
few Northeastern holdouts.===Business community===
Republicans are usually seen as the traditionally pro-business party and it garners major support
from a wide variety of industries from the financial sector to small businesses. Republicans
are about 50 percent more likely to be self-employed and are more likely to work in management.A
survey cited by The Washington Post in 2012 stated that 61 percent of small business owners
planned to vote for then-Republican presidential candidate Mitt Romney. Small business became
a major theme of the 2012 Republican National Convention. For example, South Dakota Senator
John Thune discussed his grandfather’s hardware store and New Hampshire Senator Kelly Ayotte
referred to her husband’s landscaping company.===Demographics===
The Democrats do better among younger Americans and Republicans among older Americans. In
2006, Republicans won 38% of the voters aged 18–29.Low-income voters tend to favor the
Democrats while high-income voters tend to support the Republicans. In 2012, Obama won
60% of voters with income under $50,000 and 45% of those with incomes higher than that.
Bush won 41% of the poorest 20% of voters in 2004, 55% of the richest twenty percent
and 53% of those in between. In the 2006 House races, the voters with incomes over $50,000
were 49% Republican while those under were 38%.====Gender====
Since 1980, a “gender gap” has seen slightly stronger support for the Republican Party
among men than among women. In 2012, Obama won 55% of the women and 45% of the men—and
more women voted than men. In the 2006 House races, 43% of women voted Republican while
47% of men did so. In the 2010 midterms, the “gender gap” was reduced with women supporting
Republican and Democratic candidates equally 49% to 49%. Unmarried and divorced women were
far more likely to vote for John Kerry in 2004. The 2012 returns revealed a continued
weakness among unmarried women for the GOP, a large and growing portion of the electorate.
Although Mitt Romney lost women as a whole 44–55 to Obama, he won married women 53–46.
Obama won unmarried women 67–31.====Education====
In 2012, the Pew Research Center conducted a study of registered voters with a 35–28,
Democrat-to-Republican gap. They found that self-described Democrats had a +8 advantage
over Republicans among college graduates, +14 of all post-graduates polled. Republicans
were +11 among white men with college degrees, Democrats +10 among women with degrees. Democrats
accounted for 36% of all respondents with an education of high school or less and Republicans
were 28%. When isolating just white registered voters polled, Republicans had a +6 advantage
overall and were +9 of those with a high school education or less.====Ethnicity====
(2017–present) Republicans have been winning under 15% of
the black vote in recent national elections (1980 to 2016). While historically the party
had been supporters of rights for African Americans starting in the 1860s, it lost its
leadership position in the 1960s. The party abolished slavery under Abraham Lincoln, defeated
the Slave Power and gave blacks the legal right to vote during Reconstruction in the
late 1860s. Until the New Deal of the 1930s, blacks supported the Republican Party by large
margins. Black voters shifted to the Democratic Party beginning in the 1930s, when major Democratic
figures such as Eleanor Roosevelt began to support civil rights and the New Deal offered
them employment opportunities. They became one of the core components of the New Deal
coalition. In the South, after the Voting Rights Act to prohibit racial discrimination
in elections was passed by a bipartisan coalition in 1965, blacks were able to vote again and
ever since have formed a significant portion (20–50%) of the Democratic vote in that
region.For decades, a greater percentage of white voters identified themselves as Democrats,
rather than Republicans. However, since the mid-1990s whites have been more likely to
self-identify as Republicans than Democrats.In the 2010 elections, two African American Republicans
were elected to the House of Representatives. The party has recently nominated African American
candidates for senator or governor in Illinois, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Maryland, though none
were successful. In recent decades, Republicans have been moderately
successful in gaining support from Hispanic and Asian American voters. George W. Bush,
who campaigned energetically for Hispanic votes, received 35% of their vote in 2000
and 44% in 2004. The party’s strong anti-communist stance has made it popular among some minority
groups from current and former Communist states, in particular Cuban Americans, Korean Americans,
Chinese Americans and Vietnamese Americans. The election of Bobby Jindal as Governor of
Louisiana has been hailed as pathbreaking. He is the first elected minority governor
in Louisiana and the first state governor of Indian descent. According to John Avlon
in 2013, the Republican party is more diverse at the statewide elected official level than
the Democratic Party, including Nevada Governor Brian Sandoval and South Carolina Senator
Tim Scott.In 2012, 88% of Romney voters were white while 56% of Obama voters were white.
In the 2008 presidential election, John McCain won 55% of white votes, 35% of Asian votes,
31% of Hispanic votes and 4% of African American votes. In the 2010 House election, Republicans
won 60% of the white votes, 38% of Hispanic votes and 9% of the African American vote.====Religious beliefs====
Religion has always played a major role for both parties, but in the course of a century
the parties’ religious compositions have changed. Religion was a major dividing line between
the parties before 1960, with Catholics, Jews and Southern Protestants heavily Democratic
and Northeastern Protestants heavily Republican. Most of the old differences faded away after
the realignment of the 1970s and 1980s that undercut the New Deal coalition. Voters who
attend church weekly gave 61% of their votes to Bush in 2004 and those who attend occasionally
gave him only 47% while those who never attend gave him 36%. Fifty-nine percent of Protestants
voted for Bush, along with 52% of Catholics (even though John Kerry was Catholic). Since
1980, large majorities of evangelicals have voted Republican; 70–80% voted for Bush
in 2000 and 2004 and 70% for Republican House candidates in 2006. Jews continue to vote
70–80% Democratic. Democrats have close links with the African American churches,
especially the National Baptists, while their historic dominance among Catholic voters has
eroded to 54–46 in the 2010 midterms. The main line traditional Protestants (Methodists,
Lutherans, Presbyterians, Episcopalians and Disciples) have dropped to about 55% Republican
(in contrast to 75% before 1968). The mainline denominations are rapidly shrinking in size.
Mormons in Utah and neighboring states voted 75% or more for Bush in 2000.While Catholic
Republican leaders try to stay in line with the teachings of the Catholic Church on subjects
such as abortion, euthanasia, embryonic stem cell research and same-sex marriage, they
differ on the death penalty and contraception. Pope Francis’ 2015 encyclical Laudato si’
sparked a discussion on the positions of Catholic Republicans in relation to the positions of
the Church. The Pope’s encyclical on behalf of the Catholic Church officially acknowledges
a man-made climate change caused by burning fossil fuels. The Pope says the warming of
the planet is rooted in a throwaway culture and the developed world’s indifference to
the destruction of the planet in pursuit of short-term economic gains. According to The
New York Times, Laudato si’ put pressure on the Catholic candidates in the 2016 election:
Jeb Bush, Bobby Jindal, Marco Rubio and Rick Santorum. With leading Democrats praising
the encyclical, James Bretzke, a professor of moral theology at Boston College, has said
that both sides were being disingenuous: “I think it shows that both the Republicans and
the Democrats… like to use religious authority and, in this case, the Pope to support positions
they have arrived at independently… There is a certain insincerity, a hypocrisy I think,
on both sides”. While a Pew Research poll indicates Catholics are more likely to believe
the Earth is warming than non-Catholics, 51% of Catholic Republicans believe in global
warming (less than the general population) and only 24% of Catholic Republicans believe
global warming is caused by human activity.===Geography===Since 1980, geographically the Republican
“base” (“red states”) is strongest in the South, the Midwest and Mountain West. While
it is weakest on the West Coast and Northeast, this has not always been the case as historically
the Northeast was a bastion of the Republican Party, with Vermont and Maine being the only
two states to vote against Franklin D. Roosevelt all four times. In the Northeast, Maine, New
Hampshire and Pennsylvania continue to have a considerable Republican presence. The Midwest
has been roughly balanced since 1854, with Illinois becoming more Democratic and liberal
because of the city of Chicago (see below) and Minnesota, Iowa, Michigan and Wisconsin
more Republican since 1990. Ohio, Missouri and Indiana all trend Republican. Since the
1930s, the Democrats have dominated most central cities while the Republicans now dominate
rural areas and the majority of suburbs.The South has become solidly Republican in national
elections since 1980 and has been trending Republican at the state level since then at
a slower pace. In 2004, Bush led Kerry by 70–30% among Southern whites, who made up
71% of the Southern electorate. Kerry had a 70–30 lead among the 29% of the voters
who were black or Hispanic. One-third of these Southern voters said they were white evangelicals
and they voted for Bush by 80–20, but were only 72% Republican in 2006.The Southwest,
traditionally a Republican stronghold, is now more balanced, owing to the impact of
migration both from Mexico and other states. While still strongly Republican states, Texas
and Arizona have both become more Democratic in recent years. Colorado, Nevada and New
Mexico all trend Democratic.The Republican Party’s strongest focus of political influence
lies in the Great Plains states, particularly Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota and
North Dakota; and in the Mountain states of Idaho, Wyoming and Utah (Utah gave George
W. Bush more than 70% of the popular vote in 2004). These states are sparsely populated
with few major urban centers and have majority white populations, making it extremely difficult
for Democrats to create a sustainable voter base there. While still remaining notably
Republican, Montana is the only state in the region with a more moderate lean. Unlike the
South, these areas have been strongly Republican since before the party realignments of the
1960s. The Great Plains states were one of the few areas of the country where Republicans
had any significant support during the Great Depression.==Republican Presidents==
As of 2018, there have been a total of 19 Republican presidents.==Electoral history=====In congressional elections: 1950–present
======In presidential elections: 1856–present
=====See also====Notes====References====Further reading====
External links==Republican National Committee
Senate Republican Conference House Republican Conference
National Republican Senatorial Committee National Republican Congressional Committee
Republican Governors Association Republican State Leadership Committee
National Black Republican Association Young Republican National Federation
Asian American Republicans College Republican National Committee
2016 National Platform

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