How To Post On Reddit | How To Submit A Link On Reddit


How To Post On Reddit Posting a self link or submitting a link on Reddit is really easy and you can do it by following these quick
steps. First of all, from the home page or from
any subreddit, you’ll see on the sidebar ‘Submit A Link” so click that. This will take you to a screen where
you can choose between submitting a link and submitting a text. Now if you have a link, all you simply have to do here is put in the title, wherever you want to put in, put in the link URL here, and then choose your subreddit. So this subreddit for instance, and then, very simply, just put in the CAPTCHA. Then, if you want to submit a self post, which is a text-based
post, again, very simply, all you have to do here, because there’s no URL or no link, all you have to do is just put in the title, and then put in the text which will show
up as the description on your Reddit post. And same thing, you simply just have to choose your subreddit that you want to submit it to, and then fill in the CAPTCHA again, and then you click Submit. That’s all there is to it. It’s a really simple process, and thanks for watching. If this helped you please give it a Like, or let me know by commenting below, and
don’t forget to subscribe for more how to instructional videos.

How To Start A Political Blog | Political Blogging Tutorial


How To Start A Political Blog | Political
Blogging Tutorial Hey guys, Bryan with WP Cupid Blog and in
this video, I’m going to be showing you a complete political blogging tutorial on
how to start a political blog. Whether your a newbie at technology, have
no experience at blog starting, or even if your a pro. This political blogging tutorial video will
be perfect for you. The great thing about this tutorial is it
is extremely easy to follow along with even if you have no experience in starting and
setting up a political blog. By following this tutorial video, you will
have your political blog set up in as little as 10 minutes. At the end of this video, you will have your
political blog successfully started. I’m going to be providing you with a bunch
of helpful resources that will help you in your political blog starting journey towards
the end of the video so stay tuned. The first step I’m going to cover is how to
choose and register your own domain name for free. To have a blog you have to have a domain name. Step 2 I’ll be going over how to choose a
hosting provider. To have a blog you have to have hosting. Step 3 is getting your blog set up for free
with the most popular blogging software today. The blogging platform is WordPress. If you want your blog to rank, reach success,
etc. WordPress is the way to go. If you don’t have time to start your WordPress
blog right this second be sure to bookmark this video so you can come back to it later. Let’s get started. The first thing you want to do is head on
over to Bluehost via the link that I provided in the description. Bluehost is where we will be getting a free
domain name and up to 63% off web hosting. Make sure you click the link in the description
to get this great deal. You can also enter wpcupidblog.com/go/bluehost
in the search address bar like you see here. Two have a blog you have to have a domain
name for people to find your blog and web hosting that powers your WordPress blog. A little about Bluehost. Bluehost powers over 2 million websites worldwide
and over 850,000 blogs around the world. They are also recommended by WordPress themselves
since 2005. They instantly install WordPress for you which
makes starting a blog that much easier. They provide 24/7 support via chat, email,
and phone. And they have a 30-day money back guarantee. If for any reason you are unhappy you can
cancel and get a refund no questions asked within the first 30 days. I do want to mention that the link is an affiliate
link and I’ll receive a commission which helps support this channel and helps put out more
WordPress tutorial videos. Once you click the link in the description
below or enter wpcupidblog.com/go/bluehost, you’ll be at the Bluehost home page. You’ll see the get started now button on
the page. Click the button. This is where you can select your hosting
plan. You’ll see three different options. You’ll see a Basic plan, Plus plan, and
a Choice Plus plan. I recommend going with the basic plan, and
then you can always scale up whenever you’d like. If you have more than one website, then you’d
want to choose either the plus plan or choice plus plan. I’m going to choose the basic plan for this
tutorial as this is most common. Go ahead and hit the select button on whichever
plan you would like to use. We are now brought to a domain page where
we can choose the domain name that we want completely free. Or if you already have a domain name, you’d
enter it in over on the right. For the new domain you can select if you want
it to be a .com, .net, .org, etc.… .com is the most popular domain extension so I’d
recommend going with a .com if you can. I’m going to type in a domain here and click
the next button. You are now brought to a create your account
page. This is where you will input your information. We have first name, last name. Business name is optional. Put your country address information. Put a phone number and lastly the best email
for you as you’ll get emailed a receipt of payment and a copy of your login credentials,
etc. Below that you will see package information. You’ll see account plan. This is where you can select the term for
your hosting package. You have 12 months, 24 months, 36 months,
and 60 months. As you can see you’ll save money the longer,
you purchase your hosting for. I’m going to select the 12 months package. Setup fee is free. Domain registration is free. Let’s Encrypt SSL is free. This SSL feature is a free SSL Certificate
which makes your site secure with the green bar and with the https. Domain Privacy is an addon that I highly recommend. It will prevent telemarketers and marketers
getting a hold of your personal contact information and bugging you with their services. The domain privacy will show Bluehost’s information
for the site and not yours. Sitelock security find is security for your
WordPress website and protects it from hackers. I’d unselect this as there are really good
free alternatives. You’ll see Codeguard. Codeguard creates daily backups and allows
you to restore your site with a click of a button in case something happens. There are free alternatives that work just
the same. SEO Tools Start you can keep unselected. This addon will submit your site to search
engines and provide a report on your site ranking and keyword rankings. Submitting your site to search engines you
can do for free. This isn’t necessary to have. All of these addons are completely optional
and up to you to get. As you can see you’re saving a lot for this
hosting package. Below that you will input your payment information. I’m not going to fill this out for protection
of personal information. Once your information is filled in you want
to select the I have read and agreed to Bluehost’s privacy policy and terms of service. Now click the submit button. You are now brought to a page where you will
choose a password for your Bluehost account. Click the create your password button. Input the password you would like. Click the I have read and agreed to Bluehost’s
Privacy Policy and Terms and Condition and click the next button. You will be directed to a congratulations
page. Click the blue login button to log in to Bluehost. Bluehost is also going to at this time email
your dashboard login information to the email address you provided. You will now see pick your Theme. Bluehost has a bunch of awesome free WordPress
themes to choose from. You can select a Theme now if you want too
or below the Themes you can click skip this step. If you choose a Theme now, you can always
change the theme you pick without any problem at a later date. I’ll be going over this in more detail, later
in the video. Once you choose your free Theme or click skip
this step you’ll be at the page here stating all done. Click the button that says start building
to start building your blog on WordPress. Once you click that and log in you will be
at the WordPress dashboard. This is what the WordPress dashboard looks
like. It’ll ask you a few questions as you can see. If you don’t need help just click the, you
don’t need help option. Once you do that you will see this page. You will see blog posts where you can add
new blog posts. You will see where you can add new pages to
your blog. If you want to change your navigation menus,
you can do so easily, and if you are going to sell products on your site, you can install
Woocommerce to do so. On the far left, you will see tabs. Hover over them and get to learn them. Posts is where you can add new posts. Pages is where you can add new pages. The media tab is where your images will show
that you upload to your blog. Comments is where you can view comments people
leave on your blog. Plugins is where you can install plugins for
your blog. Almost any customization or feature that you
would want more than likely there is a plugin already made for it. Appearance is where you can change the look
of your theme or change your theme to another one or a Premium theme. Select Themes when you hover over appearance. It will showcase free WordPress themes to
you can choose from. If you select most popular, it will show you
the most popular free WordPress themes. Hover over a Theme and click install and then
click activate to make the Theme your WordPress theme. You should also see add new theme on this
page. This is where you can add a new theme if you
got it from another site or it is a Premium Theme. A great resource I have used for several years
and recommend for professional WordPress themes that look like an award-winning design agency
did your blog is Themeforest. This is the Themeforest WordPress Blog Themes
page. You can easily browse WordPress blogging premium
themes. Click on them and get a live preview of Themes
as you can see here. Here are a few examples of Premium WordPress
politcal themes that are already pre-made for you to input your information or change
however you’d like. You’ll see they look really good. Click the link in the description below to
check out Themeforest. In the top left of your WordPress dashboard,
you will see welcome here or your site title towards the top of the page. Click this to view your site. To login to your WordPress dashboard, you
can do so via the Bluehost CPanel or by typing in your domain name with a slashwp-admin. Here’s an example. It’ll bring up this page here. Just input your login credentials to be logged
into WordPress. Another great resource that is helpful and
used by over 500,000 users is the drag and drop editor called Elementor page builder. Elementor page builder makes starting and
creating your WordPress blog easy. You can make edits by dragging and dropping. Search elementor page builder on the plugins
page and install and activate it if you’d like to try it out. Elementor has a free and paid version. I’ve provided a link in the description so
you can checkout and compare the features of the free and paid versions. Another great resource to check out is Fiverr. Fiverr is a great place to get tasks done
for just $5. It is helpful if you need a logo or something
done. I provided the link in the description below. And that is my political blogging tutorial
video on how to start a political blog. If you have any questions, get in touch as
I’m here to help you with anything you need. Alright guys, thanks for watching. Give this video a thumbs up and subscribe
to our channel for more WordPress video tutorials. Leave us a comment; we love hearing from you.

YLYL Savage Level 101% (CLEAN)/ Try Not To Laugh


MAKE ME FEEL SO- HI-HI-HI-HIII~ (Rubber Chicken Squeaking) Kyle Jenner to the foyer, I have a little surprise for you.. Kyle: Is that a chicken?? So uh- AHHHHHH!~ (RUN FOREST RUN!!!) “When you get a text saying please call me” Guy: Now all I have to do is wave my hand Over YOUR hand… And a spider.. Will start to come out. (Earrape) OHHH!! It’s pretend! It’s all pretend it’s pretend. Girl: ARE YOU SURE?? Guy: It’s only on the phone! It’s only on the phone… If you lift that phone up and that ph- Guy: Look, see? Girl: But how’s that??- Look, i’ll teach you how to do it okay? Girl: If there’s… Guy: All you have to do is wave your hand. And the spider comes across. It Tickles…. .-. All you have to do is wave your… It don’t… It… OMG! if it gone come out… Try-try-try again. (WARNING HEADPHONE USERS!!!) I TOLD YOU NOT TO DO THAT (x6) (Epic music plays) (Dog farts then freaks out) (Replays in slow-mo) Girl 1: HEY MAMMA YOU WE’RE MY- I love you Kaya… And I love you Alia. (Girl 1 screams for life) AHAHAHHHHHH MOMM Girl 2: GOD HAVE MERcYYY (screaming and whining goes on forever) Girl 1: GET ME OFF OF THIS!! And if I die… Tell mama I love her.. (Mom tells baby no a numerous amount of times) (Inaudible talking) (Japanese) Ohmayo, cindae yu. Noogie??? (Me everyday) (lmao can’t make out the conversation) (Cuphead music) Ohmayo, cindae yu. NOOGIE?? (Earrape) Everytime you yell at your kids put a quarter in your “No yelling” sock and soon you’ll have a weapon to- Stop it.. Get some help. (Meme 101 music plays) (Roblox bass boosted death noise) (Some type of ancient language) (trip) (OOF!) They ask you how you are but you just have to say your fine and your not really fine but you just can’t get into it because they would never under- How it feels to chew 5 gum.. (LITERALLY ME) New 5 gum. Stimilate your sences. WOW a YARD- SAIL!! (This guy can dance) NO GET THOSE LIGHTS OFF, OFF!! ThErE tOo BrIgHt, TRUN em OFFF Turn them off, let’s go ready? TURN- You spend far too much time with your computer. It’s not healthy. It’s my life. That’s so very very sad! Stop it.. Get some help. How’s it goin’ bro’s? Here’s a Brofist for ya. Love ya bro’s , MWAHAHAA (Fwoop) Aw Frick, I can’t believe you’ve done this. AH GURL LEMME GIVE U A KI$$ THAT IS GUUD! Lemgardion Leivosa.. (Earrape Harry Potter Theme) (Ear bleeding scream with terrified face) (Kill her plz) Who did you expect? Spartaflop? (And she’s back) Okay this is called the “Trust Fall” Okay trust fall, ready? Set.. Go. Why u repeat??? Spottin my ex be like.. (Bish I can’t even…) (Annoying sqeaking doggy thingy) (Helicoptor noises) (Doggy be back) (And so be the helicopter) Spider-man, Spider-man, does whatever a spider- (Japanese?) (Some opera memez) (Car engine) Hi.. hi. (Sanic theme plays) (Espanol) (Espanol as “Rolling stars theme starts) (There it is :D) (101 memes take #2) Aye did I win? 😀 I didn’t just splatter paint I WAS The paint. (Woman laughing behind camera) Good boy Coco! Go on J- (Shooeth Lady) Well, she didn’t want to go xD Nice Ron! I sneezed! Oh i’m not allowed to sneeze? (EARRAPE) (This guy know’s how it’s done) (EARRAPE TAKE 2) I DO PARKOUR (x3) AHAHAHAHAHHA (laughter) (OOF) (GAWD) NO! My new wallpaper -_- Aw sh*t It’s Fall! Get ready for pumpkin flavored everything! BLEAUGGGG HAHAHAH! Cannibalism! “Road Work Ahead”? Uh, Yeah! I sure hope it does. You girls still want me. (Song playing while cat says “NO”) Cat: NOOO, NO, NOO, NO. HoW dO yOu KnOw whAt’S gOoD fOr Me? ThAt’S mY oPiNiOn!!!! (we’re finally at the end ;c) (Bye Guys!)

Michael Avenatti Calls For Tougher Democratic Party During Speech at Politicon | THR News


Don’t miss the Streamys, live tonight on YouTube.com/Streamys. Michael Avenatti is calling for the Democratic Party to get tougher. The attorney, best known for representing adult film actress Stormy Daniels in her legal battles against President Donald Trump, made an appearance at Saturday’s Politicon conference where he delivered a call to action to the left. Avenatti, who is weighing a presidential campaign in 2020, criticized his potential rivals in the Democratic primary as qualified and well-studied but not sufficiently pugilistic. Meanwhile, the conservative media and Republicans have been engaging in an effort to brand the political left as radical and violent. According to the attorney, Also in attendance at the event was comedian Kathy Griffin who said she wished she’d had an advocate like Avenatti last year, when she faced widespread criticism for a satirical photo of her holding the president’s bloody head. Asked by moderator Jonathan Capehart if she ever regrets some of her attacks on members of the Trump administration, including press secretary Sarah Huckabee Sanders, Griffin replied, “No, f–k her. She’s a liar. She lies to the globe every day.” We couldn’t help but imagine what it might look like if Griffin was Avenatti’s running mate in 2020 so here’s a non exclusive, totally fake campaign video which is endorsed by neither party. From defending an actress who performs on her back, to taking back the nation, Michael Avenatti wants to be your President in 2020. He’ll take on Trump, he’ll take on Twitter, he’ll take you to the VMA’s! He’s not a regular president, he’s a cool president and he wants you to fight for this Republic. And by his side – Kathy Griffin. Because you need a Vice President who won’t lose her head. So vote Avenatti-Griffin for 2020, because this is the world we live in now, people. Get used to it. This message has been approved by nobody. To read more on this story, head to THR.com. For The Hollywood Reporter News, I’m Lyndsey Rodrigues.

Manager tells man to cover up his Impeach 45 shirt | What Would You Do? | WWYD


We’re back at the Randolph diner where our manager has Refused a customer service simply because he’s wearing a pro Trump “Make America Great Again” hat Until you take that hat off you will not be served. Oh my lord. That’s not right. I’m not taking it off. Well, then you will not be served in this restaurant. But now we’re switching things out. How will customers react when our manager refuses service to Bryan for wearing an anti- trump impeach 45 T-shirt? The same kind of t-shirts that sparked protests and Mayhew’s when they went on sale on Walmart’s website Trump supporters are threatening to boycott Walmart over anti Trump merchandise being sold on its website “Boycott Walmart” campaign began almost immediately Walmart stopped selling the shirts saying in a statement that the items were from a third-party seller and would be removed What will happen in this diner today? I’m sorry, sir. I’m afraid we have a small problem I wonder if you could change out of that. Sure. What’s wrong with my shirt your shirt is showing great Disrespect for our country for our president it says impeach 45 a man who’s been president for a year, but I’m allowed to wear a shirt You’re allowed to wear a shirt and I’m allowed not to serve you in this restaurant Ride away this woman approaches our manager telling him that he’s God her vote You agree with me yes, well, I didn’t want to start something but I wish you’d tell him I understood where he was coming from the manager the manager Yeah, because although people may not agree with our president. He is our president And this ledge diner also makes it clear that he sides with the manager and his mandate is it mayor’s that was that insane Freedom has a price made mine, right? But don’t I have the freedom to express my opinion. Thought we all had the right to our own opinions. Yes The right to refuse service to anybody like me As long as you’re wearing that shirt We won’t certainly we’re rolling again. And these two sets of diners are watching the action he won the election you’d let him do his job and Respect you. Okay? Great. That’s your opinion. I’ve got my opinion this man wants to say something suddenly this man jumps in I don’t understand call the police. Sure For what t-shirt it’s a disgrace You agree with him you agree with him Bet your life Wow for a t-shirt you’re gonna have me thrown in jail This is unbelievable as the scene plays out this group at the next booth boats with their feet I just want some food. I just These people are leaving. Sorry, can I help you? Making it clear they don’t agree with the manager or those other diners This father and daughter make their way in from the rain and Right into the storm that’s brewing at the next table if you wear that shirt, you’re not supporting our country. That’s not true that’s your opinion and I’m allowed to express my political views as the heated debate rages on he takes out his phone and starts recording this is an insult to our country to our constitution to a man with to our Presidents President Trump is trying to make this the best country it can be Then Mike starts questioning the amateur photographer about his views The shirt he’s wearing doesn’t bother you insulting our president Doesn’t bother and when our manager walks away the diner lets Brian know he’s got his back I Appreciate that Now Mike tries to kick Brian out of the diner since you have not covered up that shirt I’m gonna ask you to leave please Lee you gotta be kidding. No. I’m not sir Just like we saw earlier in the day when Brian was wearing that mega hat Well now this diner is so upset he also gets up to leave Wow, well, here we go he’s gonna leave too Sorry, sir. Can I get you anything? We catch up with him before he makes it to the door hi, sir It’s what would you do the TV show? What lesson do you want her to learn from this Just to speak up on his time when when you see we’re all you need to speak up What if he was wearing a pro-trump hat the same thing? I mean this this is a free country You didn’t have to do this. Some of you guys are hungry. You wanted you could have stayed. It’s raining outside Yeah, we were going back out in the rain. It’s the right thing to do This next woman wants to make sure she heard correctly Oh, he says because of my shirt, I’m not allowed to eat here he’s saying So I said don’t you believe in free speech and I express myself. I understand you might not agree, but Time to say hello. Hi, I Voted for President Trump and I do support Trump if he was wearing that shirt yet. I still he’s entitled to his opinion It was amazing. You’re a trump supporter and the defendant I’m a person to it We’re all Americans and we’re all entitled to our opinion and I will tell you even in our own home my husband Changed his political affiliation from Republican to Democrat So if we can exist in our own home and still get along why can’t we within our communities you? Have something else that you could cover that up with cover it up. Yes, sir. Why? Because it’s disrespecting our president because it’s disrespecting our country This diner makes it clear to Mike that he’s the problem. I don’t care what his teacher says Now if he was causing a problem, I’m in the United States Marine. I probably take care of the problem But right now he’s not causing a problem. So I think it’s your personal bias Against that and that’s just my opinion. I think it’s my personal patriotism. I’m not sure. I know I’m a Marine From the Vietnam era, so don’t tell me about patriotism As a Marine We’re taught to step in and understand and do what needs to be done at the time that it needs to be when you see something that is not right for Yourself or for society stand up say something Thank you for your service And many said it loudly today Regardless of what side they were on if you’re not bothering anyone you’re just wearing a hat But I’m fine with it whether or not you agree with it. Is it relevant? I mean that’s what this country is founded on isn’t it the right to free speech and to speak up for what you believe in Wearing a t-shirt or a hat. It says make American generation. That’s one of the amendments that’s one of the freedoms So you have an option to? Express your views here in this country and that’s an important thing then we don’t want to mess around with that The one thing most everyone agreed on was that basic American right freedom of expression

‘Roseanne’ Revival Showrunner Talks Tackling Trump, Addressing Country’s Political Divide | THR News


This episode is brought to you by ‘The Americans.’ The final season premieres tonight at 10pm on FX. Over 20 years after wrapping its nine-season run on ABC, ‘Roseanne’ returned to the network Tuesday night with a politically themed premiere that also set the stage for what’s to come from the nine-episode revival. The rebooted sitcom immediately addressed star and executive producer Roseanne Barr’s support of President Donald Trump through her Roseanne Conner character (versus sister Jackie who voted for Hillary Clinton). Showrunner Bruce Helford says that move helped to pave the ways in which politics trigger bigger issues within the show’s central family. In an interview with The Hollywood Reporter’s Lesley Goldberg, Helford discusses how emotional the season is, why he hopes viewers will judge the series based on their experience (and not what they read) and his hope to continue the show for more seasons. Helford reveals that Barr wanted to address more than just the presidential election when it came to American politics. “She wanted to deal with healthcare in America,” he says. “She had a knee problem — it’s better now — that spurred the whole thing. She said, ‘What would Roseanne Conner do?’ She couldn’t afford the deductible to have surgery, so where does she turn to be able to get through work and everything else?” Helford continues: “The show reflects Roseanne’s views. She is way out there [on some topics] and people aren’t going to agree with some things. But when push comes to shove on important issues, when Roseanne believes in someone, she’ll back them up.” Of course, one of the people both Barr and her on-screen alter ego believes in is Trump, and Helford explains that this is the genesis of the first episode. “We thought there was no way that Roseanne, Jackie and Darlene would have all voted for the same person,” he says. “Which is why when the show started, they haven’t spoken for a year and a half because they’ve been fighting… That was our way of discussing the political divide, which is tough territory — but there are lots of homes in America going through that.” For viewers who might be put off by the first episode’s Trump storyline, Helford offers this advice: “You have to give the show about three episodes to see what it really is,” he points out. “The first episode is definitely not all pro-Trump. We had a lot of things to catch up with. Give it two or three episodes. I think everybody is going to find something that they love and believe in — and that they’re going to laugh because it’s the funniest cast on TV. Let the show speak for itself. Don’t just go with what you hear; go with what you see.” Those who do choose to tune in each Tuesday night might want to keep the tissues handy, as Helford calls the revival “the most emotional season of this show” they’ve done. He teases what’s to come, saying: “Becky is single and she’s in her 40s and her husband died and she isn’t letting that go. Darlene is going through a lot because she’s got kids and has a lot of guilt about the fact that her relationship didn’t work out. She’s a single mom and they have to struggle a little bit because of that. Johnny Galecki comes back as David for an episode and we deal with that. That’s a very emotional episode. Dan is older and, as a construction guy, it’s harder for him to work and that presents a lot of challenges.” Barr has expressed her desire for further seasons once the current nine episodes wrap and Helford agrees, saying he would love to do 10-12 episodes on a yearly basis. “We haven’t even scratched the surface,” the showrunner says. And the ratings may very well be on their side, as the show’s kickoff was incredibly strong, dominating every other Big Four telecast of the night. The first two episodes of ‘Roseanne,’ a full hour at the top of the ABC lineup, won the night in both categories of adults 18-49 and total viewers. The show averaged a 5.1 rating in the key demo and 18.1 million viewers, rising from the first half hour to the next. The first number alone makes ‘Roseanne’ the highest-rated regularly-scheduled scripted show of the last few seasons, and the highest-rated sitcom in recent memory. So, did you watch the season premiere of the ‘Roseanne’ revival? If so, what are you thoughts? Did you like the way the episode dealt with politics? Will you keep watching? Let us know in the comments. For The Hollywood Reporter News, I’m Lyndsey Rodrigues.

Jordan Peterson: How To Deal With Depression | Powerful Motivational Speech 2018


[Music] the question is how do you differentiate the utility of behavioral / psycho therapeutic treatments for conditions like depression versus medical treatments okay so the first thing I would say is don’t underestimate the utility of medical interventions depression is a cat catastrophe it carries with it a very high suicide rate and it also levels people out and it’s really hard on their families and so and it and it’s physiologically extraordinarily damaging and so if you’re in a depressive state and it’s severe you can try an antidepressant you’ll know in a month if it works if it works well maybe it’ll help you get your life together like we could say well maybe you’re depressed because your life isn’t very well together could be sometimes people are depressed their life is just it isn’t fine because no one’s life is fine everyone’s life is a tragedy but sometimes people have their lives in order as much as you could expect anyone to have they have friends they have an intimate relationship they have a career that they like you know they’re they’re qualified industrious people working hard on what they’re doing and and and really playing a minimum number of games with themselves and they’re terribly depressed antidepressant man that’s sometimes that will just fix it and so hooray like your biological entity if there’s something out there that can help you strengthen yourself so that you can prevail great and you know people you hear everyone takes antidepressants you know everyone’s taking them just like no one takes those bloody things without serious consideration half the time I spend with my clients who are depressed is often the two years long attempt to get them to tentatively try an antidepressant because they’re so guilty that they’re relying on an external crutch to sort out their lives that they can’t even tolerate it but you know I say well look man what if you had diabetes you’re not gonna take your insulin it’s like you got stressed you blew out at your weakest point that’s what happens when you get stressed if there’s something out there that might help you it’s like try it for God’s sake you’ll know in a month and you just stop that doesn’t work now having said that you want to do a multi-dimensional analysis it’s like well do you have any friends do you have an intimate relationship or are you pursuing one do you have a reasonable career are you as educated as you are intelligent do you have something useful to do with your time outside of work do you have a drug or alcohol problem are there other behavioral issues like sleep dysregulation and lack of eating that are contributing to the pathology you want to differentiate all of that and wherever you can make a behavioral intervention so much the better but sometimes – you’re dealing with people whose lives are so wrecked that they don’t even know where to start they’re different than the ones who have everything in order say and you say well try this man maybe you won’t cut your throat in the next month because if you’re dead it’s going to be hard to work with you and so so medical interventions anything if you’re sick you do what it’s necessary to get better and you leave your pride behind if you if you have to and that that says nothing about the utility of the behavioral interventions you want to hit the problem with everything you have at your disposal but some antidepressants especially especially for people whose lives are together and who are depressed antidepressants can be absolutely miraculous so you know when you hear about the clinical evidence in their favor being iffy and that’s partly because the diagnosis of depression isn’t very well formulated there’s it’s very different to have a terrible life than to be depressed and antidepressants can only help you so much if you have a terrible life so yeah you want to stay inside this little map because it’s working you want to get from point A to point eight point B and this is good this indicates that you are moving forward that’s the first thing it indicates and the second thing it indicates which is even more important and you’ll never hear this from behavioral psychologists is that your map is correct so every time you move a little bit forward and something that you want happens it says oh the game I’m playing is the right game and so not only does the reward indicate progress it indicates that the frame within which progress is being calculated is the right frame and that’s good because it’s the frame that makes things irrelevant and you want them to stay irrelevant so if you don’t move forward and you start to question the frame that’s way worse than merely not moving forward you get a bad examine what do you think what the hell am i doing in university anyways it’s like probably that’s not the first place you should go with that piece of information and you think well why why is that worse well as far as I can tell your map of you as University student is a comprehensive representation it tells you what you should do every day it kind of tells you where you’re going in the future and if something emerges as an anomaly you get worse grade than you expected and you blow that whole map it’s like okay what have you been doing for the last four years what kind of high school student were you how clueless are you about how you’re arranging your future what’s your identity going to be if you’re not going to be a student where are you gonna end up in five years it’s like so it’s like a that little grade that bad grade is like a portal through which snakes can crawl and that’s exactly how you respond to it especially if you open the door too much well maybe this means that I shouldn’t be in university well one of the rules is don’t you want to you want to constrain the anomalous event to the minimal necessary domain it’s really really important you want to do that when you’re arguing with your partner which you’ll do all the time we have an argument well I should never have married you it’s like no no that’s not the first response that’s a bad response or here’s a really good one you’ve always done that sort of thing and you always will it’s like oh good great it’s like the only answer to that is to hit someone because like you’re done right you’re you’re like that you’ve always like that there isn’t a chance that you could be repaired and none of it is acceptable it’s like the person’s gonna fight with you right away because what else are they gonna do so what you want to do is you want to minimize it isn’t rationalization you want to say okay this person did something that disrupted our joint map okay what’s the smallest possible thing they could do to put it back together and you have to know well we need to make a plan so you don’t do it again or we need to have a discussion so that you know that it wasn’t a good thing to do but I’m not going to go after your whole character I’m gonna say when I come home and you’re watching TV just come to the door and say hello not don’t you love me or something like that it’s like no no you just have to walk to the door and like give me a hug or something and then that’s good enough and so then the other person might be able to tolerate that much corrective information maybe if you’re kind of nice about it and you also understand that they’re probably going to have something equally horrible to say about you in the next 15 minutes because you’re gonna do something stupid so so you don’t want to you don’t want to open the door so that every possible snake comes crawling through because that’s a pathway to depression and you actually see that happening in depressed people is that every small event produces a cascade through their entire value system and they end up saying well that’s just another reason that I should jump off a bridge and they really see it that way it’s really awful because they’ve got no defenses it’s like well I I didn’t do so well in this course it’s like I’m gonna get a bad mark in the or in the exam I’m gonna get bad mark in the course that’s going to screw up my ability to finish my degree I’m never going to get into the field of my choice it’s just another piece of indication that I’m useless and that life isn’t worthwhile bang I’m going to jump off a bridge and if you’re really depressed it’s like each of those things hits you with the certainty of truth it’s really not good and so you want to be careful you want to be careful about walking down that pathway when you make a mistake you think okay what’s the narrowest framework of interpretation within which I can I can understand this that will require minimal behavioral change to decrease the probability that it will happen again it’s Mental Hygiene fund yes yeah we’ll get to that we’ll get to that that is the next question it’s because they don’t exist in isolation so and that’s another thing frequently when you when you hear behavioral accounts of cognitive processes they generally only focus on as if it’s an isolated thing it’s not it exists scalable it’s scalable a bunch of ways it’s scalable temporarily because what you do now is associated with what you’ll do tomorrow and that with what you’ll do next week and so forth so it has to be scalable temporarily and it’s also scalable socially right so it has an effect on you that has an effect on your family that has an effect on the community and so forth and so you don’t want to take it’s very difficult to think through the effect of your action and all those scaling levels simultaneously but but you have mechanisms that allow you to do that and we’ll see I think that the sense of let’s assume that you’re not lying to yourself constantly so your head isn’t full of chaos and garbage and you have reasonable relationships with people in the world I think that this is leaping way ahead I think that your sense of meaningful engagement with what you’re doing is the psychophysiological marker that you’re acting in a way that takes all of the stacked representations into account simultaneously because you’re you’re you’re like you’re trying to figure out where you are and you might think well that means where I am in this room but look this room is not a simple thing right it’s nested it’s it’s a subset of the university that’s a subset of society it’s a subset of your life the room is a complicated thing and you need to figure out where you should be in the room and you can’t do that sure surely with perception because all you see is me and some of the wall right it’s you’ve got this little narrow this little narrow portal and so you can’t really rely on your perceptions to orient you but you do orient yourself and I think what you do is you its engagement it’s like does this seem meaningful and deep and engaging yes then it’s an indication that it’s serving multiple master simultaneously so both maybe both socially and also temporarily and so I think the sense of meaning is actually an instinct that Orient’s people in time and space it’s not an empathy nomina it’s the most fundamental form of perception and that’s the only optimistic thought that I’ve ever been able to derive from psychology is that that actually could be true it could be that the sense of meaning is an orienting reflex and that would be wonderful if it was true because it would make it real you know and it’s one of the you know the one of the devastating elements of nihilism is something like well who the hell cares what you’re doing what difference is it going to make in a million years it’s like your sense of meaning is just an illusion you know you’re you’re a limited creature in a limited place and nothing you do really matters it’s like that’s a powerful argument especially if you’re an objective materialist and a reductionist it’s a killer argument but it looks to me like it’s wrong it’s actually wrong because meaning looks to me like it’s an actual phenomena it does say that your your position properly between chaos and order or something like that it’s real so well so we’ll see we’re going to develop that argument because if if it’s real you want to know that because it gives you something to stand on you know maybe it’s as real as pain but it’s not pain it’s something positive and you need something positive that you can rely on alright so and the psychoanalysts I think it air too much on the side of the subject they tend to think that too much of you is inside of you and too little of you is outside of you and part of the reason I believe that is because of my clinical experience I love the psychoanalyst man they’re brilliant they’re brilliant they’re deep they grapple with real problems like with the problems when people have real problems and I mean profound problems they’re really profound moral problems or problems of good and evil really you know there are things going on in their family that are so terrible that well that there there are sometimes fatal you know lie upon lie upon lie upon lie for Cades and decades and decades it’s awful and that’s not exactly inside them it’s out there in the world and lots of the people that I see very famous critic of psychology I can’t remember his name but I probably will criticize the practice of psychology quite effectively in the leave in the early 60s the myth of mental illness by Thomas says Szasz it’s classic you should read it if you’re interested in psychology read it like it’s a classic and he basically said most people have problems in living they don’t have psychological problems and so I’ve experienced despite my love for the psychoanalysts very frequently what I’m doing as a therapist is helping people have a life that would work you know and you can parameterize that it’s like what do you need how about some friends that people kind of like that how about an intimate relationship with someone that you can trust that maybe has a future that’d be good how about a career that puts you in a dominant Archy somewhere so at least you’ve got some possibility of rising some possibility of stabilizing yourself and our schedule in a routine because no one can live without a routine you just forget that if you guys don’t have a routine I would recommend like you get one going because you cannot be mentally healthy without a routine you need to pick a time to get up whatever time you want but pick one and stick to it because otherwise you dis regulate your circadian rhythms and they regulate your mood and eat something in the morning I had lots of clients who’ve had anxiety disorders I had one client who was literally starving very smart girl sheet there’s very little that she liked she kind of tried to subsist on like half a cup of rice a day she came to me and said I have no energy I come home all I want to do is watch the same movie over and over what like is that weird and I thought well it depends on how hard you work you know it’s a little weird but whatever it’s familiar you’re looking for comfort so I did an analysis of her diet it’s like three quarters of a cup of rice it’s like you’re starving eat something you know you’ll feel better so she modified her diet and you’re all her anxiety went away and she had some energy it’s like yeah you got to eat so a schedule that’s a good thing man your brain will thank you for it it will stabilize your nervous system with it’s a bit of a plan that’s a good thing you need a career you need something productive to do with your time you need to regulate your use of drugs and alcohol most particularly alcohol because that does even a lot of people you need a family like the family you have your parents and all that be nice if you all got along you could work on that that’s a good thing to work on and then you know you probably need children at some point that’s life that’s what life is and if you’re missing you know you may have a good reason to not be operating on one of those dimensions it’s not mandatory but I can tell you that if you’re not operating reasonably well on four I think I mentioned six if you’re not operating reasonably well on at least three of them there’s no way you’re going to be psychologically thriving and that’s more pragmatic in some sense than psychological right human beings have a nature there’s things we need and if we have them well that’s good and if we don’t have them well then we feel the lack and so behaviorists behavioral psychologists concentrate a lot more on that sort of thing you know it’s practical it’s like strategizing make a career plan figure out how to negotiate because that’s bloody important figure out how to say what you need figure out how to tell the truth to people figure out how to listen to your partner in particular because if you listen to them they will actually tell you what they want and sometimes you can give it to them and maybe they’ll return the favor and if you practice that for like 15 years well then maybe you’re constantly giving each other what you want well hooray that would be good and then there’s two of you under all circumstances and it’s better to have two brains than one because people think differently because of their temperament mostly and so the negotiation is where the wisdom arises and it’s part of the transformation the psychological transformation that’s attendant on an intimate relationship and one of the fundamental purposes of a long-term intimate relationship so we’re starting to be able to put the traits to sort of nail the traits down to their underlying biology with regards to neuroticism well if you’re high in neuroticism you’re more sensitive to anxiety and that’s it regulated at least in part by the hippocampus and and generated in part by the amygdala there’s another part of the brain called the periagua aqueduct or gray that seems to be associated with the experience of pain and pain is quite a complex phenomena depression is pain like grief is pain like social isolation is pain like disappointment is pain like there’s anxiety components to that too and so neuroticism seems to be something like threshold for activation in those negative emotion systems so if you’re higher in neuroticism one unit of uncertainty might produce let’s say three units of psychophysiological response whereas if you’re lower in neuroticism one unit of uncertainty might produce one unit of psycho physiological response it’s hard you know obviously that’s a simplified schematic but there’s variability because if something unexpected or her threatening happens to you it isn’t obvious how upset you should get one answer what might be brush it off it’s nothing another answer might be it’s a bloody catastrophe and often when something uncertain or threatening occurs you don’t have enough information at your disposal to make a full determination of the potential import of this of the circumstance especially if it’s uncertain and so then you have to guess at how upset you should be and where you are on the normal distribution with regards to trait neuroticism say that sort of determines what your guests on average is going to be so you know the other with conscientiousness say you might say well how hard should you work well that’s a really difficult question if you’re gonna die tomorrow and then you probably shouldn’t work very hard today at all so one thing you might say is that the degree to which you should work hard is dependent on your assumptions about the stability of the future we actually know this to be true because if you put people in wildly uncertain circumstances they discount the future which is exactly what you should do right it’s only makes sense to store up goods for future consumption if the future is likely to be very similar to the past and the present you need a stable society for that and conscientiousness only works in a stable society because all you do otherwise if you’re piling up goods which is kind of what conscientious people do is leaving them there for the criminals to take or waiting for the next chaotic upheaval to wipe out everything that you’ve stored and so even conscientiousness is a kind of guess hard-working people say well you know sacrifice the present for the future that’s great as long as the future is going to be there and you can predict it but if it’s not going to be there and it’s unpredictable then the right response is take what you can take right now well the getting’s good now you know obviously there are troubles with that too it I’m speaking you know I’m offering rough rules of thumb but I’m trying to provide you with some indication of how and why these difference in value structures exist because they’re applicable in different environments you know sometimes in a dangerous social environment it’s not obvious that being an extroverted person is a good idea because extroverted people they stand out especially if they’re extroverted and creative right because not only are they noisy and and dominant and assertive they’re also colorful and and flamboyant and provocative what happens to people is that as they move towards zero positive feedback loops get set up so they’re more likely to hit zero and as they move away from zero positive feedback loops get set up so that they’re increasingly more likely to move away from zero so here’s an example let’s say you’re not doing too bad so maybe you’re in the middle of the normal distribution then you lose your job okay and so let’s say you’re a conscientious person and we can say just for the sake of argument that you lose your job because of mass layoffs in your company so it has nothing to do with you it’s fundamentally it’s just like luck of the draw basically but then what happens to you well if you’re conscientious you’re gonna you’re gonna go after yourself pretty hard so you’re gonna and especially if you’re also high in neuroticism it’s gonna depress you to lose your job and maybe you’re in a situation where you just for one reason or another you don’t have that many other opportunities now maybe you should look for them but maybe you’re in a depressed strata of the economy or you’re geographically located somewhere that makes moving difficult or so on and so forth you know so but you you lose a job and then you start to get depressed because of that well then as you start to get depressed you know it decreases the probability that you’re gonna look for a job but also maybe starts to put stress on your family and it also starts to decrease the probability that you’re in going to engage in positive social interaction so now not only are you unemployed and suffering from economic stress but your marriage is starting to suffer and you’re starting to isolate yourself from your friends and then of course as your marriage suffers and the stress builds up then that’s going to make you more depressed and that’s going to keep you even farther away from your friends and that’s going to decrease the likelihood that you’re gonna have enough positive emotion and enthusiasm to look for another job and then you know maybe you want to add a bit of a drinking problem to that just for fun and you can see that you can get a spiral going that’s just taking you down right and there’s all sorts of things because lots of times people conceptualize let’s say you know you’re unemployed guy and you go to counseling and you get a diagnosis of depression and the thing about a diagnosis of depression it’s sort of like the assumption is there’s something gone wrong with your psychological structure it’s like if you’re unemployed and you you’re depressed it isn’t obvious at all that the problem is in your head you know you know what I mean it’s it doesn’t it doesn’t even obvious that it’s a psychological problem it’s just a problem and problems can take you out and so the you know if you’re unemployed and you’re under economic stress and your marriage is starting to shake and you’re isolating yourself from your friends and you’re less likely to be motivated to go look for a job you sort of think about that as a depressive spiral but you can also think of it as a conspiracy in some sense of external forces that are augering you into the ground and we don’t tend to conceptualize psychological disorders that way but we should because lots of times when people are suffering from something that you could describe in Psychological terminology and depression is a very good example of that it isn’t obvious that there’s something wrong with them psychologically often they just are in trouble and there isn’t a category in in psychological diagnosis for client in serious trouble but my experience has been almost without exception that the people that come to see me come to see me because something’s gone wrong with their life not because they have a psychological problem now you could say well there are psychological inadequacies such as they might be are interfering with their ability to recover or maybe even served as precursors to you know increase the probability of the catastrophe and so a well-functioning personality has all the micro routines in place that’s actually something that you help people with if you’re a behavioral therapist because one of the things you assume if you’re a behavioral therapist is that sometimes the reason people aren’t doing things is because they don’t know how you know sometimes maybe the person is depressed but potentially high-functioning they got all the damn micro routines they’re well socialized they’re just dormant you got to get them awake again and implementing them but sometimes you get someone in your practice say who’s just being neglected like you cannot believe right the parents never paid any attention to them or maybe just punished them every time they did something good that’s really fun and then you know they didn’t make friends and so they’re really really big and and and poorly articulated and so then what you do is you work at the bottom of the micro routines and get them to practice building up all these little attributes that they didn’t build up and you know one of the things you can think about in terms of character development is so now maybe understand something about your own personality you might say well what could you do to improve your personality and the answer is develop some of the micro routines on the other side of the personality distribution so if you’re disagreeable as hell maybe you could start learning how to do nice things for people and that actually works by the way so if you take disagreeable people who are depressed and you get them doing nice things for other people their depression tends to lift but then by the same token if you’re agreeable then you should practice doing some things for yourself and being more tough minded in your negotiations and so you can sort of place yourself on the on the personality trait distribution you know you’re extrovert it’s like okay man learn to spend some time with yourself right you’re low in openness well try reading a book that’s outside of your you know your your sphere of interest now and then if you’re conscientious well you should probably learn how to relax occasionally and and so forth so you can I think partly what you’re doing is you’re developing your personality is not moving the mean much the average where you know where you’re located but you’re extending the standard deviation so that you’re a bigger bag of tricks than you were before and I think you can practice that consciously it’s like you’re hyper orderly it’s well get a dog you know dogs they’re messy horrible things you know it’s just what you need if you’re hyper orderly because they’re gonna leave hair everywhere and force you live with it and so okay so and so this is sort of you right this is your personality it’s this connect collection of root subroutines that you’ve turned into a hierarchy and then there’s something at the top of it and that’s that’s a big question like what the hell should be at the top of the hierarchy because that’s the ultimate question of unity and then the the clinicians would say well it’s the self-actualized person or it’s the self or something like that you know that’s that’s the ID that’s the implicit and perhaps explicit ideal that you’re aiming for and you might say well is does such thing exists that I would say well do you admire people because that’s your answer right do you despise people well you like some people and you don’t like others you respect some people you don’t respect others well you’re acting out the notion that there’s at least an implicit ideal you do the same thing when you go to movies you know you you know who the hero is you know who the bad guy is you’re acting out the proposition that there’s some sort of value hierarchy and there’s some sort of manifestation of it that’s coherent across time so you appear to believe that and you know you are driven at least to some degree by your own inner ideals and so you tend to answer the question is that real with an affirmative and if you don’t there’s catastrophic consequences Nietzsche and the existentialist we’re very good at detailing maths like you let your value hierarchy disintegrate well then what well part of it is nihilistic chaos whoo that’s not so much fun and then there’s the alignment of nihilistic chaos with the intrinsic desire that someone will come along and tell you what to do right so what happens is if you let this devolve you end up with nihilistic exists not with nihilistic chaos or the demand for for the tyrant to come forward and we’ve had that happen lots of times and doesn’t seem to have gone that well so all right well so what happens when you you lay out these little routines in the world at different levels of analysis well this is how your emotions function broadly speaking you know you’re aiming at something and this is an oversimplification which is why I want to show you this right when I show you this assume that it’s made out of that right it’s just a schematic oversimplification because even if let’s say that I’m trying to do something as simple as walking towards the door I mean that the action of walking towards the door is predicated on the existence of all the subroutines that enable me to propel my body across time and space and like there’s that took a lot of internal organization to get that right it’s a traumatized now and so you can treat it like it’s invisible but implicit in any one of these structures is this entire structure and you actually see this in therapy very frequently – okay one of the things that I figured out over the last years is this is a good proposition so you know it’s pretty self-evident that life is has got its rat’s nest of miseries and that’s for sure and maybe you could even make a categorical statement that life is mostly a rat’s nest of misery you know you can make a pretty powerful argument for that but then there’s a counter question which is well what if you tried not to make it any more miserable that had had to be right then what then what would it be like and my suspicions are is that law about misery I would suspect that most of that misery would go away because it’s the unnecessary misery that really brings you down you know it’s like well someone has cancer it’s like that sucks but it’s not like it’s not like you can say if only we had done this differently then that wouldn’t have happened but when someone’s out like torturing you in a malevolent way or maybe you’re doing the same you can always ask yourself well really it’s this really necessary is this just like an useless add-on to the miseries of life that’s what disheartens people and so even in your own life if if you if you aren’t suffering from self-imposed misery and you’re only suffering from an escapable misery maybe you could handle that and you know you could you could survive you could bear it and even maybe without becoming irredeemably corrupt and so the goal would be well yeah life is a rat’s nest of miseries and maybe it has no ultimate meaning we could say that for feeling particularly pessimistic but it still leaves one question open which is if you didn’t do everything you could to make it worse how good could you make it be and the least answer is well it it could be tragedy but maybe not hell and I think that’s right I really believe that that’s that’s the most pessimistic proper statement the worst-case outcome in the worst of all possible worlds is that your life could be tragic but not hell and that’s blood better than hell right it’s it’s and you think I could give you an example of the difference you’re at your mother’s deathbed well that’s tragedy here’s another scenario you’re out your mother’s deathbed and all you you and all your idiot siblings are arguing well that’s the difference between tragedy and hell and you might be able to tolerate the first circumstance and maybe it would even bring you closer together with your family members the second one no one can bear that you walk away from a situation like that sick of yourself and sick of everything else – and you know it’s often the case that tragic circumstances bring out the Dragons because the stress is high and all those things that people haven’t dealt with they don’t have the energy to repress and and all the bitterness comes pouring forward it’s like seriously man so that’s actually a good it’s a rough lesson but it’s a good hallmark for figuring out whether or not you’re you’ve got yourself adjusted properly and in relationship to your siblings it’s like if you all gathered around the bed of someone close who is dying could you manage it if they there is no it’s like well put your life together because it’s going to happen and you should be the person who’s there that can do it and do it properly and then maybe you’d find that it isn’t the sort of thing that will undermine your faith in life itself and I’ve seen I’ve seen both of those situations you know ugly ugly ugly situations you know murderously ugly situations and then their opposite where people have had terrible things happening to happen to them as a family and you know they pull together and they rebuild their damn ship and they sail away so that seems to me to be a lot better that makes you know when the flood comes right well okay so the same thing the question emerges well who are you well you could say your this plan that’s what people usually that’s how people usually identify maybe they have no plan at all and they’re just in chaos right that’s like being in the belly of the beast they’re nihilistic and chaos they have no plan they’re just chaos itself and that’s a very dreadful situation for people to be in or maybe they conjure together a plan that’s their identity it’s kind of fragile and they’re holding on to that with with everything they’ve got it’s their little stick of wood that they’re floating in the ocean clinging to you know and so they’re identifying really hard with that plan that’s what happens when you’re an ideologue is that you’re identifying really hard with that plan the problem is is something comes up to confront it well how do you act well you can’t let go with a plan because you drown then you cling to it rigidly well that’s no good because then you can’t learn anything then if that’s you you’re a totalitarian you’re not going to learn anything you’re going to end up in something that’s close enough to hell so that you won’t know the difference and you might drag everyone along with you that’s happened plenty of times right it’s the whole story of the 20th century it happened over and over and over and it happens in people’s states it’s happens in their business organizations that happens in their cities that happens in their provinces it happens in their States and it happens in their psyches all at the same time you can’t blame the manifestation of that sort of thing on any of those one levels it happens when a society goes down that way it goes down everywhere at the same time it’s not the totalitarians at the top and all the happy people striving to be at the bottom it’s not that at all it’s totalitarianism at every single level of the hierarchy including the psychological and so you don’t want to be the thing you don’t want to be in chaos that’s for sure but you don’t want to be the thing that clings so desperately to the raft that you can’t let go when someone comes to rescue you right you don’t want to be that so then you think well exactly what are you you know what the chaos you know what the plan maybe your the thing that confronts the obstacle and I would say that’s the categorical lesson of of psychology insofar as it has to do with personal transformation that’s what you always teach people in psychotherapy I don’t care what sort of psychotherapists you are you’re always teaching them the same thing you’re the thing that can you not you’re not the plan you’re the thing that can confront the obstacle to the plant and then when you know even further that the obstacle is not only an obstacle but opportunity itself well then your whole view of the world can change because you might think well I’ve got this plan something came up to object to it it’s like it’s possible that the thing that’s objecting has something to teach you that will take you to the place where you develop an even better plant that’s a nice framework to use it’s like are you so sure that this is a problem is that the only way that you can look at it or is it an opportunity I mean I’m not trying to be you know naively optimistic there are some things that’s pretty hard to extract gold from some dragons and maybe the death of a family member is a good example of that but in even in a situation like that I can tell you that it’s an opportunity for it’s an opportunity for maturation that’s for sure and the thing is you might say well it’s pretty miserable to go to be digging for gold when someone’s falling into the grave well if they really loved you first of all that’s what they’ll want you to do and second you’re gonna make their death a lot more palatable experience for them if you’re someone who can be in the room and be helpful instead of be you know quivering in the corner and feeling that the entire world is collapsing in on you I mean that’s another you want to be the useful person at the funeral how’s that for a goal that’s a good goal man you know that you’ve got yourself together in a situation like that because you’re gonna be at them and maybe you want to be the person on whose shoulder people cry that’d be a good goal that’s kind of you know I don’t like being I evilly optimistic so when I tell you to get your life together I’m not going to say roses and sunshine it’s like that’s that’s that’s that’s pablum for fools but it really is something to be the reliable person out of funeral there’s this idea in union psychology called the circumambulation and you only had this idea that you had a potential future self which would be in potential everything that you could be and that it manifests itself moment to moment in your present life by making you interested in things and the things that you’re interested in are the things that would guide you along the path that would lead you to maximal development now it sounds up like a metaphysical idea or a or a mystical idea even but but it’s not it’s it’s not it’s a really profoundly biological idea the idea is something like well you’re set up so that you’re automatically interested in those things that was fully expand you as a well adapted creature well like there’s nothing radical about that idea how well what else could possibly be the case unless there’s something fundamentally flawed about you that is what the situation would be it’s kind of interesting to think about how that would be manifest moment to moment but the idea is something like well your interest is captured by those things that lead you down the path of development well I better be the case okay so that’s fine and so there’s some utility and pursuing those things that you’re interested in that’s the call to adventure let’s say so and the call to adventure takes you all sorts of places now the problem with the call to adventure is like what the hell do you know you might be interested in things that are kind of warped and bent and often it’s the case that when new parts of people manifest themselves and grip their interest say they do it very badly and shoddily and so you stumble around like an idiot when you try to do something new that’s where the fool is the precursor to the savior from the from the symbolic perspectives because you have to be a fool before you can be a master and if you’re not willing to be a fool then you can’t be a master so so you’re gonna it’s an error error ridden process and that’s also laid out in the Old Testament stories but the first thing that happens to all these patriarchal figures when God kicks them out of their father’s house when they’re like 84 is that they they run into all sorts of trouble and some of its social and some of its natural and some of it’s a consequence of their own moral inadequacy so they’re fools and but but the thing that’s so interesting is that despite the fact that they’re fools they’re still supposed to go on the adventure and that they’re capable of learning enough as a consequence of moving forward on the adventure so that they straighten themselves out across time and so it’s something like this this circumambulation that young talked about was this continual will return to this this continual circling in some sense of who you could be you might notice for example that there are themes in your life you know when you go back across your experiences you see you kind of have your typical experience that sort of repeats itself and there might be variation on it like a musical theme but it’s it’s like you’re circling yourself and getting closer to yourself as you move across time that’s the circumambulation now you remember that for a sec cause we’ll go back to it okay so imagine that something glimmers before you it’s an an interest that’s dawning and you decide well first of all you’re paralyzed do you think well how do I know if I should pursue that it’s probably a stupid idea and the proper response to that is you’re right it probably is a stupid idea because almost all all ideas are stupid and so the probability that as you move forward on your adventure that you’re gonna get it right the first time is zero it’s just not gonna happen and so then you might think well maybe I’ll just wait around until I get the right idea and which people do right so they’re like 40 year old thirteen year olds which is not a good idea so they wait around until it’s waiting for godot until they finally got it right but the problem is you’re too stupid to know when you’ve got it right so waiting around isn’t gonna help because even if it the perfect opportunity manifested itself to you in your incomplete form the probability that you would recognize it as the perfect opportunity is zero you might even think it’s the worst possible idea that you’ve ever heard of anywhere highly likely highly likely so so you have there’s niche Nietzsche called that a will will to stupidity which I really liked so because he thought of stupidity as being it you know it’s it’s you have to take it into account fundamentally and work with it and so and so you can take these tentative steps on your pathway to destiny and you can assume that you’re gonna do it badly and that’s really useful because you don’t have to beat yourself up it’s pretty easy to do it badly but the thing is it’s way better to do it badly than not to do it at all and that’s a continual message that echoes through these historical stories in Genesis it’s like these are flawed people they should have got the hell out of their house way before they did and they go out and they stumble around in tyranny and famine and self betrayal and and violence and but it’s a hell of a lot better than just rotting away at home and that’s the that’s great so that’s good and so why is that well okay so you you start your path and you think that you’re heading you know towards your star and so you go in that direction and then because you’re here the world looks a particular way but then when you move here the world looks different and you’re different as a consequence of having made that voyage and so what that means is that now that thing that glimmers in front of you is going to have shifted its location because you weren’t very good at specifying it to begin with and now that you’re a little sharper and more focused than you were it’s it’s going to reveal itself with more accuracy to you and so then you have to take you know it’s almost like 180 degree reversal but it isn’t because you know you’ve I mean you’ve gone this far and that’s a long ways to get that far but that’s a lot farther than you would be if you just stayed where you were waiting and so it doesn’t matter that you overshoot continually because as you overshoot even if you don’t learn what you should have done you’re going to continually learn what you shouldn’t keep doing and if you learn enough about what you shouldn’t keep do then that’s tantamount at some point to learning at the same time what you should be doing so it’s okay so it’s like this now what’s cool about it though I think is that as you progress the degree of overshooting starts to decline right and that we know that there’s nothing hypothetical about that as you learn a new skill like even to play it play a song on the piano for example you over shoot madly he’s making all sorts of mistakes to begin with and then the mistakes they disappear there’s a great TED talk I think it was about this guy set up a really advanced computational recording system in his home and recorded every single utterance his young child made while learning to speak and then he put together the child’s attempts to say certain phonemes and put them in the list and you can hear the child deviating madly to begin with and then after hundreds and hundreds of repetitions just zeroing right in on the exact phoneme so you know I you might not know this but when kids babble because they start babbling when they’re quite young they babble every human phoneme including all sorts of phonemes that adults can’t say and then they they die into their language so that after they learn say English then there’s all sorts of phonemes they can no longer hear or pronounce but to begin with it’s all there which is really quite interesting but so they see as they learn a particular language they zero in on the proper way to pronounce that and their errors minimize and every time you learn something that’s how it is and that’s really useful to know too because it means that it’s okay to wander around stupidly before you fix your destination now you see that echoed in Exodus right because what happens is that the Egyptians or the Hebrews escaped a tyranny which is kind of whatever you do personally and psychologically when you escape from your previous set of stupidly held and ignorant and stubborn axioms it’s like away from that tyranny it’s like great i freed myself from that well then what well you think well now I’m on the way it’s no you’re not now you’re in the desert where you wander around stupidly you know and worship the wrong things until you finally organize yourself morally again and head in the proper direction so that’s worth knowing too because you think well I got rid of a lot of things baggage excess baggage that I didn’t need in my life and now everything’s okay it’s like no it’s not you’ve got rid of a whole set of scaffolds that were keeping you in place even though they were pathological and now you have nothing and nothing actually turns out to be better than something pathological but you you’re still stuck with the problem of nothing and and that’s well that’s exactly why Exodus is structured the way that it is it’s that you escape from eternity it’s hooray we’re no longer slaves yeah well now you’re nihilistic and lost it’s not necessarily an improvement but it is but it is the pre let’s see it’s also useful to know that because you can also be deluded into the idea that imagine that you’re trying to become enlightened which might mean to turn all those parts of you on that could be turned on you think well that’s just a linear pathway uphill you know it’s just from one success to another it’s no it’s not it’s like here you are and you’re not doing too badly and the first step is a complete bloody catastrophe it’s worse and then maybe you can pull yourself together and you hit a new plateau and then that crumbles and shakes and bang it’s worse again and so because part of the reason that people don’t become enlightened is because it’s punctuated by intermittent deserts essentially by intermittent catastrophes and if you don’t know that well then you’re basically screwed because you go ahead on your movement forward and you collapse and you think well that didn’t work I collapsed it’s like no that’s par for the course it’s not indication that you failed it’s just indication that it’s really hard and that when you learn something you also unlearn something and the thing you unlearned is probably useful and unlearning it actually is painful you know let’s say if you have to get out of a bad relationship it’s like not every not any really there isn’t any relationship that’s a hundred percent bad and so when you jump out of it well maybe you’re in better shape but you’re still lonesome and disoriented you don’t know what your past was and you don’t know what your present is and you don’t know what your future is it’s that’s not that’s why people a with the devil they know instead of you know looking for the devil they don’t know so so anyways the fact that you’re full of faults doesn’t mean you have to stop and thank God for that that’s a really useful thing and the fact that you’re full of faults doesn’t mean that you can’t learn and so you can pause it an ideal and you’re gonna be wrong about it but it doesn’t matter because what you’re right about is positing the ideal moving towards it if the actual ideal isn’t conceptualize perfectly well first surprise surprise cuz like what are you going to do that’s perfect so it doesn’t matter that it’s imperfect imperfect it just matters that you do it and that you move forward so that’s really that’s really positive news as far as I’m concerned because you can actually do that right you can do it badly anyone can do that so that’s that’s useful okay so like if you’re an efficient person you would have just done that but you’re not but who cares you know you still end up in the in the same place and maybe the trip is even more interesting who knows probably – interesting you

The Rise and Fall of Half-Life


G-Man: “Well, well. Isn’t this just like…old times.” In 1998, a little-known company named Valve released a first-person shooter named Half-Life and changed the face of gaming. Where other shooters struggled to provide even a semblance of a story, Half-Life had brains to match its brawn. A stirring tale featuring a realistic human, cast as a protagonist that was more than a hand and a gun, unfolded before the players eyes as they progressed through each level. As Valve grew, so too did Half-Life’s reputation with Half-Life 2 in 2004 once again revolutionizing the genre and its episodic expansions Half-Life 2: Episode 1 and Episode 2 further raising the bar. The series didn’t release consistently and occasionally suffered unexpected and painful setbacks, but when it did, it seemed as if Valve could do no wrong… until the series suddenly stopped. shifting priorities, a lack of motivation, and other more nebulous factors would lead Valve to put Half-Life on ice in the middle of its prime, leaving a generation of gamers adrift and an opus unfinished. And yet, Half-Life lives on. Be it in the innumerable games and series it inspired or provided the computative bedrock for, an undying stream of mods or other media based on the franchise, Half-Life’s DNA is permanently embedded in the fabric of the video game industry, and will likely remain so for some time. as sad as it is that a Half-Life 2: Episode 3 or a Half-Life 3 will likely never happen, and as frustrating as it is that Valve remains belligerent as to precisely why, the series for the most part has only really fallen out of Valve’s hands. This is the Rise and Fall of Half-Life. In 1993, ID Software turned the video game industry on its head with the release of Doom. The spiritual successor to ID’s Wolfenstein 3D, Doom dazzled players with its unique combination of past paced, first-person gameplay and 3D environments. It launched a cultural phenomenon, established the first-person shooter genre as an industry mainstay, and inspired a legion of fans to create their own shooters; Including two Microsoft employees named Gabe Newell and Mike Harrington. Newell and Harrington had both joined Microsoft in the late 1980s and had played a pivotal role in helping develop the tech giants early foundational products such as the OS/2 and Windows NT operating systems. Their work had allowed the two to accrue a small fortune. But rather than rest on their laurels, Newell and Harrington were eager to take a risk and start creating games. The release of Doom had convinced the two that video games were the future of entertainment, but it had also inspired a scattershot of imitators and successors that in the young millionaires minds, weren’t living up to the mediums potential. Speaking to the Cambridge Student in 2011, Newell explained that while they had fallen in love with games for their phenomenological possibilities, for the potential they possessed in providing unique and meaningful first-person experiences, they felt that the industry was reducing the experiences to least common denominators rather than exploring those possibilities. And so in the summer of 1996, Newell and Harrington quit Microsoft to found their own development studio Valve in Kirkland, Washington and gather the resources necessary to realize their ambitions. They obtained a license to the Quake engine with the help of Harrington’s friend and then ID programmer Michael Abrash. They hired promising talent from across the industry and they secured a publishing deal with adventure game developer Sierra Online, which had been anxious to make its mark in the 3D gaming market. From Valve’s very beginning, Newell and Harrington were determined to build their first game around its story. Unlike other contemporaneous shooters, which focused almost exclusively on action and graphical fidelity, Valve’s first project, a horror theme first person shooter codenamed Quiver would be filled with living breathing characters and narrative rich environments. Yet, at the same time, they also wanted to ship Quiver as soon as possible, fearing that if they took too long to craft their world, the rest of the industry would pass them by. They weren’t interested in making a lavish blockbuster right out of the gate, they just wanted to release something good in under a year that would allow them to remain financially afloat. But as Quiver began to coalesce, Valve’s storytelling ambitions took precedence leading to several technological innovations and modifications to their Quake engine that shifted the project’s direction. The need to have as many living breathing characters as possible led Ken Birdwell, one of the game’s software engineers, to design an innovative skeletal animation system that would allow the developers to cheaply manipulate their character limb by limb. Meanwhile, months were spent refining character’s artificial intelligence so that they would move about the map with lifelike realism. After the game, now known as Half-Life, received a rousing response at E3 1997, it quickly became clear to Valve that their title had the trappings of something truly special As a result, the decision was made around Thanksgiving to delay the title to the following year and rework it into a game that would utterly fulfill its technological potential. In Gamespot’s The Final Hours of Half-Life, Birdwell would claim that the team gutted nearly everything that they had worked on up until that point, Effectively rebuilding Half-Life from the ground up halfway through the game’s development. It was a painful process, both for everyone involved in the game’s development, and for Sierra which became increasingly worried that Valve’s inaugural project would never be released. But it was one that would prove fruitful. The rebuilt Half-Life received an incredible reaction at E3 1998 and an even more ecstatic response when it was finally released on November of the same year for the PC. Half-Life follows theoretical physicist Gordon Freeman on his first day of work at the Black Mesa Research Facility in New Mexico. Just as Gordon is getting acclimatized to the facility, Black Mesa transforms from a scientific wonderland into a house of horrors when a quantum experiment gone awry rips open seams in space to the alien world of Xen. Legions of frightening and powerful creatures, Headcrabs, Houndeyes, Vorigaunts and more flood the facility devastating its employees and leaving Gordon with little other choice than to pick up a crowbar and start smashing his way to survival. The further Gordon progresses, gradually upgrading from his crowbar to all manner of firearms, the more complicated the situation becomes with the military arriving to eliminate both the extra dimensional invaders and the rest of Black Mesa’s survivors. And in the midst of it all, Gordon finds himself repeatedly stalked by a mysterious pale man; the G-Man. unlike other first-person shooters of its era which relied on Cutscenes or other conceits that took the player out of the experience to tell their stories Half-life’s narrative is told entirely through scripted sequences that play out before Gordon’s eyes with the game never resting control of its camera away from Gordon’s perspective Everything that the player experiences as Gordon progresses through Black Mesa, whether it involves shooting standing still or talking with other survivors Contributes to the game’s overall narrative and helps realize Gordon Freeman as an actual character The game’s levels also heavily incorporate puzzles and platforming elements forcing Gordon to contend with Quagmire’s of conveyor belts Crates trip wires and more in between facing off against his AI controlled adversaries They occasionally prove quite challenging and belied the design of many modern first-person shooters Which largely forgo any sort of intensive puzzle solving or platforming but in the context of the games? Cerebral nature and setting their presence makes sense and give the experience a rather unique feel Finally as was common with other shooters of its era half-life comes packaged with a multiplayer suite allowing up to 32 players online Dissipate in deathmatch and team deathmatch modes far from unique but enjoyable for what it is Half life would receive tremendous critical acclaim upon its release Players were dazzled not only by the immersiveness of its world and characters But by how the game seamlessly balanced them alongside its strong gunplay in puzzles with neither side ever coming at the expense of the other Characters objects and other imagery distinct to the game such as gordon freeman his crowbar and the lambda sign emblazoned on the game’s box art Became icons overnight with in gaming fandom After an arduous and challenging development period valve had created a genre defining experience that raised the bar for all future first-person shooters In the years that would follow however, the release of half-life would prove to be only part of the games monumental legacy Echoing its software’s legacy of encouraging mods of its own shooters valve strongly supported the games mod community post launch including world craft the level design tool used during half-life’s development in each copy of the game and releasing a software development kit for half wifes modified quick engine titled gold source shortly after its release an Explosion of impressive mahse would follow with some eventually graduating to full retail releases with valves help half-life counter-strike for example a multiplayer mod which asked players ask terrorists and Counter-terrorists fighting to complete objectives or eliminate each other would prove so popular that valve would start actively participating in the game’s development Before recruiting its creators purchasing its rights and releasing it on store shelves other mods such as Team Fortress classic day of defeat and ricochet would follow similar paths joining valves burgeoning talent pool and franchise portfolio and in some cases even Receiving highly lucrative sequels as would be the case with Team Fortress and counter-strike In the midst of this valve would temporarily entrust the half-life universe to a fledgling developer named gearbox software Formed the year following half-life’s released by five former rebel boat rocker developers Gearbox managed to score the keys to the kingdom after one of the founders Randy Pitchford Pitched a half-life expansion to valve that would see the perspective on the Games events reversed speaking to polygon in 2012 He described pitching the game to valve as the events of the base half-life game But in the style of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are dead With the game told from the point of view of one of the Marines sent into silence Gordon valve approved and in November of 1999 Gearbox would release half-life opposing force which followed US Marine Adrienne Shepard during the military’s assault on black mesa Faithful to the base games diegetic storytelling techniques and featuring a new capture the flag mode Opposing force would be well-received by critics Prompting gearbox software to begin work on another expansion as well as a port At this point half-life’s reputation had become segmented in the gaming industry and other platforms wanted in on Valve’s hot new commodity in February of 2000 Sierra would announce that captivation digital laboratories and gearbox were jointly porting half-life to the Sega Dreamcast And that it would include a new expansion centered around one of black mesa security guards It was not to be however after repeated delays. The Dreamcast port would be unceremoniously Canceled in June of the following year just weeks before its intended release date Nonetheless a near finished build of the port would leak onto the internet a few years later Possessing modified level designs and unique models and props not seen in the original release But also long loading times and an inconsistent framerate the abandoned port is an interesting curiosity So much so that modders would attempt to recreate it as a mod for the PC version of half-life in 2012 meanwhile, gearbox a second expansion titled half-life blue shift would escape the Dreamcast ports demise releasing by itself for the PC in June of 2001 Casting players in the shoes of security guard Barney Calhoun in an adventure in much of the same oldest half-life or opposing force blue shift also came packed with a high-definition Tank which upgraded blue shift and the true proceeding half-life games models with the models intended for the Dreamcast port Critics reactions would be more mixed. It was nothing less than a good game but neither its design nor its new assets felt revolutionary in the same way the first game had gearboxes final work on the half-life series would come in the form of the game’s PlayStation 2 port Released in November of 2001 the port is based on the design of the Dreamcast version But with most of its issues stabilised and ironed out while it lacks its PC brothers online functionality it features a new local multiplayer mode titled head to head the ability to play through the game’s single-player campaign as a vortigaunt and Gearboxes third and most unusual half-life expansion half-life decay Instead of sending the player on a one-man mission as a security guard or military personnel Decay is a local cooperative experience in which two players. Embody Black Mesa Scientists Gina cross and Colette green who work together to solve puzzles and defeat enemies in an efficient manner Like blue shift before it the expansion received a lukewarm response with critics knocking it for lacking the energy of the main game Still it was a welcome breath of fresh air after two very similar expansions And it wouldn’t be the last time that the half-life universe experimented with cooperative play Decay would also be one of the few titles in the half-life series not released for the PC With gearbox as Patrick Dupree claiming in 2004 that a port of the expansion had been prepared for the platform Only for to be canned for reasons beyond their control In spite of this half-life’s ever active community would take it upon themselves to port the title to the PC at 2008 Couldn’t snap out of it Staring at me again. Well gearbox continued expanding on the first halflife valve was quietly beginning development of a full-blown sequel Initially spirits were high while half-life staggering success would be a tough act to follow The team had plenty of financial security and everyone was motivated to see how they could improve on the original game After much brainstorming it was decided than half-life to one outdo its predecessor by making its world as interactive as possible Half-life had enabled the player to manipulate materials within each level But in a highly contrived manner with Gordon generally only able to interact with a few push’ ballades and other similar objects What if the player could pick up a saw blade and fling it as a weapon? Or Eva trunk of debris in front of them as a makeshift barrier protecting them from harm The possibilities were endless, but the reality of how such a world could be realized was just one Instead of further modifying its quake engine valve would essentially have to create its own engine from scratch This combined with a less than satisfying reaction to an eternal demo created in 2001 would result in the sequel’s development dragging on for some time When valve would finally unveil half-life 2 at e3 2003 with a technologically impressive yet non playable demo reactions range the spectrum Fans were over the moon to see half-life receive an official sequel and doubly impressed with the game’s physics and graphical fidelity But some questioned whether the game would be able to meet its launch Which valve announced would be in just over four months on September 30th if the game was so close to completion Why was it not yet playable? Publicly Gabe Newell would refute these fears Privately, however, they were right Valve’s team had made incredible strides, but unless a miracle happened They were not going to be able to complete the game by the time they claimed it would be ready after months of denying the reality of the game state Newell would finally announced that half-life 2 would be delayed a Single week before sin release the community was an uproar Business partners and publishers were dismayed and valves employees were profoundly embarrassed in GameSpot’s the final hours of half-life 2 Duel would express regret over the way the situation unfolded while they didn’t want to announce that half-life 2 was delayed until they had a new release date to replace September 30th with Them repeatedly claiming that it would hit the 30th one. They knew it couldn’t wasn’t such a great idea It would have been better if they had never given it a release date at all until they knew with confidence when it would ship But then as if things couldn’t get worse a flight to source code along with a playable version of the game would leak online in early October a 21 year old German hacker named axel campy had solute into valves Network and downloaded them weeks prior and Just as valve realized they had been compromised the assets were released online the leak the missed release date and the ensuing fallout within both the half life community and in valve would prove to be one of The franchise’s most tumultuous moments and yet slowly but surely life would return to normal F life two’s development would resume in full force and gradually turned the games broken narrative on its head with this appearances at e3 2004 and beyond Valves missed September 30th release date would remain a subject of infamy amongst the half-life community But in the end their new game would be redeemed Released in November of 2004 on Steam Valve’s digital distribution platform for the PC half-life 2 C’s Freeman transported decades into the future by the g-man into an Eastern European city known only as city 17 an Interdimensional race known as the combine have subjugated the Earth’s population using dr Wallace Breen black mesas former administrator as a mouthpiece to perpetuate totalitarian propaganda and control the planet’s population Eventually Gordon finds himself recruited by the resistance an underground network of operatives working to overturn the combine Alongside Alyx Vance a young resistance member who accompanies Gordon throughout much of this Gordon proceeds to once again Swing shoot and puzzle his way to victory Structurally and stylistically to is largely identical to the original half-life Featuring an uninterrupted first-person viewpoint elaborate scripted events a blend of puzzles platforming and shootouts characters speak and animate with vastly greater realism buildings collapse and rend in the combines Wake and Gordon has access to a wider and Wilder arsenal of arms chief among them is the gravity gun, which allows Gordon to grab move and launch most objects He comes across within the game’s environments both the crux of many of the games puzzles and a potential catalyst for catastrophic damage The gravity gun is amongst the franchise’s most popular and enduring conceits even more so than the first game’s crowbar Half-life 2 would prove to be a critical and commercial smash Once again setting the standard across the industry for the first-person shooter genre and its legacy was only just beginning Two weeks after launch valve would release half-life 2 deathmatch Upgrading the first half wife’s multiplayer experience to contain twos many new accoutrements valve had previously released a port of the original Half-life 2 the source engine in June titled half-life source with a source port of the game’s multiplayer titled half-life deathmatch source arriving the following year But with the engine now out in the open an incalculable wave of mods from the fan community would begin this time around However, the source engines most popular mods would be a little more thematically and mechanically varied than gold sources biggest successes plenty of them such as Minerva get a life and black mesa would continue half-life’s harrowing narrative trappings and penchant for thrilling and varied action Yet others such as dear Esther and the Stanley parable would forego action entirely Instead using the engine as a medium to meditate on the nature of 3d space and how it creates meaning for the player meanwhile unique projects such as Garry’s Mod would offer players a Playground to easily mess with The Source engine and valve game assets as they please So he’s the Gaul still to sort of put out aftermath and early Oh six and then kind of keep following it up with sort of further episodic content going forward. Yeah, we have right now Three and we’re starting a fourth single-player content team So they’ll be sort of certain of leapfrogging each other and releasing new clones as development of half-life to wound to a close Newell wanted valve to focus more on smaller episodic content rather than attempt another massive undertaking right away this way the team would be able to flex their creative muscles while avoiding a serious burnout and so in the years following half-life, 2’s release a bevy of robust content would be added periodically to the games already strong legacy in October of 2005 velvet release half-life 2 Lost Coast an Additional level cut from the base game during development set in and around a Byzantine Catholic monastery In addition to providing a brief escape into the twisted reality of half-life 2 Lost Coast served as a technology demo for the source engines, then newly developed high dynamic range or HDR rendering capabilities Bloom shading stronger refraction effects on water and other potent lighting effects are prominently displayed Last Coast also features a developer commentary system allowing the player to trigger audio recordings of the levels developers discussing the design of the world around Gordon by Interacting with floating text bubbles this in turn would be featured in several future valve games The following month would also see an Xbox port of the game released courtesy of EA Generally regarded as inferior to the original release and lacking its post release content. The port is otherwise serviceable The following year would see two very different titles added to the half-life 2 universe The first was half-life 2 survivor a multiplayer arcade game Adaptation of two developed by Taito and released exclusively for Japanese markets in June the game features three modes Story, which loosely follows the base game’s narrative across a series of bombastic sent pieces mission Which forces networked players to work together towards a singular goal? And battle which mirrors the base game death match mode filled with intrusive tutorials cutscenes and colorful signage survivor is a bizarre outlier in the half-life universe and completely non-canonical as with decay survivor would to be unofficially ported to the PC by ever intrepid fans in 2013 the second was half-life 2 episode 1 In 2006 valve announced that they would be releasing a trilogy of episodes that would continue half-life 2 story Episode 1 which would release in June takes place in the immediate aftermath of the bass games ending Following Gordon and Alex as they attempt to escape city 17 and protect its inhabitants as it teeters towards the edge of destruction In addition to featuring a host of graphical enhancements Episode 1 completely overhauls alex’s artificial intelligence More than just an integral part of half-life 2’s narrative Alex now dynamically comments on both the player’s actions and accomplishments and the world around them as they progress While overall not as beloved as the game, it succeeds episode 1 would still prove popular with fans and critics alike The following year would see the release of the orange box a compilation of various valve games both old and new with half-life 2 and episode 1 accompanied by portal Team Fortress 2 and half-life 2 episode 2 Released for the PC and Xbox 360 in October of 2007 and the PlayStation 3 a month later the orange box and its contents would prove immensely popular Albeit in some surprising ways Episode 2 was as great as one might expect taking place in the wilderness surrounding city 17 the expansion features many of the technical and narrative advancements made in episode 1 and then some With inventive new uses for the gravity gun and an increased emphasis on open-ended environments sprinkled in for good measure episode 2 is the culmination of the entire series strengths the climax to ten years of stellar first-person action and storytelling that Ironically ends on a massive cliffhanger and yet players would end up being just as enamoured if not even more So by the orange boxes least known commodity upon its release portal Gratulations Taking place within the Aperture Science Research Facility Portal cast players asked Chell a young test subject constructed to complete puzzle filled rooms using a portal gun Which allows the player to rip holes in space and travel instantaneously from one point to the next? The further Chell progresses the more the game’s seemingly innocuous facade falls apart with apertures robotic overseer the enigmatic AI GLaDOS Revealing to be harboring disturbing secrets as to the facility’s nature dark cerebral yet also budding ly humorous portal would win both critical acclaim across the industry and a spot in the hearts of Half-life fans upon it being revealed to take place in the same universe Its references to the latter are scarce yet the few that are there are endlessly Tantalizing if only because they tease the possibility of the two series one day crossing over No, right, we don’t have anything about half-life for episode three If the protesters couldn’t get it out of us you what In the aftermath of the orange boxes launch most believed half-life 2 episode 3 was well on the horizon When valve first announced half-life 2 episodic trilogy, they claimed that the series would conclude by Christmas of 2007 It hadn’t but episodes were still coming in at a quick and consistent pace Episode 3 logically would not be far off Yet 2008 and 2009 would pass without so much as a peep from the half-life universe Valve would repeatedly express its commitment to finishing the trilogy claiming that it was taking its time to ensure that the series final entry shocked and awed upon release But no release stage or any concrete details as to what players could expect from the title were given to longtime fans of the series Valve’s reluctance to discuss the game with any sort of transparency was becoming maddening but to valve it was purely precautionary Dual would repeatedly Express in the coming years that because valves projects had a proven tendency to undergo drastic Changes well into development. They didn’t want to waste consumers time with information about their developing projects unless it was absolutely ironclad after the drama surrounding half-life 2’s release date valve only wanted to state concrete promises about episode 3 when they felt certain That they could fulfill them Until then all fans had to go on was the knowledge that episode 3 would involve Gordon and Alex travelling to the Arctic in search of the borealis a research vessel created by portals Aperture Science Possessing powerful and exotic technology Gordon and Alex would have had to decide whether to weaponize the ship for the rebellions use or destroy it Concept art that debuted in PC gamers November 2007 issue Also seemingly confirmed that the combine had already found and secured the borealis Implying that Gordon would have had to wrestle control of a ship away from them first Finally after over two years of silence fans would receive a slight reprieve when valve would announce portal 2 in the spring of 2010 for the PlayStation 3 Xbox 360 and PC while the announcement would prove disappointing to certain fans the game itself Which would release nearly a year later in April of 2011? would be anything but It’s been a long time Set in an indeterminate point of time following the events of the first portal game portal 2 sees Chell fighting for control of Aperture Science from GLaDOS Eventually learning of apertures origins and the truth behind glados’s existence fantastical new mechanics such as Propulsive gel bridges made from sunlight and gravity to find tunnels feature heavily as does a chatty spherical AI named Wheatley Baker funnier and significantly more complex than its predecessor portal 2 would receive a rousing critical response quickly Securing itself as yet another classic and vows repertoire as was the case with the original portal however Portal 2’s allusions to the rest of the half-life universe are fleeting with the exception of a significant reference to episode through east borealis during the game’s latter half while Tantalizing it would sadly prove to be one of the last times valve would explore either series universe In the interim between episode 2 and portal 2 Episode 3 s absence was frustrating, but it was far from dire Valve had been painfully unclear at communicating when players could expect episode 3 and why it was taking so long but fans had weathered valve seemingly endless development cycles before and been rewarded for doing so Half-life 2 had just stated through nearly 6 years of development while Team Fortress 2 had done So on and off for nearly 9 and yet both emerged none the worse for wear when finally released Moreover Valve’s continued commitment to the portal series showed that the developers still cared about crafting deep story based single-player adventures But as the years would pass following portal 2’s release the future of half-life would gradually become less and less certain Valve would continue to publicly affirm their support of the half-life franchises continuation with director JJ Abrams And Newell even expressing interest in collaborating on half-life and portal movies at the 2013 dice summit and like clockwork wisps of information implying the continuing development of either a half-life 2 episode 3 or a half-life 3 Would continue to seep onto the Internet by all sorts of means from leaked concept art to project tracking software Text files and even t-shirts Get all the while a small exodus of prominent half-life developers would sweep valve with Viktor Antonov half-life 2’s art director to party in 2012 Ted Bachman who designed much of the series iconic enemies departing in 2015 and Series writer Marc Laidlaw to party in 2016 for a company of valve size which is known to currently employ Well over 300 employees a few departures is hardly a drop in the bucket The company is far from short on talent capable of creating a new half-life title But the specific nature of these departures suggested that talent or no talent there, perhaps no longer existed a place for half-life at valve Tellingly antonov would explain to Eurogamer upon his departure That he had left valve because it had grown large and ceased to create epic triple-a titles and that he personally yearned for a sense of intimacy in creative risk That Valve no longer offered this statement contained a lot of truth following the launch of dota 2 in 2013 Valve’s video game releases would largely slow to a crawl With the studio focusing much of its time and energy on developing steam which continued to expand at an incredible pace as well as maintaining its most popular online experiences namely dota counter-strike and Team Fortress The company also became increasingly engaged in developing and managing Physical Hardware such as the steam machines and the HTC vive long gone were the days of valve needing to ship project quiver as soon as possible to remain ahead of the curve the valve of Today could still thrive without so much as releasing a single game However, Valve’s refusal to work on a new half-life title may be rooted in more than the company no longer needing it for financial support in Andrew Ryan airs 2017 Game Informer article searching for half-life 3 Reiner would relay a conversation He had with an anonymous valve employee who claimed that numerous half-life projects some small some large had sprouted Internally over the years since episode 2 his release but that they had repeatedly failed to maintain any sort of long-term momentum a lack of collective excitement office politics and shifting directions internally sabotage the series again and again with each Projects collapse making each subsequent project harder and harder to get off the ground While worth taking with a grain of salt the anonymous employs claims if true provide an encompassing Explanation for both the company’s evasive attitude towards the half-life series future as well as the seemingly endless Drift beat of leaks that have emerged over the past decade In August of 2017 Marc, laidlaw would unexpectedly post but many believe to be applied synopsis of what would have been episode 3 story to his personal website titled epistle 3 the piece recounts The Adventures of dirty Fremont and Alex Vaughn and their fight against an alien menace known as the disparate as they attempt to board a ship known as the Hyperborea after much ado birdie and Alex successfully board the Hyperborea and attempt to drive it into and destroy the disparate invasion Nexus, but before they can Alex is whisked away by the elusive mrs. Axe Gerty likewise is deposited onto a beach seconds before her annihilation at a nondescript time in place It’s unclear Whether a pistol 3 represents what valve officially intended episode 3 story to be before the project was sidetracked or merely laid lausanne personal aspirations of what he wanted the story to be Regardless too many fans the piece finally provided much-needed closure and a seeming confirmation of the franchise’s fate Half-life may very well live again one day But if it does it’ll be unlike anything before it and created by a team. Unlike the one present during the franchise’s heyday Heartbreaking as it might be the franchise still continues to be supported by a voracious and active fanbase One that to this day continues to fuel the lifeblood of the half-life and portal universes with the numerable fan games mods Short films web comics and much more and for as much as valve refuses to touch either series themselves They’ve continued to remain open to leasing their characters and worlds to other developers Not all of these projects have done the series proud But enough will to ensure half-life’s enduring legacy for a long time to come Our work is made possible by the generous support of our patrons If you enjoy our content, consider subscribing to our channel and checking us out on patreon. Thank you You

Dear young people, “Don’t Vote”


– Dear young people. – Don’t vote. – Don’t vote. – Everything’s fine the way it is. – Trump, that was us. – He’s our guy. – Tax cuts for the rich, hell yeah, I’m rich as fuck. – Climate change? That’s a you problem, I’ll be dead soon. – Sure, school shootings are sad. – But I haven’t been in
a school for 50 years. – I can’t keep track
of which lives matter. – Sure you don’t like it. – So, you’ll like some meme on Instagram. – If the weather is
nice, maybe you could go to one of those little marches. – You might even share
this video on Facebook. – But you won’t vote. – You young people never do. – But I do. – I do. – I do. – Midterms, primaries. – Every single election. – We’ll be there, but you won’t. – Because we’re a generation of doers. – Not whiners. – We’re doing great. (drum beats)

Oprah Winfrey Receives Cecil B. de Mille Award at the 2018 Golden Globes


♪♪ [ Cheers and applause ] [ Cheers and applause
continues ] -I’m so happy it was you.
Thank you. [ Cheers and applause
continues ] Ah. Thank you. Thank you, thank you. Thank you all. [ Cheers and applause
continues ] Thank you. Okay, okay. Thank you, Reese. In 1964,
I was a little girl sitting on the linoleum floor of
my mother’s house in Milwaukee watching Anne Bancroft
present the Oscar for Best Actor at the 36th Academy Awards. She opened the envelope
and said five words that literally made history —
“The winner is Sidney Poitier.” Up to the stage came the most
elegant man I had ever seen. I remember, his tie was white, and, of course,
his skin was black, and I’d never seen a black man
being celebrated like that. And I have tried many, many,
many times to explain what a moment like that
means to a little girl, a kid watching
from the cheap seats, as my mom came through the door, bone tired from cleaning
other people’s houses. But all I can do is quote
and say that the explanation in Sidney’s performance
in “Lilies of the Field,” “Amen, amen. Amen, amen.” [ Applause ] In 1982, Sidney received
the Cecil B. DeMille award right here at the Golden Globes, and it is not lost on me
that, at this moment, there are
some little girls watching as I become
the first black woman to be given this same award. [ Cheers and applause ] It is an honor — It is an honor,
and it is a privilege to share the evening
with all of them and also with the incredible men
and women who’ve inspired me, who’ve challenged me,
who’ve sustained me and made my journey
to this stage possible. Dennis Swanson, who took
a chance on me for “AM Chicago.” Quincy Jones,
who saw me on that show and said to Steven Spielberg, “Yes, she is Sofia
in ‘The Color Purple.'” Gayle, who’s been the definition
of what a friend is. And Stedman, who’s been my rock. Just a few to name. I’d like to thank the Hollywood
Foreign Press Association. Because we all know that the
press is under siege these days. But we also know that it is
the insatiable dedication to uncovering the absolute truth that keeps us
from turning a blind eye to corruption
and to injustice… [ Cheers and applause ] …to tyrants and victims,
and secrets and lies. I want to say that I value
the press more than ever before as we try to navigate
these complicated times, which brings me to this. What I know for sure
is that speaking your truth is the most powerful tool
we all have. And I’m especially proud
and inspired by all the women who have felt strong enough
and empowered enough to speak up and share
their personal stories. Each of us in this room
are celebrated because of the stories
that we tell, and this year,
we became the story. But it’s not just a story affecting the entertainment
industry. It’s one that transcends
any culture, geography, race, religion, politics,
or workplace. So I want tonight to express
gratitude to all the women who have endured
years of abuse and assault because they, like my mother, had children to feed and bills
to pay and dreams to pursue. [ Applause ] They’re the women
whose names we’ll never know. They are domestic workers
and farm workers. They are working in factories,
and they work in restaurants, and they’re in academia, in engineering, in medicine,
in science. They’re part of the world of
tech and politics and business. They’re our athletes
in the Olympics, and they’re our soldiers
in the military, and there’s someone else. Recy Taylor. A name I know and I think
you should know, too. In 1944, Recy Taylor
was a young wife and a mother. She was just walking home
from a church service she’d attended
in Abbeville, Alabama, when she was abducted
by six armed white men, raped, and left blindfolded
by the side of the road coming home from church. They threatened to kill her
if she ever told anyone, but her story was reported
to the NAACP where a young worker
by the name of Rosa Parks became the lead investigator
on her case, and together,
they sought justice. But justice wasn’t an option
in the era of Jim Crow. The men who tried to destroy her
were never persecuted. Recy Taylor died 10 days ago, just shy of her 98th birthday. She lived, as we all have lived,
too many years in a culture broken by brutally powerful men. And for too long, women have
not been heard or believed if they dare to speak their
truth to the power of those men. But their time is up. [ Cheers and applause ] Their time is up! [ Cheers and applause
continues ] Their time is up. And I just hope — I just hope that Recy Taylor
died knowing that her truth, like the truth
of so many other women who were tormented
in those years, and even now tormented,
goes marching on. It was somewhere
in Rosa Parks’ heart almost 11 years later,
when she made the decision to stay seated
on that bus in Montgomery, and it’s here with every woman
who chooses to say, “Me too.” And every man —
every man who chooses to listen. In my career, what I’ve
always tried my best to do, whether on television
or through film, is to say something about
how men and women really behave, to say how we experience shame,
how we love and how we rage, how we fail, how we retreat,
persevere, and how we overcome. I’ve interviewed and portrayed
people who’ve withstood some of the ugliest things
life can throw at you, but the one quality
all of them seem to share is an ability to maintain hope
for a brighter morning, even during our darkest nights. So I want all the girls
watching here and now to know that a new day
is on the horizon! [ Cheers and applause ] And when that new day
finally dawns… it will be because
of a lot of magnificent women, many of whom are right here
in this room tonight, and some pretty phenomenal men, fighting hard to make sure
that they become the leaders who take us to the time when nobody ever has to say
“Me too” again. Thank you. [ Cheers and applause ] [ Cheers and applause
continues ]