Why Doesn’t the U.S. Have a Multi-Party Political System? | Sean Wilentz

The two party system is inevitable in America. The framers designed a constitution that they
thought would be without political parties. They didn’t like political parties. They thought political parties were divisive. They thought political parties would ruin
the commonwealth as they saw it. They didn’t like them, and yet they designed
a system in which parties very quickly arose and we’re never going to go away. And the reason is simple that in a country
as large, as diverse with so many clashing interests as the United States it’s going
to become necessary to find a focus, to find a focus for your political actions. Parties have become that focus. They very quickly became that focus. Now, the question is why don’t we have a multiparty
system? Why aren’t we more like Italy say or even
France or a European parliamentary system? Well that’s the answer is that we’re not a
parliamentary system. Because we have a system that we do and because
it’s based on the idea of first past the post, in other words the person who gets the most
amount of votes will win the election, they’re not going to have proportional representation. If you get ten percent of the votes you’re
not going to get ten percent of the power you’re going to get nothing. On that account then the pressure is very,
very strong for there to be eventually a two party system. Third parties can come in and they can have
a tremendous amount of influence in shaping the major parties, but as a great historian
once said third parties are like bees, they sting and then they die. So they make their sting, but because a third-party
will always almost inevitably help the party they’re most unlike, as you saw with say the
Nader campaign in 2000 who got elected, they have their effect but then they very quickly
disappear. So I think the two parties, it’s not so much
that I have some metaphysical or ontological love for two parties as a thing, it’s rather
that’s the way the American constitutional system works. Now, if you change the constitutional system,
of course, that would change as well, but it’s embedded in the way that our government
was set up in 1787/’88 and it continues that way to this day.

[Politics] बीजेपी में शामिल हुए ‘आशिकी बॉय’ राहुल रॉय THE NEWS INDIA

Rahul Roy, popularly known as Bollywood actor and Ashikki Boy, has joined the BJP. Rahul Roy joined BJP in the presence of Union Minister and BJP leader Vijay Goel. Rahul Roy, popularly known as Bollywood actor and Ashikki Boy, has joined the BJP. Rahul Roy joined BJP in the presence of Union Minister and BJP leader Vijay Goel. Rahul Roy, popularly known as Bollywood actor and Ashikki Boy, has joined the BJP. Rahul Roy joined BJP in the presence of Union Minister and BJP leader Vijay Goel.

Urban Geography: Why We Live Where We Do

This is Wendover Productions. Sponsored by the Great Courses Plus. Here’s an interesting question: which city
do you think is more dense—Paris, France or New York, United States? It probably seems obvious: New York, the land
of skyscrapers, the Big Apple… right? Wrong. New York, in fact, has a population density
of less than half that of Paris. Paris’s is 56,000 people per square mile
(22,000 per square kilometer) while New York’s is only 27,000 people per square mile (10,500
per square kilometer.) To find a European city with a comparable
population density to New York’s—the densest American city—you have to go all the way
down to number six on the list: Lyon France (27,000 per sq/mile; 10,500 per sq/km.) New York of course has a super-dense urban
core, but then around it is miles and miles of suburbia—just like almost every other
American city. Paris, on the other hand, packs almost its
entire population into a compact urban core. There’s also another interesting pattern
that differs between the two continents: rich Americans live outside the city, rich Europeans
live city center. Compare the income map of Paris to that of
Philadelphia. Of course it’s not perfect, but you can
definitely see a pattern. The most commonly cited reason for both these
trends is the difference in age. Most European cities have existed for hundreds
if not thousands of years, while all but a few American cities only gathered enough population
to be called cities in the past one or two hundred years. What that means is that European cities existed
when all but the super-rich had to commute to work by foot. In the middle ages, Paris had a population
of two to three hundred thousand people, but you could walk from one side to the other
in thirty minutes. It was incredibly densely populated. You just had to live within walking distance
of work. Therefore, the rich paid more for the houses
closest to the center of the city. This is a similar reason to why in historic
European hotels, you’ll often see the nicest and largest rooms on the lower floors—the
opposite of what you’d see today. Before elevators existed, the rich didn’t
want to have to walk up as many flights of stairs. Walking distance was not only important to
big cities. Small villages across Europe were almost always
the same size because their population was dictated by the walkability of the surrounding
fields. European farmers tended to live in small towns
and walk to their fields during the day rather than the homesteading approach used in America. Therefore, villages would only be as large
as the amount of people needed to work the fields within walking distance. American cities, on the other hand, began
their period of rapid growth in a more modern era when decentralizing technologies were
much more advanced. By the time North American cities grew larger
than the distance people could reasonably walk, there was already the technological
capability to create public transportation systems. The first major public transportation innovation
was the steam train in the mid 19th century. This was a very expensive means of transport
and was therefore only for the super rich. Interestingly, because steam trains take an
enormous amount of time to reach speed, the towns that the rich commuted from, known as
railroad suburbs, were generally not just at the nearest bit of countryside, but separated
from the city by a few miles of countryside. The impact of railroad suburbs remains today. On the track of the old Philadelphia Main
Line, there’s a stretch of super-rich communities with huge estates and country clubs from Ardmore
to Malvern. The demographics just never changed from the
time of the railroad suburb. A few decades later, streetcars emerged and
quickly became an instrumental part of the American commute. Much like steam trains, streetcars also created
new communities—this time with slightly less rich upper-middle class individuals. In Washington DC, the wealthy suburbs of Tenleytown,
Chevy Chase, Bethesda, McLean, Rockville, and more all grew as a result of the streetcar. But once again, walking distance influenced
geography. Streetcar commuters had to live within walking
distance of a stop, so naturally there would be a radius of civilization about 20 or 30
minutes walking distance from a stop, then past that…nothing. That meant that between the lines, there was
all this open space where nobody could commute from. Enter: the automobile. At first the car was only for upper class
individuals especially with the distraction of the two World Wars and Great Depression,
however, by the time young Americans returned from World War Two, there had been enough
technological advances to make the automobile affordable for the middle class. Over 50% of households had cars by 1950. At the same time, the government was offering
loans to returning veterans which significantly increased the number of americans who could
afford to buy homes. Instead of buying a small central city home,
this generation opted to use their new cars to commute from cheaper, nicer, and larger
suburban homes. The idea was that the working parents would
go downtown each day while the rest of the family would stay to enjoy the suburb. It was the perfect deal. So that whole history was absolutely true,
but it doesn’t entirely explain why European cities didn’t experience suburbanization as
well. In Germany, for example, many, if not most,
cities were bombed to rubble during World War Two. They had the opportunity to rebuild in any
way they wanted, but then chose to keep their compact design. Today, the average metropolitan population
density in Germany is four times higher than the US’s. At the same time, other cities across Europe
that survived the war experienced enormous population influxes and still maintained their
mammoth population densities. Perhaps the least commonly cited reason for
suburbanization in the US is crime. It’s a bit of an ugly period in American
history that we sometimes forget, but crime levels were absolutely insane in the 70’s,
80’s, and 90’s. There are a ton of different theories for
why this was—perhaps the most interesting being the that the rise in gasoline emitted
lead caused lower IQ’s and higher aggressively. New York had an astronomical 2,245 murders
in 1990. London didn’t even have that many in the
entire 90’s decade. Violent crime rates are still consistently
10 or more times higher in the US. In 1992, a poll was conducted asking departing
New Yorkers why they were moving to the suburbs, and the most commonly cited reason was crime
at 47%. Cost and quality of living were way down at
lower than 10% each. Crime rates are significantly lower in suburbs
as they are typically havens for higher-income individuals. Europeans don’t have to worry as much about
inter-city crime so they’re much more willing to live downtown. Land for suburban housing is also readily
available in the US because farmers have always been quick to sell their relatively unprofitable
land to developers. By contrast, In France, for example, agricultural
subsidies are 12 times higher per acre of land than the US. That’s a big reason why large European cities
are still closely surrounded by small farms. In many European cities, you can literally
take the city bus to farms. Lastly, all sorts of energy are cheaper in
the US. A gallon of gas costs as much as $7 in some
parts of Europe compared to the US average of $2.20. It’s significantly more expensive to commute
by car in Europe so there’s more motivation to live closer to work where either the drive
is shorter or you can take public transportation. Also, big suburban homes aren’t as attractive
in Europe because electricity and heating costs are higher. Suburban life really didn’t live up to expectations. Americans now spend an average of 4.25 hours
per week sitting in cars, buses, or trains traveling to and from work. That’s 2.5% of their entire lives. It’s also been scientifically proven that
commuting from the suburbs is linked to higher blood pressure, lower frustration tolerance,
and higher rates of anxiety. Also, the suburbs are no longer the countryside
havens that they once were. They’re just a continuation of the urban
sprawl. Rich Americans are therefore beginning to
return to the city. With lower crime rates, higher fuel costs,
and an overall shift in attitude, urban cores are having a second renaissance. So that’s why we live where we do. It’s a complicated, controversial, and surprisingly
political history. I hope you enjoyed this Wendover Production
video. I first need to thank my amazing sponsor—the
Great Courses Plus. The Great Courses Plus is a subscription on-demand
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Professors, National Geographic Scientists, Culinary Institute of America Chefs, and hundreds
more highly qualified individuals. If you enjoyed this video, I highly recommend
the course on Cultural and Human Geography. It’s a super-interesting topic, and this
course absolutely does it justice. You can watch this or any other of the hundreds
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you in two weeks for another Wendover Productions video.

Wannabe States of the United States

Have you ever asked yourself why we only have
one state named after a president, but half a dozen states named after kings and queens
from other countries? Well that wasn’t the original plan, there’ve
been quite a few attempts to name states after founding fathers that ended up failing… So let’s start at the beginning. Before Vermont became the fourteenth state,
there were two other places that were trying really hard to get that coveted slot. First, let’s talk about this bit of land,
which at the time was part of North Carolina. Since they were on the other side of the Appalachian
mountains, the government of North Carolina hard a rather hard time governing the area…
so the people there decided to form their own potential state, named Frankland. They petitioned for statehood in 1785, but
were rejected, since North Carolina didn’t feel like giving up the land just yet. So they changed their name to Franklin, after
the at-the-time still-living Benjamin Franklin, and asked him for help with getting recognized. Franklin was famously full of himself, but
his response is easily the most nicely worded “I know what you’re trying to do and it’s
not going to work” dismissals I’ve ever seen put to paper. “I am sensible of the honor which your Excellency
and your council thereby do me. But being in Europe when your State was formed,
I am too little acquainted with the circumstances to be able to offer you anything just now
that may be of importance” – Benjamin Franklin, 1787
The State of Franklin eventually gave up their attempt and were absorbed into the territory
that became Tennessee in 1796. But that doesn’t stop the people who live
there from slapping “State of Franklin” on businesses and tourist spots to this day. At the same time, this region, which was controlled
by Virginia and Pennsylvania, was also on the other side of the Appalachians and was
difficult to govern from their respective capitals, and as a result was likewise trying
to become the fourteenth state, known as “Westsylvania.” But promotion of the independence movement
was made illegal and an act of treason in 1782, which technically made it punishable
by death. The reasoning behind that was that this land
belonged to the Indians, and creating a state there would start a war… which the US obviously
didn’t want. So it remained part of Virginia… at least
until the Civil War. Again, since it was on the other side of the
Appalachians, so geography helped separate the people, and when Virginia broke away from
the US to join the Confederacy, Westsylvania broke away from Virginia to stay in the Union. This happened literally weeks after the start
of the Civil War. So the delegates of the area got together
to decide on a constitution, and perhaps more importantly, what to name this new state. I have an idea, let’s call it Kanawha. What? Kanawha. Why are you putting so much emphasis on the
H? I dunno, it just sounds better that –
The fact that you’re doing that is the main reason we’re not going to call it that,
let’s call it Columbia. The capital is already the District of Columbia,
we can’t call it that. How about New Virginia? Are you seriously? We might as well just go back to calling it
Westsylvania… And so “West Virginia” was born. As you’ll soon realize, America, like Britain,
is not very creative when it comes to the naming. Oftentimes we don’t even change it from
whatever it was before… like Florida. Florida was originally a Spanish colony and
means the “land of flowers.” But because of the expansion of the United
States, many Americans came to inhabit the area. In 1799, an American banded together with
the local Seminole and Muscogee Indians and formed the short lived State of Muskogee. It’s worth noting that the Indian tribe
it was named after was spelled with a C, not a K, but whatever. It lasted all of four years before it was
destroyed. But thanks to that, combined with the ever-expanding
United States, the territory became too expensive for the Spanish to maintain. So they ceded the territory to the US in 1810. At which point the area was divided into…
*sigh*… East and West Florida. Anyway, it was admitted as the full state
of Florida in 1845. But the story doesn’t end there. Several times since then, including as recently
as 2008 and 2014, the counties in southern Florida have proposed resolutions to split
the state in half. What would they name these two partitions? North and South Florida. See what I mean? Trust me, this is a recurring theme. So let’s move on to a state I brought up
in my last video on the topic of states. Texas. As I mentioned before, Texas likes to brag
about how they used to be an independent republic and say that they can secede if they want. They can’t, but they can break themselves
up into five states if they ever felt like it. They’ve never made up plans to break up
into that many, but they have proposed breaking into two. The first plan was drawn up in 1870, after
the Civil War, and would divide Texas along the San Antonio River. Don’t worry, they were a little more creative
with the names this time. They wanted to call this part Lincoln and
this part Jefferson. You’d think a state that fought on the losing
side of the Civil War would be a little salty over the idea of naming themselves Lincoln…
and you’d be right. So they changed the name to Matagorda, which
is Spanish for Thick Bush. Grow up. The plan was reintroduced in 1906… Then again in 1915… and 1921. It made it to Congress once or twice, but
obviously never passed. Then in 1945, after World War 2, this area
of Northern Texas and the Oklahoma panhandle – hey wait, why does Oklahoma have a panhandle
anyway? – I’ll get to that later, but anyway,
they were tired of being ignored by Texas and Oklahoma and drafted a proposal to secede
and form the state of… Wait… actually, take a second and think
of a name for this proposed state on your own. Trust me, it’s just as unoriginal as you
would expect. Okay you got it? Did you guess Texlahoma? Because I’m guessing you were pretty close,
maybe only one letter off. Obviously, that didn’t happen either. But it’s not the first time they tried to
break up Oklahoma. Back when it was called the Indian Territory,
they were seriously considering making this area a legitimate Indian-controlled state
named Sequoyah. The movement lasted until 1907, when the US
Congress predictably didn’t let them create an Indian only state, and instead created
Oklahoma. In 1939, during the Great Depression, many
plains Indian tribes got together with the mostly Republican ranchers in protest of FDR’s
New Deal… with those crazy democratic ideas and plans to build infrastructure… and submitted
a proposal to break away and form the State of Absaroka. They even had their own license plates and
their own Miss Absaroka 1939. The plan was abandoned shortly afterwards,
especially when World War 2 began. But let’s jump back in time a bit to the
late 1840s, when the Rockies were mostly inhabited by Mormons. After the Mexican-American war, when Texas
became a state and California was in the process, the church decided they better stake their
claim and sent someone to Washington… Hi, we’re Mormons and we would like to create
the State of Deseret. That’s a pretty big area you’re claiming
there. Yes well, you just admitted Texas, which is
pretty big… and California is pretty big too… Texas is special and California has gold. What do you have? …uhh… Polygamy? Yeah… get rid of that and we’ll talk. So California got to become a state and Deseret
did not… instead they were lumped into the Utah Territory as part of the Missouri Compromise
in 1850 which I’ll talk about later. But as part of the compromise, California
joined the union as a free state, and they had to promise to send one pro-slavery and
one anti-slavery senator to Congress… Which caused all sorts of problems, so almost
right away, there was a plan to just break California up into two states. With the northern half being named Shasta
and the southern half named Colorado, after the ruddy Colorado River. They later decided to keep the northern half
named California. Which by the way, comes from the Spanish word
for “Land of the Caliph”… as in the Islamic Caliphate. Just putting that out there. Anyway, once the Civil War started this plan
was obviously dropped. Which is a good thing because the Colorado
River no longer drains into the Pacific Ocean in California… so they would have named
themselves after a river that dries up in their state. But since then, there have been several plans
to break up California, including one in 2013 that actually gained some traction that would
have broken it up into six states. Appropriately named the “Six Californias”
plan. It would have created the state of Jefferson,
Silicon Valley … sigh… North California, Central California, West
California, and South California. But in 1859, at the same time that California
was considering naming half of itself Colorado, the gold miners over here hoped to make this
territory into the State of Jefferson. But the economy was based almost entirely
on gold mining, which brought in all the drunkards and criminals. And since this area was populated by Mormons,
who didn’t like the crime associated with gold, and still hadn’t given up polygamy
(ended in 1890), that whole area was cut out of the proposed state. Around the same time, they were considering
naming this state or this state Lincoln. It seems like the names Lincoln and Jefferson
go hand-in-hand. But, obviously, that didn’t happen… so
they had to come up with a new name. Well we can’t call this Jefferson if we
don’t also have a Lincoln… so what should we call it? How about Idaho? What does that mean? Absolutely nothing, I just made it up. Wha? Get out of here with that nonsense, nobody
would be stupid enough to use a made up name. Seriously the word Idaho was completely made
up. The people in Idaho like to claim that it
means “Salmon Eater” in Comanche, which is true… but the Comanche live down here,
and the guy who made it up didn’t know that. It’s the same as if you just slammed your
head on your keyboard and later found out that the garble actually means something in
a language you’ve never heard of. Hey remember when California was going to
name themselves after that river? Yeah? Yeah, well, that river actually *starts* here
so… how about that? So boom, Colorado was born. But we’re still not done. The Pacific Northwest was jointly occupied
by the US and Great Britain. In 1846, they signed a treaty officially breaking
the area up and establishing the mostly-straight border between the US and Canada. Originally, the area was going to be called
Columbia Territory, after Christopher Columbus. Which is why the area north of the border
is now called British Columbia. But they wanted avoid any confusion with the
nation’s capital, Washington DC, which stands for the District of Columbia. So they called it… Washington Territory. Anyway, the original plan was to break the
area up into three states… Washington, Jefferson, and Lincoln. Because these are the three presidents that
anyone is allowed to admire. It doesn’t matter if you’re a Republican
or Democrat, if you say you admire any of these three, you’ll get a round of applause. Which is partly why these three, along with
Teddy Roosevelt, were put on Mount Rushmore. But since the area had also been called Oregon
Country when it was under US and British control, when Jefferson applied for statehood in 1848,
they adopted the name Oregon. Since then, there have been a few attempts
to break away southern Oregon and Northern California to reform Jefferson, all the way
up to 2013. It was even part of the Six Californias plan. But anyway, because the eastern half of what
would have become Lincoln was full of gold, and again, nobody wanted those filthy gold
digging criminals in their state, that area was given to Idaho, and the rest became the
State of Washington in 1889. But when this was all still in the works,
when the US was still in that whole Manifest Destiny kick, they hoped to control the entire
Pacific coast. So they bought Alaska from Russia. An area two-thirds the size of the Louisiana
Purchase, for about half the price. Look, here’s the actual check used to buy
Alaska. That’s right, we’re the old ladies at
the grocery store… paying by check. Anyway, the hope was that by controlling territory
both north and south of Canada, Britain would just give up trying to control British Columbia
and hand it over. Obviously that didn’t happen, but funny
enough, since the entire Pacific Northwest is populated by a mix of former British and
former American settlers, there’s a small independence movement that would unite the
area into an independent republic known as Cascadia. Probably not going to happen but… look,
they even have their own flag! But that’s not all, there are currently
several movements within the US to break up current states. For a long time now, New York City and Long
Island have thought about separating and creating the state of Long Island… that’s usually
because the area is more economically active and they’re tired of sending their tax dollars
upstate. Likewise, the people of the Upper Penninsula
of Michigan, called Yoopers after the abbreviation UP, consider themselves so different from
the rest of Michigan that they’ve tried to break away and create a state named Superior. There have been several other smaller, less
significant secession movements, most notably the Conch Republic in Key West. Which is mostly just a joke and has never
seriously considered breaking away, it’s mostly just a tourist thing. So there you have it, combined with my other
two videos, that’s the entire history of the United States. So we can finally move on to- Wait, you said
you were going to talk about the Missouri Compromise and why Oklahoma has a panhandle-
Oh for… Okay fine… one more video on the history
and geography of the US, and after that we’re going to talk about other countries… okay? Not all of my viewers are American.- Yeah
but most of them are.- Anyway, at least for now, you know better. Hey guys if you enjoyed that video or you
learned something, make sure to give that like button a click. If you’d like to see more from me I put
out new videos every Sunday, so make sure to propose to that subscribe button. In the meantime, make sure to follow me on
facebook and twitter, and if you’d like to watch one of my older videos, how about
this one?

3 ways America is doing politics all wrong

So I am an eternal optimist about how and
why we should continue to innovate every aspect of our lives. And that’s science and technology imbuing
more efficiencies in how we run businesses, but also how we deliver healthcare and education. So as far as I’m concerned I’ve adopted
this same lens as we think about the political process. So just to give you some flavor for some of
the proposals, on the politician side I consider the argument that we should perhaps increase
the pay of politicians and actually force them to justify their compensation. Singapore is a great example of this model. In Singapore the head of state, the prime
minister earns over $1.4 million a year in compensation. But, to me, what’s even more interesting
is that the ministers who are responsible for education and healthcare and infrastructure,
et cetera, earn 30 to 40 percent bonuses based on certain metrics and outcomes—So how GDP
performs, whether life expectancy increases, whether inflation declines. I think that that is a very interesting model
for us to explore because I think it could impose discipline. By the way a discipline around reward for
performance which we already see, and it applies to many of us as we work in the private sector. So certainly worth of a consideration. I think that could actually force politicians
to think a little bit more long term. Another proposal on the politician side is
to basically think about minimum standards for politicians. And this is an idea that really, for me, stuck
out as I thought about how the British Parliament looked back in the 1950s and 60s. In that period the average age was higher,
on average about 60 years old. But also the skill set was incredibly varied. They had teachers, lawyers, doctors, farmers. And so people had had other careers and had
a better understanding of how the economy works because they came to become parliamentarians
having experienced different sectors of the economy. Today, some of the citations that I reference
in the book, the average age is closer to 40 years old and many politicians actually
have no experience except having been professional politicians. And I think that can be quite a disservice
in terms of not really understanding the complexity of how an economy works. A third – I’ll just very quickly give
you one more example of what we might consider in terms of politicians is we might think
about extending the terms of political office. This is essentially to get away from this
idea of having elections every two years as we do in the United States. Mexico is an example of a country where the
president is in office only once for six years. And so I think you get away from this desire
of politicians to constantly court or tempt and try to seduce voters with policies that
may be short term appealing but over the long term incredibly damaging for the economy (and
ultimately for generations to come). Brazil, the senators have eight- to nine-year
terms. Again it’s really picking on this theme
of extending the thinking to better match the economic challenges and economic headwinds
that the global economy faces.

America | Bernie Sanders

♪ hmm hmm hmm-hmm-hmm-hmm ♪ ♪ hmm hmm hmm hmm hmm-hmm ♪ ♪ Let us be lovers, we’ll marry
our fortunes together ♪ [ cheering ] ♪ I’ve got some real estate
here in my bag ♪ ♪ Counting the cars
on the New Jersey turnpike ♪ ♪ They’ve all come
to look for America ♪ [ cheers and applause ] ♪ All come
to look for America ♪ ♪ All come
to look for America ♪ ♪ All come
to look for America ♪ I’m Bernie Sanders,
and I approve this message.

50 Insane Cold War Facts That Will Shock You!

Ok, so before we start this Cold War epic,
we should probably explain to you what the Cold War was. The Americans and Soviets were more or less
buddies during the Second World War, fighting together against the Axis powers. But the U.S. was very concerned about communism
and the despotic Soviet leader Joseph Stalin. To put it bluntly, America feared that the
commies – as it liked to say – would take over the world. For that reason, the U.S. wanted to contain
communist expansionism. But the Soviets were building an arsenal of
arms, including nuclear weapons. Thus, an arms race was on the way. It’s thought Bernard Mannes Baruch, an American
financier and multimillionaire, coined the term Cold War, which basically means a war
without military action. And so, without further ado, welcome to this
episode of the Infographics show, 50 Facts About Cold War You Didn’t Know. Fact #50. So, as we said, it was Bernard Mannes that
coined the term Cold War. He was a rich man and also an advisor to all
U.S. presidents from Woodrow Wilson to Harry S. Truman. He’s famous for saying this: “Let us not
be deceived. We are today in the midst of a Cold War. Our enemies are to be found abroad and at
home. Let us never forget this: Our unrest is the
heart of their success.” 49. It was Winston Churchill who first used the
term, “Iron Curtain” in relation to the Cold War, which basically means the metaphorical
divide between the Soviet bloc and the West. 48. Churchill is often said to be one of the most
mythologized leaders that ever existed. He may have been a great orator during times
of conflict, but he has also been accused of being a bigot, a snob, a racist, and being
not too sympathetic to those who suffered at the hands of the British Empire. Perhaps one of the reasons why he was good
at talking was because he was a big fan of amphetamines. 47. Over on the other side of the iron curtain,
Joseph Stalin was responsible for around 2.9 million deaths. Those deaths, historians say, were related
to Stalin’s oppression, the Gulag, and forced resettlement. But if we include total deaths due to poverty
and famine while Stalin was in power, the number could be as high as 60 million. As far as evil dictators go, Stalin is often
said to take the number two spot behind China’s prolific paranoid practician of violence,
Mao Zedong. Surprisingly, Hitler only gets the bronze
for evilness. 46. Stalin wasn’t really named Stalin. He was born Josef Vissarionovich Djugashvili,
but that doesn’t really have a cool ring to it. He changed his name to Stalin ‘cos it means
Man of Steel. Superman’s currently rolling over in his
grave. 45. The Cold War started under American president
Harry Truman and ended while George Bush Sr. was in power. If you were around in 1989, you might have
read the headline, “Bush and Gorbachev suggest Cold War is coming to an end.” 44. The Soviets drew amazingly detailed maps of
the whole world during the Cold War. In fact, the U.S. and the UK were astounded
by how detailed and accurate they were, so much so that the US State Department uses
them today. Wired wrote in 2015, “University libraries
at places like Stanford, Oxford, and the University of Texas in Austin have drawers stuffed with
Cold War Soviet maps.” 43. In 1956, President Eisenhower signed off on
a resolution that made “In God We Trust” the official American motto. Some people didn’t like this, given America’s
religious diversity, but the president saw it as an important move against Communist
materialism. He also made it a law that the motto should
appear on all American coins and bills, presumably to make sure the American public would not
forget who they trusted the most. 42. “Under God” was added to the American
Pledge of Allegiance for pretty much the exact same reason. 41. Even though the Soviets and the USA were involved
in what was called the “Space Race,” at one point they were thinking about teaming-up
during the Cold War. According to NASA’s website, “Eisenhower
suggested creating a process to secure space for peaceful uses. Khrushchev, however, rejected the offer.” 40. Chinese Communist Party leader, Mao Zedong,
had been treated badly by the Soviets on many occasions. He got his own back, though, when he met Soviet
leader Nikita Khrushchev. Mao loved swimming, and he had learned that
Khrushchev couldn’t swim. On one visit, the latter was met by Mao, who
offered him some bathing shorts. He took Khrushchev to a private swimming pool. According to The Smithsonian, “Khrushchev,
meanwhile, stood uncomfortably in the children’s end of the pool until Mao, with more than
a touch of malice, suggested that he join him in the deeper water.” The embarrassed Soviet leader needed a floatation
device and apparently paddled like a dog. Mao was a happy man. Some years later, Khrushchev said, “It was
Mao’s way of putting himself in an advantageous position.” 39. When Mao visited Moscow in 1949, Stalin pretty
much left him in a hotel and kept feeding him lots of food. Little did Mao know that Soviet scientists
were secretly collecting his poo so that they could analyze it and see what he was made
of. 38. When Mao was 69, he had a 14-year old girlfriend. 37. According to the BBC in 2017, for decades,
the BBC hired MI5 to vet anyone who worked for it. If they were even slightly too left-leaning,
they would soon be made unemployed. The BBC writes that by hiring what they called
subversives, it might lead to a left-leaning government. You must remember that many American and European
intellectuals might not have been keen on Soviet rule, but many were so-called Marxists. 36. In the USA, Joe McCarthy created vast paranoia
regarding Reds Under the Bed and communist infiltration of good ole American society. McCarthy was feared, and his stringent witch
hunts pervaded all areas of society. He didn’t seem to have any scruples either,
but that may have been down to the heroin that he was addicted to. It’s said that America’s first “War
on Drugs” czar, Harry Anslinger, made sure McCarthy got his fix. 35. It’s said one of the most successful spying
operations from the UK and the U.S. was something called Operation Tamarisk. This involved rooting through Soviet trash
to find documents. The thing was, though, sometimes the Soviets
ran out of toilet paper and had to wipe themselves with said documents. According to one writer, Tamarisk was British
jargon for, “sifting through the detritus of military exercises.” 34. MI5 was almost as bad as McCarthy, believing
anyone with slight communist links was a threat to British security. They monitored and spied on left-leaning politicians,
anti-nuclear weapons groups, anti-apartheid groups, members of Amnesty International,
and Civil Liberties organizations. 33. The US planned to detonate a nuclear bomb
on the moon in the 1950s. It was known as Project A119 and Carl Sagan
was on the team. He was hired to study what the effect would
be if you detonated such a bomb in a low gravity vacuum. It was thought that such a thing would boost
American morale and demoralize the Soviets. 32. The Soviets wanted to do the same thing. Their plan was codenamed E-4. Apparently, the E project had certain steps. 1 was to get a spacecraft to the moon. 2 and 3 were to orbit around it, and 4 was
to bomb it. What a world we live in, eh? 31. The CIA used LSD on its own soldiers as mind
control experiments. They did the same to biochemist Frank Olsen,
who nine days later mysteriously jumped to his death from a 13-story New York City hotel. 30. In 1951, there was a mass poisoning in a French
town called Pont-Saint-Esprit. People died, but others suffered from scary
hallucinations and ended up in the madhouse. It was said to be something in the bread. There are many theories about what happened,
and one is that the CIA spiked the bread with massive amounts of LSD as part of its MKNAOMI
chemical warfare program. Writing about the incident of what became
known as the “cursed bread,” the Telegraph newspaper said, “One man tried to drown
himself, screaming that his belly was being eaten by snakes. An 11-year-old tried to strangle his grandmother. Another man shouted: ‘I am a plane’ before
jumping out of a second-floor window, breaking his legs.” CIA 1 France 0. 29. The United States Air Force in the 50s used
drugged bears to test ejector seats in powerful planes. Apparently, Himalayan and American black bears
were a good size. No bears died, but some broke bones. You can watch it on YouTube. 28. And Canada was just as bad. It forced some of its Inuit population to
relocate further north, just so it could show the Soviets it had sovereignty there. 27. It’s actually sometimes said that the Cold
War started in Canada. That’s because a soviet cipher clerk named
Igor Sergeyevich Gouzenko defected there just after WWII and handed over 109 documents relating
to Soviet espionage and future plans. Some of those plans of course were to build
massive bombs. 26. According to the BBC, during the Cold War,
Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev and US President John F Kennedy wrote each other lots of letters. They even sent each other gifts. One such gift was given to Kennedy’s daughter. It was a dog called Pushinka, who was the
offspring of one of the Soviet space dogs. It in turn had puppies which JFK called the
pupniks. 25. If you check out recently released secret
files from the National Archive, there’s a conversation with the CIA director in 1975
and an attorney. The attorney asks, “Is there any information
involved with the assassination of President Kennedy which in any way shows that Lee Harvey
Oswald was in some way a CIA agent. . .” But mysteriously, that’s where the
document ends. 24. The term ‘Third World’ was not related
to poverty or standards of living when it was first used, but it meant any countries
not in NATO. 23. The British satirical puppet show “Spitting
Image” showed Soviet Leader Mikhail Gorbachev with what looked like a hammer and sickle
painted on his forehead. It’s actually a port-wine stain, a discoloration
of the skin. 22. If you look at secret files, you can see what
Gorbachev thought about 3,000 Chinese being killed at Tiananmen Square in Beijing in 1989. In a meeting, he discussed what would happen
if his own government met with resistance. “We must be realists. They have to defend themselves, and so do
we. 3,000 people, so what?” he said. 21. Later in life, Gorbachev teamed-up with former
U.S. President Bill Clinton to make a children’s music CD. They won a Grammy for their efforts. 20. During the Cold War, the Americans devised
a cunning plan. They would portray President Nixon as crazy,
so crazy he might press that red button at any time and start a nuclear war. They called this “The Madman Theory.” The theory was that if they could make someone
look so volatile, then other countries wouldn’t provoke the U.S. Some media now say Donald Trump uses the madman
theory, or at least it looks like that. 19. The USA spent 20 million dollars on a cat…We
should probably just leave you to think about that…But we won’t. Called the acoustic kitty, this cat was designed
to spy on Soviets, as it had a listening device implanted in its ear canal. On its first mission to spy on two gents in
a Soviet Compound in the US, it got hit by a taxi and died. Some people refute this and say the cat was
just useless. Either way it’s amusing if you don’t pay
taxes in the U.S. Declassified documents show how the CIA resigned themselves to failure,
stating that spying cats were just not practical. 18. The CIA didn’t stop at felines. They also trained ravens, pigeons, and goats. In fact, as was revealed years later, animal
training for spying purposes was a huge project at Langley. 17. In 2017, the New York Times wrote a story
about a man who had just died at 77. His name was Stanislav Petrov and it was a
decision he made that saved us from an all out nuclear war. In 1983, his missile early warning system
informed him that the U.S. had launched 5 Minuteman intercontinental ballistic missiles
at Russia. Protocol was an immediate retaliatory strike,
but the man just couldn’t believe it was real. And it wasn’t, the machine was malfunctioning. “Twenty-three minutes later, I realized
that nothing had happened. If there had been a real strike, then I would
already know about it. It was such a relief,” he told the press. 16. This is the first line of an article in The
Guardian, “If you were born before October 27th, 1962, Vasili Alexandrovich Arkhipov
saved your life.” At the height of the cold war, during the
Cuban missile crisis, the Soviets were about to strike with nuclear weapons. They believed America was about to strike
a submarine with a nuclear weapon and so the giant USS Randolph became the target for a
ten kiloton nuclear torpedo. You need three high-ranking officers to launch,
and Arkhipov said no. It turned out the U.S. wasn’t thinking about
its own launch. Phew. 15. LA Times headline, July 25th, 1986: “U.S.
and Soviets May Stage Joint Mars Mission.” Apparently, Reagan changed his mind, which
must have been a bummer for the then child, Elon Musk. 14. in 1983 Korean Airlines Flight 007 was
on its way from New York to Seoul. It didn’t get there because the Soviets
shot it down, killing all 269 passengers and crew. It was thought to have been a spy plane, but
it was just a regular old 747 carrying mostly vacation-goers. This created a lot of anti-Soviet sentiment
around the world. 13. The reason we first got the Global Positioning
System (or GPS) was because of that plane getting hit. After the event, President Reagan made sure
that GPS became a technology available to anyone in the world. Prior to that, only the military had it. 12. In the 60s in the USA, planes would fly around
all the time carrying nuclear bombs. This was a ‘just-in-case’ scenario. 5 of these planes with the bombs on board
crashed. That included a B-52 that crashed in North
Carolina in 1961, and it was carrying two 3–4-megaton Mark 39 nuclear bombs. Two people died, but you won’t have heard
about it. This was classified information. And little did North Carolina residents know,
that the bombs almost detonated…Do you think they would have blamed Russia? 11. As is often the case, the Russian threat was
overblown. While it was reported that Russia had scores
of intercontinental ballistic missiles in the 50s and 60s, it was later revealed they
only had 4. 10. If you look at the CIA field agent training
manual from the 50s, you’ll find the secret CIA shoelace code. This showed how you could tie your laces in
certain ways to tell someone something. It might mean I have some information, or
keep following me. 9. In 1959, Soviet Premier Khrushchev wanted
to take his family to visit Disneyland when he was visiting the U.S. He found out he was barred. The State Department was later apologetic,
saying he could take his family another day to see Mickey Mouse and co. The U.S said the reason for the snub was only
because of safety reasons. Soviet leaders weren’t exactly popular in
the states in those days. Putin didn’t go either; he just made his
own version of Disneyland in Russia. 8. If your job is related to the destruction
of the world and you know how tenuous our safety is, you might as well have some bad
habits, eh? Well, check out the 1960s Semi-Automatic Ground
Environment computer for the department of defense. It’s got built-in ashtrays. 7. But health of citizens wasn’t a big concern
of the USA in those days. Indeed, during the 50s and 60s, the military
secretly used biological weapons on parts of the country to see what would happen. People got sick in San Francisco, but it was
worse elsewhere, especially if you were poor. A sociologist named Lisa Martino-Taylor said
St. Louis was particularly used for these experiments, and the reason was because there
were plenty of poor black neighborhoods you could spray with radioactive particles. Live Science says no one would have died because
of the experiments, but people were definitely exposed to toxic particles. “The Army exposed St. Louis residents to
a maximum of 14.4 cigarettes’ worth of cadmium over 31 months,” said the website. 6. During the cold war, U.S. air force pilots
were given eye patches. They were told that a nuclear explosion would
blind them and make flying impossible. So, if they got the Defcon 2 or “DEFense
readiness CONdition 2” alert, which means “Next step to nuclear war. Armed Forces ready to deploy and engage in
fewer than 6 hours,” they should put on the patch and save one eye. 5. The military had programs in the 50s and 60s
whereby they would tattoo children with their blood group. It seems the programs were only in Indiana
and Utah. These kids then became walking blood banks,
which is handy if everyone around you is dying. “I still have my atomic tattoo (O-), but,
as I grew it got distorted, so it’s pretty illegible today,” said one person, now an
adult. 4. Back to animals and a bright idea from the
Brits. MI5 didn’t need exceptionally expensive
cats, what they used were the entirely expendable rodents called gerbils. “MI5 sleuths planned to use gerbils to trap
secret agents, terrorists, and subversives during the cold war,” writes the Guardian. The plan was simple. Gerbils can smell sweat easily. Bad people at airports sweat and release an
adrenalin scent. So, gerbils were left at airport counters. Theses crafty creatures had been trained to
push a lever if they smelled someone releasing lots of adrenalin scent. And yes, this is real. 3. In 1962, the U.S. detonated a hydrogen bomb
in space, creating what it called a spectacular light show. Why did the U.S. do this? Just to see what would happen, of course. The test was given a cool name: “Starfish
Prime.” 2. When the Brits weren’t training gerbils
to work at airports, they were busy lying about H-Bombs. In the 90s, the US Department of Energy released
archives from 1958. In those archives were documents pertaining
to the British bluffing about an H-Bomb test in the 50s. H-Bombs are known as fusion bombs, while atomic
bombs are fission bombs. The former is much more powerful. The Brits wanted to be seen as a superpower
that shouldn’t be messed with, so they faked the whole thing – in that they blew up an
A-Bomb and said it was an H-Bomb. 1. We are going to end on something funny. The story goes that a man called Frank Wisner
who was managing psychological warfare for the US planned to drop thousands of condoms
over the Soviet army from the air. The condoms would be labeled ‘medium’,
and this was supposed to demoralize Soviet troops as they contemplated their well-endowed
American foes. Wisner was said to have had a great sense
of humor, but that didn’t stop him from killing himself in 1965. Hmm, I guess that story wasn’t as funny
as it was supposed to be… So, there you have it. 50 lesser known facts about the the Cold War. There are so many more secrets we didn’t
speak about today, but maybe we’ll come back to this another time. Can you think of a cold war fun fact that
we failed to mention? Let us know in the comments! Also, be sure to check out our other video
called Average American vs Average Russian! Thanks for watching, and, as always, don’t
forget to like, share, and subscribe. See you next time!

How to stop politics from controlling your emotions | Tim Snyder

History is actually the one thing I think
which allows you to get out ahead. It’s very ironic, because when people think
about history they think, “Well, history means that things are going on in the world
and a historian is off reading dusty books,” which, fair enough, I would love to be reading
lots of dusty books right now. I will concede the point. But when you’ve read all those dusty books,
what happens is that you have the ability to see certain patterns, you have a sense
of what fits together and what doesn’t fit together. Isaiah Berlin wrote an essay on the possibility
of the scientific history, in which he said that “history is not about knowing what
happens, it’s about knowing what can’t happen.” That is extremely useful. So a historian will never look at a problem
and say, “This is entirely new,” a historian will look at a problem and try to find the
familiar aspects of it. And that’s a very big advantage over other
forms of analysis, because if you look at something and say that it’s totally new,
that disables the mind right away, it also tends to disable, I think, political action. Because if something is totally new it’s
very easy to take the next step and say, “Well if it’s totally new then what can I do about
it?” Or you can say, “Since it’s totally new
all things are permitted,” which can also lead you in some really unproductive direction. So the first thing the historian will do is
we’ll say, “Whatever this problem is, it’s not entirely new.” When a historian is confronted by something
very surprising like the 2016 campaign in the United States, the historian is likely
to say, “Well, the things that this candidate is saying aren’t true, but the possibility
this kind of campaign could work is a real possibility.” So the historian is freed from, or should
be freed from the conviction of the day, and the historian automatically looks back to
other moments where similar things like this coalesced. So for example, we’re in a second globalization. There was a first globalization in the late
19th and early 20th century. The second globalization began, our globalization
began, with all kinds of promises that technology and export-lead growth would lead to enlightenment
and liberalism—the first globalization did too. The first globalization crashed. It crashed into the first World War, the Great
Depression, the second World War, Stalinism, the Holocaust. A historian looking at today won’t think
“Well that whole pattern is going to repeat itself,” but the historian looking at it
today can say, “Yeah, a politician who says that globalization is a problem not a solution,
a politician who says that globalization is a matter of particular people plotting against
us as opposed to objective threats to the country or objective problems, that kind of
politician has a chance. That can work. Things like that have worked before.” And once you see that it can come together
that way, it’s not that you’re sure, it’s not that you predict it (although I have made
some predictions that were right), but it’s more that you can see it coming together,
and then that allows you to get out ahead, and you can think, “Okay, well, if this
is going to come together this way then I can also steal from the past people’s correct
reactions to it or people’s wise reactions to it. I can use those things from the failure of
the first of globalization, I can just borrow them, I can now extract them and put them
in the 21st century,” which is what I did in On Tyranny. So rather than saying, “Okay I’m going
to wait” – because by the time the pattern actually coalesces it’s too late! You have to see that the pattern might be
coalescing and then start messing with the pattern, that the way that you see in coalescing
comes from history, and the tools that you use to start messing with it also come from
history. So in that way, ironically, history can allow
you to get out ahead of something, whereas the journalists naturally have to describe
that—that’s their job. The social scientists they’re going to wait
to categorize it, and they’re kind of trapped. I mean another irony is that historians are
comfortable with novelty, because we know things change all the time. When your perspective is a thousand years
or even a hundred years, you know stuff changes. You know there are turning points. And you know that the stuff which people thought
was unbelievable yesterday will not only be believable but will even seem normal today. Any historian can see that. So that gives us a certain edge I think. The second thing that a historian will do
is that a historian will be skeptical about sources. So if you say “the problem is X”, a historian
will instantly cock his or her head and think, “Okay well, this person says the problem
is X, but let’s cast our minds out immediately to try to think of what the other 15 relevant
perspectives on this problem are. Is it actually a problem? Maybe it’s something which is desirable
from certain points of view.” So that’s a methodological reflex that,
whatever your first person perspective is, that’s not the truth for me. The truth automatically has to come from comparing
your perspective to a whole bunch of other perspectives. And that’s useful also because it can preserve
the dynamism and the urgency of something while taking some of the subjective spin from
it. So ideally a historian or a historically-trained
person is less likely to be played by the presentation of a problem and more likely
to skeptically figure out what its contours are. And the third advantage that historians have,
and maybe this is the one which I find to be most relevant in the present, is that historians
see time as a flow or as something which is continuous. And this is incredibly important now, because
the way that the news cycle works or the way that what I call the “politics of eternity”
works is that you get your brain bludgeoned every day by the emotions of the moment as
transmitted by very skilled political actors through very efficient media, and the result
is that it’s so easy to either be elated or outraged every day and to experience the
day as a kind of complete unit—where you wake up, you’re shocked, you’re outraged,
and then by the end of the day you’re dissipated, you’re exhausted, and then you just begin
this cycle again. Historians don’t believe in cycles, or at
least good historians don’t believe in cycles. Historians think that there are long-term
patterns; however exciting or however exhausting or however terrifying the thing is today,
it’s part of some longer sweep. So to give an extreme example, even nuclear
war—so in the last few months the subject of nuclear war has come up from all kinds
of directions. Even nuclear war has a history. There’s only been one, and that was in 1945,
and there have been a lot of moments where it was likely or less likely (like Cuba). So even something which is dramatic and which
is, as it were, designed to shock you out of thinking in time, even that can be put
in some kind of context. In other words the weapons that are designed
to get you to stop thinking, like “Let’s be afraid of the foreigners” or “let’s
be afraid of nuclear war,” if you think about those threats over time as part as some
kind of larger flow you’re less likely to be disabled, and you’re more likely to distinguish
the rhetoric from what might actually be the risk.

Desegregation in Corporate America: African-American Civil Rights Movement (1950s)

that’s the new girl it’s her first day some people say there’ll be trouble some people saw trouble coming right from the start one is right to rush the alarm kept low turn good office management begins at home you’re late guilty sir you’d better hurry my coffee’s probably getting cold I wonder I love to get up in the morning I’ve got such a nice boss to look forward to incidentally did you see the urgent note I left on your pad last night top policy meeting at 9:15 yes sir Dennis got back from Washington late yesterday and he called the meeting after you’re gone Thanks this must be the new government contract was there any explanation I tried to finesse some information from his secretary Beth but Jesus informative as a quiz program okay I better get going have some hot coffee waiting for me sir good office management begins at home they’ll quit first one then another whatever they do they’re gonna make hell for that first Negro girl you put on the payroll look mark we’re not walking into this blindfolded now Todd doesn’t pay me to manage personnel so that personnel can run the plant the way it wants what does that mean that you’re going to sit behind every secretary with a gun in her back it means we can put this new policy through without trouble now of course we’ll have to move slowly at first no matter how badly we need them now you’ve said it we need them gentlemen the Negro represents a labor force that hasn’t even begun to be tabbed how about a Kurt your departments been crying for help think we can make it work maybe works on the shop Negro and white hands work side by side we don’t have any trouble well how was it when you started not bad there was a lot of talk about trouble but the union was on our side that time they called a meeting and by the time they were through there wasn’t any opposition those were men Kurt they worked with their hands how about women women are different I think we’re asking for trouble just what is we are afraid of bad publicity money or we may be raising problems to hide our own prejudices look Lyle I don’t think I’m a bigot Lyle didn’t say that mark and I don’t think I’m a man of prejudices at least not any that I’d let it interfere with profits my department has sales I’m mostly on the outside and a man I sell the product who doesn’t care what color the girl is who types up the bill so because I’m on the outside I get around I hear stories Cara stories strike slowdowns trouble that’s all let’s call it morale a lot of white girls just don’t want to work next to a Negro girl whether you like it or not well now I’ll tell you something I’m not running for election and I’m not going to run scared no twenty-year-old stenographer is going to tell me how to run my business I’ve just come back from Washington I met there with the President’s Committee on government contracts believe me it was no tea party between me and the committee they were talking business since when is the president’s committee running Dennis industries we’re not talking just about Dennis industries when we talk about this we’re talking national policy and it’s not no we’ve had it ever since World War two under the president’s directive no company can deal with the government can get a contract unless its policies are clearly non-discriminatory although we employ Negroes on the production line that’s not enough as long as we set up a color line at the front door of the officers or any line for that matter we are discriminating aren’t we also responsible to the stockholders we can’t afford we can afford anything our competition can if we can’t we don’t belong in business from this meeting on our policy will be to hire every person we need strictly according to ability if you want to set an example put the first Negro secretary in my office nope not on your life Todd and have 12 girls quit because we’re giving away one of the most worked for jobs in the organization now that would be discrimination just the same I feel sorry for the first girl you hire she’d better be strong you’re right Kirk she’s got to be hand-picked she’s got to be so likeable that any white girl with a chip on her shoulder will think twice before she starts any trouble and so efficient but any man she works for Oh consider himself lucky you know I think the announcement of policy ought to come from your office Todd not just from personnel we want every single person in this outfit to know that you’re behind it down to the last typist in the pool every girl working here she’d be made to feel that she’s involved in putting through this new policy right that it that’s about it I’ll go with a new policy so what are you going to do they’ve got to live to lose if they don’t take it easy you two it hasn’t even happened yet I tell you I I know it for a fact I got it on the best authority right from the horse’s mouth what go ahead laughs maybe you won’t think it’s so funny when one of them is sitting at the desk next to you or at your desk maybe thought I wouldn’t wish on anybody ah what’s the joke no joke the voice of doom here spreading your usual morning cheer yes and this morning she’s colorblind very she’s got some very confidential information on the best of Thor I tell you it’s going to happen it’s done it is overall going to lose our job so loud I happen to need my time me I’ll quit first well what would we do without you Oh probably invite my replacement down here much what’s he talking about you know Ella she claims they’re going to start hiring some Negro office Oh around here so what so if I do I quit you’re kidding go ahead kid you tell him me they love us you don’t mean that I do I always understand me I haven’t got anything against take Ned the guard at the door for instance we’re good friends and I like him that doesn’t mean that I want him or his sister working in the office with me girls I don’t bother them and they don’t bother me that’s the way I mean to keep it where are you working now Mary lanes at least I was this morning I might not be this afternoon if I don’t get back pretty soon Mr Graham should be free in a minute he told you what he wants to talk to you about all I know is he said how would I really like to go to work and could I drop around to the Urban League on my lunch hour have you any idea what these books away please miss Thompson I’m sorry I kept you waiting would you come inside you’ll only take a few minutes good luck Thanks as Miss Thompson and filling your head full of tall tales would you have a seat please cigarette let’s see you’ve been working in lanes since you got out of high school right and now you’ve graduated from secretarial school must be pretty rough working during the day and going to school at night didn’t it I think it was a little hard on my family than on me they had to listen to my complaining well it looks like it might have been worthwhile how would you like to go to work as a secretary at Dennis industries you want the truth don’t you mr. Graham Oh certainly I’d give an eyetooth to work as a secretary but at Dennis industries I’m not so sure oh you’re afraid maybe you’re not quite good enough yet huh no that isn’t the reason I’m more afraid they wouldn’t want me at Dennis well someone does they called me I didn’t call them mr. Graham we’re not talking about anything that’s secret they’ve never hired a Negro girl everyone knows that it’s not that they discriminate it’s just that they don’t hire us maybe things are changing Mary don’t misunderstand well I’d love to work at Dennis I do want a job as a secretary and I could handle it I know you could I checked your records you have every qualification you need now let me bring you up to date last week the personnel department of Dennis got in touch with every employment agency in town it told them the beginning immediately Negroes were to be hired on the Dennis Office force really yes really they also call up the Urban League and asked us to help them over the hurdal sounds serious they are serious they’ve already started to map a long-term educational plan so that the schools around here will know exactly what kind of help they need whether they’ve approached every organization in town and asked for their assistance this could be a tremendous step forward but what about me suppose I do go up for the job the personnel department can’t make people like me they can’t tell the other girls that well that that you’re as good as they are no they can’t but they can give you every chance to show you are very right now they need us and we certainly need them if we don’t take the chance when it comes along it may not come along again we have everything to gain you have everything to gain and nothing to lose except a job and about ten feet of pride it’s a funny thing Mary once someone offers you a choice you can’t ever go back to the way it was before if you don’t try when you go out of here you’ll find your pride has shrunk to ten inches if you do try well if you do try you may have something to be really proud of what do you say all right I’ll try good girl well how’s the crusade for freedom that Dennis industries coming was a girl coming over from the Urban League tomorrow morning but she’s through with personnel I’d like you to have a talk with her sure lime I’ll be glad to have a talk with you no talk isn’t enough in a situation like this will you mean you people upstairs are really serious about this let me point out one thing you will Dennis Industries does a lot of business with the government fine and we turn out a good product and the law says Fair Employment Practice it never fails up on cloud 19 the VIPs decide to work a miracle and then the little wheels downstairs have to start grinding are you guests hiring Negro that’s not what I said ly Oh what did you say but I’m only an office manager I can’t make a hero out of Todd dinner nobody asked you to do that all you have to do is to follow company parlance and lose half the girls in the office while I’m doing it have you lost any yet not yet but there’s muttering I heard one of the girls say she’ll quit as soon as we hire a Negro for your information she happens to be the most popular girl in the office if she quits it could start an exodus that would make the one out of Egypt look like a quiet Sunday afternoon if she decides to quit I’d like to know immediately anyone else for that matter well I tell you it won’t work the girls won’t stand for it okay will you tell me what oh come on come on don’t be naive you know the reasons as well as I do what the washrooms for instance you know what I mean what are these same girls do when they go to the restaurants in the movie just supper so they have no choice they won’t have a choice here from now on no it will we’ve notified the unions and asked for the cooperation no trouble there every department head has made it official all the way down the line there’s a memo out in black and white so that everybody can see it and we agreed that the best way is to make a definite stand from the top down what you think we’re living in the dark ages we’re not good people going to realize that this is the 20th century in the United States of America with freedom and liberty for all yeah exactly that doesn’t say anything about working where you don’t want to are you telling me you want to quit well I probably won’t have to my job will just disappear into thin air along with the rest of the staff you know I don’t understand you well I’ve talked to every man in a responsible position here at Dennis most of them wonder what all the fuss is about if you admit they don’t like the idea of a Negro secretary but they’re willing to go along with the idea now go ahead try them but you you just you keep on saying it won’t work I wonder if you know how you really feel well I’ll tell you you know those signs you put up in the plant equal economic opportunity where you can wallpaper the whole building with them but you can’t change the facts of life I’ve got to get home time isn’t well if this girl tomorrow morning passes all those tests it’s your job to place her in one of those openings you’ve been complaining about for so long see you later we’re very lucky to find someone with your qualifications miss Newton thank you you pass those tests with flying colors as a matter of fact I thought I’d be too nervous to hold a pencil all that’s left is a physical just routine I’ll have my secretary fix an appointment with the medical office kid would you just alert the medical office that Miss Newton will be down in about half an hour and now you’d better meet the man you’ll probably be working for mr. Nelson may I ask you a question would it be possible for me to have an assignment in the accounting department why well to tell the truth there’s a girl in there from my class at high school we’re not friends exactly but I thought it might make things miss Newton is a new employee at Dennis I think you ought to know our rules we don’t give favors we don’t give preferential treatment I’m sorry I just thought we stick to our word every employee is treated solely on his merits for better oh I see now I’ll take you down and introduce you to mr. Harden so they can you have to wait the time say right by you the gentleman who’s been complaining about the lack of office help you don’t get someone to sit at that desk pretty soon you’ll have to dig me out from all this paperwork I have somebody for you right now you better have four hands she’s 22 graduate from secretarial school honors student conscientious loyal eager to work go on I don’t believe him she’s outside would you like to meet her sure bring her in until her have a pencil sham so that we can good start Miss Mary Newton mr. Curt Hardin I think you’ll find your work cut out for you how do you doing how are you doing you should have seen his face he just looked at me like he couldn’t believe it like he couldn’t believe it What did he say he said how do you do he said it twice and then he turned around went back to his desk said he’d see me tomorrow what did the other guy do then mr. Nelson yeah smiled like there was some sort of a joke and then he took me down to the medical office did anybody say anything about you being the first coloured girl in the office they didn’t have to you could see it in their faces the way the girl in mr. Nelson’s office looked at me maybe you just imagined all of it well that’s a crazy thing to say mama why should she imagine it it’s the truth you just don’t understand yes I understand you may not think I understand what I do you think I can’t understand because I’m your mother and I’m older but but I do what you’re going through isn’t new when I was a young girl I I had to leave high school to get a job I would have given anything to work in a shop but it just wasn’t done where I lived nobody ever heard of a nigger working in a shop where white girls and white women came in to buy things so I I got a job cleaning house and I cleaned house and cried at nights until I got married maybe my mother had something she wanted very bad and couldn’t have him cried about all night I don’t know but now I have you children and I’ve watched you grow up and finish school and now Mary’s working in a shop and crying her eyes out because she can’t work in an office well maybe she can work in an office and if she can I don’t want to see a thrown away the chance because she’s afraid maybe those people hate up maybe some of them do and maybe she’s imagining a lot of it dreaming up trouble to hide her fears and if this is the way it is then she’s got to find out and the only way to find out is to go to work tomorrow or else when she has her own kids she’s going to have to watch him get hurt and crying and be afraid and she always wondered if she couldn’t have suffered it for them and maybe made their lives a little easier the way I sometimes wonder now money mr. Nelson yes I’m resigning serious seriously okay I appreciate your getting here on time to tell me you know exactly why I’m quitting I think you may receive a personal invitation from mr. Todd Dennis of Dennis industries to present your case to him personally but it should come to this tell him I’d like to see her right away let’s squash this and get Lyle Ross on the phone Oh Beth may I ask you a personal question of course where do you stand on all this you’ve heard the policy discussion how do you feel well honestly mr. Dennis I wonder where everybody’s been I mean doesn’t anybody in this company read the newspapers or go to the movies I think it’s about time we woke up you can be a great help to us right now how by giving the new girl a chance by making sure that she gets a chance you mean by being especially nice to her not especially nice just plain ordinarily nice common garden-variety knives you have a certain amount of prestige here use it well I wouldn’t want the other girls to think I was doing it just because I was the daughter don’t you start being frightened to think about it it’s not an order just a random comment on humanity I’m sorry you want to leave this right up to now you’ve been an asset to the company I’m sorry to mr. Denis up to now I’ve enjoyed working here I suppose you’ll be looking for another job in a plant that doesn’t hire Negroes of course in a plant that doesn’t hire them to work in the office with me well that’s going to be more and more difficult I think you understand my position I know your position I don’t understand it it’s not difficult to explain I know I’ve heard it all before surely you don’t expect us to adjust our policies to meet your approval frankly I’d rather not work to work under your new policy rather not work well you’re lucky how do you mean lucky you can afford that alternative I can’t afford it neither can most of the people working here mr. Dennis I just don’t understand why my leaving has suddenly taken on such importance I wish I felt flattered by all the tension but I’m afraid I don’t well the fact is you’re leaving the company is much more important than a personal matter for me or for you I’m not going to even attempt to argue with your prejudices I know that in a few minutes here I can’t change whatever has made you think the way you’ve been thinking for a lifetime but if you don’t mind I’d like to put the shoe on the other foot you’re a popular girl here probably with good reason what you do quitting that is they set an example for a lot of other girls who can’t afford your independence I’m responsible for this company that means I’m responsible to the stockholders for the people working here to myself even to the whole country indirectly and it’s too late to crawl back into a shell I’m afraid I don’t understand mr. Dennis that’s right today I’m going to ask you to stay on here a Dennis in spite of how you feel to give us to give this girl to give yourself even a chance to find out if we’re right you’re putting me in a pretty tough spot mr. Dennis well it may not be as tough as you think you’re making it often difficult to refuse it would have been so much easier if you just bawled me out this is something that has to be handled reasonably will you give it a try I think it’s only fair to warn you I I may do all the wrong things you may be sorry if I stay well every day I’m in business I’m taking chances I’m willing to take this one I’ll think about it mr. Dennis I will say this though it’s the first time I’ve stopped to think about it at all thank you I’m just no hello Larry the secretary is usually need over here to join us there was no mass walkout no one quits a few girls even tried to help out resentment turned to curiosity then curiosity became interest in time Mary was no longer the new girl and new girls no longer meant trouble so we all settle down again to the difficult business of making a living

LifeTalk Breaking News: MeToo & Politicians Ignore America’s Hidden Sex Scandal!

🎶 Music 🎶 Hello. I’m Mark Crutcher,
president of Life Dynamics. On this Tuesday’s edition of Life Talk,
we released our new report documenting that thousands of women and girls have been raped
or sexually assaulted in American abortion clinics. This has been going on for decades
and since the release of our report, the cover-up by the abortion Lobby and
the mainstream media has continued. We’ve also contacted the #MeToo movement as
well as more than 50 of their political supporters . So far we’ve had absolutely
no response from #MeToo, and only one inquiry from
one of these politicians. Their claim to care about sexual assault
victims is being exposed as they lie. So I’m asking each one of you for your help. First, go to www.LifeDynamics.com/rape and inform yourself – and then
encourage all your friends to do the same. Then write letters to the editor,
call in on talk shows, use social media, or do whatever you can to get this
message in front of the American people. You can even have these talk shows
contact us about an interview. And if you don’t think that’s
important, remember this: at least four of the sexual predators
we identified in our report are STILL working in American
abortion clinics right now. We are counting on you – because without
your help this scandal will remain hidden. Thank You. you