What If The Space Race Never Ended? | Unveiled

What if the Space Race Never Ended? A large part of the twentieth century was
occupied with the Cold War, the tense and dangerous diplomatic conflict primarily between
the USA and the USSR. These two global superpowers spent years aiming
to out-do each other via their militaries, industry and technology, with a particular
focus – especially during the early stages – on the space race. But, this is Unveiled, and today we’re answering
the extraordinary question; What if the space race never ended? Are you a fiend for facts? Are you constantly curious? Then why not subscribe to Unveiled for more
clips like this one? And ring the bell for more fascinating content! NASA’s iconic Apollo program was discontinued
in the 1970s, having achieved its main goal in putting an astronaut – an American astronaut
– on the moon. That particular piece of history may have
played out differently, however, had the Soviet scientist Sergei Korolev not died in 1966. Korolev was considered the driving force behind
early Soviet space efforts, guiding his country to various milestones during his lifetime
including launching the first successful satellite, the first animal into orbit, the first human
into orbit, and staging the first spacewalk. NASA beat the Soviet Space Program to the
holy grail of space travel, though, when they landed Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin on the
lunar surface in 1969. And yet, after 1969 – or at least after 1972,
when the final Apollo mission ended; Apollo 17 – the space race somewhat fizzled out. The Cold War continued, but the emphasis on
off-Earth endeavours grew less and less. Interestingly, although both sides were reportedly
developing “space weapons”, the prospects of a space war breaking out were mostly quite
low – thanks to the Outer Space Treaty (signed in 1967) which upheld the moon and space in
general as somewhere for everyone, stating that no nation could claim territory outside
of Earth’s atmosphere. In our own universe, no one has yet tried
to break that rule… so had the space race continued in the same vein, we’ll assume
that space itself remains neutral ground. But, in many other aspects, the world might’ve
been a very different place! Had both sides continued competing against
one another toward more space milestones, and had public interest in space travel remained
high (rather than dipping as it did, post Apollo 11) a logical next step forwards from
sending people to the moon for a few days would have been to send them there for a lot
longer. Moon colonies have for decades been spoken
about and dreamed of but without there ever really being the funds available to make them
happen. With money and enthusiasm, though, the competition
to build a city would have given both sides the chance to really make their mark in space
– and to set space colony trends for the future. There were plans in motion, too. The Soviets, for example, were reportedly
aiming for a moon base called “Zvezda” up until 1974, but a series of problems and
general lack of enthusiasm for it led to the project being delayed and ultimately shelved. Today, Roscosmos is again planning to build
a colony on the moon, but this time by 2040 – almost seventy years after Zvezda might’ve
been completed! Had the space race never ended then we may
have had Zvezda by now, with it becoming an iconic and integral location in space exploration. While the Soviets had plans to build mini
moon cities, however, one Princeton professor, Gerard O’Neill, was also working in the
‘70s to design satellite cities. These sprawling structures – known as O’Neill
Cylinders – were planned to include vast hydroponics systems and to make ground-breaking use of
centrifugal force for artificial gravity – and they’re still held by many as our best bet
for creating orbital cities, today. Again, a lack of interest and funding meant
that they ultimately didn’t happen… but in a world where the space race didn’t grind
to a halt, we could well have seen them by now. In fact, the now “retro” designs of O’Neill’s
satellites and Zvezda would have become the blueprint for “what humans in space should
look like”. Another mission we’d have mastered (or be
much closer to mastering) would be Mars. Since the start of the 21st century especially,
getting to Mars has seemed the number one goal for space agencies and aerospace firms. Had the space race of the 20th century never
ended, though, then the world’s sights would have been primarily set on the Red Planet
for several decades more. Say the funding available on both sides of
the Atlantic had actually increased year-on-year, a Mars base might’ve been the next step
after establishing a lunar presence. The Soviet Union’s Segei Korolev was again
ahead of the trend, here. Already in the 1960s, he had drawn up plans
to send cosmonauts to Mars and then to Venus… so, combine the focus of the past with the
know-how of today, and who knows how much of the solar system we’d have explored by
now? But, in reality, the original space race wasn’t
borne purely out of the joy of discovery. And for all the technological advancements
we might’ve made had it continued, it may have also had a profound impact on general
life on Earth. The space race also gave both sides of the
Cold War the chance to display their military might. The same rocket science that enabled space
agencies to launch people off of Earth could also potentially be used to launch nuclear
warheads around the globe… If the space race had continued, then, the
nuclear arms race would have continued, too. While today neither Russia nor America has
denuclearised, the sheer volume of weapons in existence would likely have been much higher,
with the threat of nuclear war in the 2020s perhaps still being as intense as it was in
the 1960s. In fact, while the Outer Space Treaty does
serve to ease potential problems in space, we still would have seen teams from both sides
striving to beat each other (rather than working together) on the lunar surface, in Low Earth
Orbit, or even on Mars. Given that a prolonged space race may have
also heightened political tensions on the ground, there’d perhaps have been less chance
of collaborative projects the like of which we have seen in reality – like the International
Space Station. That said, even in the midst of the Cold War,
one of the biggest and most famous initiatives was the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, in 1975. These were missions involving both the US
and Soviet space agencies with crews of astronauts and cosmonauts. Some actually hold the ASTP as the moment
when the space race originally ended, but in an alternate timeline it might’ve ushered
in a new chapter – with the race itself continuing, but also with the potential for both countries
to team up. We’d then have seen joint efforts in space
exploration but with now-gigantic budgets behind them… a “best of both worlds”
scenario where shared lunar colonies, satellite cities and Martian habitats dwarf what either
side might’ve achieved on their own. Finally, what a everyone else? How significantly would an ongoing space race
really have changed the lives of the watching public? It could still have taken decades before we
all reaped the benefits of space travel, but we would have seen other technologies accelerate
in the meantime. One of the earliest, particularly powerful
computers was the IMB Naval Ordnance Research Calculator, designed for the US Navy in the
1950s. But we now know that computers definitely
haven’t remained only for military use, instead becoming a vital part of modern society. Similarly, it’s often said that today’s
smartphones are actually more advanced than the systems NASA used to achieve the moon
landing. So, in a world where the space race had continued
indefinitely, it would have led to everything else happening earlier, too. Phones, laptops, social media, the internet…
we might have already developed ways to communicate with people not just in other countries, but
on other planets; commercial flights might’ve been venturing not just to different continents,
but to different worlds. All of the tech that today feels cutting edge
would now be old news. Technologically and scientifically speaking,
it’s an alternate reality that promises a great deal. In terms of international diplomacy and ongoing
Cold War tensions, though, there’s no telling the impact that it would’ve had. But that’s what would happen if the space
race had never ended. What do you think? Is there anything we missed? Let us know in the comments, check out these
other clips from Unveiled, and make sure you subscribe and ring the bell for our latest

Patti Morton: America’s first female Diplomatic Security Special Agent

and it fit in there but you all can see that it didn’t like being stretched as much because it wasn’t an
easy fit. so the idea is for us to train the
drivers, as well as the rider, to tell the driver what to do, so they come up here
and the bad people gonna hijack them or whatever the appropriate term is and so
if you hit it in the right place it will turn the vehicle around you
don’t have to go down here where the bad things are happening. so the midnight hours
where available I wasn’t gonna bitch or complain about it because the
idea was to always adapt and make the best, the most, out of what was available.

The Curious Case of Certain States

There’s one state in the US that likes to
brag about how independent they are. Saying that they have a provision in their
constitution that says they can leave the union whenever they like… or that they can
fly their flag at the same height as the US flag because they’re the only state that
used to be an independent republic. If you haven’t figured out which state I’m
talking about, it’s Texas. Because of course it’s Texas. But none of those statements are actually
true. In case you missed it, this is somewhat of
a followup to my American Empire video a few weeks ago, so if you haven’t already, give
that a quick watch. Don’t worry, I’ll still be here when you
get back. But before I talk about Texas, it’s worth
mentioning that not only is Texas not the only former independent republic to join the
United States, but it’s also not even the first. Quick, name the original thirteen colonies! Okay obviously I can’t hear you, this isn’t
Dora the Explorer… so you can stop now. If you’re an international viewer, or an
average American, you were probably going to get it wrong anyway. Let’s name them all together, shall we? If you didn’t already know, the US flag
has 13 stripes to pay homage to the original 13 colonies. Let’s start at the bottom and work out way
up. Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia,
Maryland, Delaware, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts,
New Hampshire. Notice anything missing here? I’d give you a second but I don’t want
this to be another twenty minute long video so… Vermont. Vermont isn’t on the list. Vermont was not one of the original thirteen
colonies. After the United States declared independence
in 1776, Vermont broke away from Quebec and formed the Republic of Vermont, which fought
alongside the United States as an independent republic. They also got land from the neighboring states
of New York and New Hampshire because it was assumed that it would eventually join the
union. But since there was no Constitution until
1789, there was no statehood process… so it governed itself as an independent country
for 12 years. Everything about Vermont indicated that it
couldn’t wait to be part of the United States. It’s motto, Stella Quarta Decima, means
the fourteenth star and its great seal had a 14 branched tree. So finally, in 1791, it became the fourteenth
state – and the first state to actually join the United States. After the US gained independence from Great
Britain in 1783, it was also given the large area known as the Northwest Territory. Under British control, the area was going
to become what they called an “Indian Barrier State.” Or rather, a place to put all of the soon-to-be
displaced Native Americans from the east coast. When the United States took over, that plan
was still floating out there in the ether… but as more and more white settlers began
moving to the region, the proposed area set aside for the Native Tribes, also known as
Indiana, got smaller and smaller. In the War of 1812, many Native American tribes
fought alongside the British, because the British promised to reinstate the plan to
establish Indiana as a buffer state. Unfortunately for them the British lost and
in 1816 Indiana became a regular old state. However, as part of the peace treaty, the
British made America provide Native Americans with their own independent lands, which is
the beginning of the reservation system. Unfortunately, part of that deal did not include
where these lands had to be. At this point, the US had acquired the Louisiana
Territory as part of the purchase I discussed in the last video. So they picked pretty much the most inhospitable
tract of land they could, Oklahoma, and in 1830 signed the Indian Removal Act. Which didn’t actually mandate the removal
of Native Americans from the Southeastern US… but pretty much yeah, mandated that
the tribes be relocated. You’ve probably, hopefully, heard of the
Trail of Tears in 1838, which was when the Cherokee were forcefully moved from Georgia
to what was then called the Indian Territory. And when I say forcefully moved, I don’t
mean deported and put on a plane. I mean they had to walk the 1000 miles on
foot, where 20% of them died along the way. Not exactly the United States’ proudest
moment. Indian Territory was never going to be an
independent country, but it was going to be an autonomous region of the US. Much like reservations today. Part of the United States but like, not really,
but… yeah, totally part of the United States. All of that ended though when Oklahoma, despite
being smack in the middle of the country, became one of the last states to join the
union in 1907. Surprisingly, despite the original plan, almost
none of present-day Oklahoma is reservation… So try to figure that one out. But let’s get a little less depressing and
a little more south and talk about Texas again. Texas was originally a state belonging to
Mexico. By the way, the official name of Mexico is
the United States of Mexico (United Mexican States depending on translation). Structurally, it’s pretty much identical
to the United States of America. But anyway, the area that became Texas was
heavily settled and colonized by Americans… so much so that Mexico banned American immigration
in 1830. This didn’t make the American settlers very
happy, so in 1836, Texas fought for its independence from Mexico. Have you ever heard the rallying cry “Remember
the Alamo?” It’s one of those famous sayings from American
history. Which is odd, because it wasn’t American. The battle of the Alamo was part of the Texas
Revolution. And it’s not like it’s kind of sort of
American history, because when Texas kind of sort of won its independence and petitioned
for annexation, the United States didn’t want it. Possibly because they didn’t want to start
a war with Mexico… yet. So Texas governed itself as an independent
republic, recognized by the United States, but not recognized by Mexico. It extended all the way up into present-day
Wyoming. Citizens of the Republic of Texas were called
Texians, or Texicans… or my personal favorite, Texilingans. Just let that one sit on your tongue for a
minute. I swear, I couldn’t make that up if I tried. They didn’t settle on the term Texan until
it became a state, in 1846. Texas was by far the largest state to join
the union at the time, so there was a plan to break it up into smaller parts. But that was abandoned because that would
create too many slave states and outnumber the free states, which would wildly upset
the balance set up by the Missouri Compromise. So while there is no provision in the Texas
state constitution allowing it to secede whenever it wants, there IS a provision allowing it
to break up into five smaller states whenever it wants. That’s pretty unlikely, but… it is there. CGP Grey did a video a few years ago about
the intricate details of Texas seceding, link down below, but spoiler alert, it can’t. The other myth, that it’s the only state
allowed to fly its flag at the same height as the United States flag is also just a myth. The US Flag Code states that the US flag must
always be higher than any state flag, it doesn’t make an exception for Texas or any other state. Texas law also doesn’t say anything like
that. BUT, if you’re that convinced that the US
and Texas flag should be at the same height, on different flag poles, the US flag should
be to the flag’s right, or observer’s left. Which is the military position of honor. If you have a bunch of flags the US flag should
be at the center, center right if there are an even number. I don’t know why you needed to know all
of that… but now you know. *The more you know*
Anyway, Texas joined the United States in 1846, at the start of the Mexican-American
War. Which was actually much more about California
than it was about Texas. Alta California was a state in the United
States of Mexico; if you’ve ever wondered why there is a Baja California in Mexico and
you don’t speak Spanish, that’s because Alta means high, and Baja means low. So High and Low California… kind of like
North and South Carolina… Anyway, that doesn’t matter. California declared its independence from
Mexico on June 14, 1846 and formed the New California Republic. Okay if you didn’t see that coming you obviously
don’t watch my channel very often. The republic lasted a whole 25 days before
it was annexed by the United States. It was around this time that America was all
about dat Manifest Destiny, and they really wanted territory on the Pacific Coast. California, like Texas, was full of white
American settlers, so they weren’t really opposed to the idea of annexation. When America won the Mexican American War
in 1848, an area the size of the Louisiana Purchase was ceded, including California,
Texas, and everything else north of the Rio Grande River. That same year, gold was discovered in California,
but it took a year for everyone in the east to hear about it – so the huge wave of migrants
during the Gold Rush are called the 49’ers. And now you know why the football team is
named that. California became a state shortly after that
in 1850. But we weren’t done getting land from Mexico. A few years later we bought a little piece
of land in modern day Arizona and New Mexico in order to build the first transcontinental
railroad, but that plan got derailed in 1864 for some reason. I actually made a video about that a while
back too if you’re interested. But California wasn’t the only former republic
to be annexed. During the Spanish-American war in 1898, which
I also talked about in a previous video, the United States really needed a friendly harbor
somewhere in the Pacific Ocean in order to help with their invasions of Guam and the
Philippines. So they annexed the Republic of Hawaii. *South Park Clip* No… nobody calls it that. It’s actually kind of depressing how accurate
that episode was …. I grew up in Hawaii… I’m not a native. But because of that I know Hawaiian history
ad nauseum. Ready?! Be more excited please. The Hawaiian Islands were … re-discovered
by Captain James Cook in 1779. The same James Cook that I talked about in
my Ant- Okay you know what, just assume I’ve touched on all of these topics before and
go watch my previous videos. Just like Native Americans, Hawaiians like
to look back on their history as if it were ultra peaceful. Sorry, but Native Hawaiians were people too. The British didn’t like having to trade
and deal with so many small islands and chiefs, so they helped Kamehameha *Kamehameha* unite
five of the islands in a war that took fifteen years, ending in 1795; the other two islands
joined peacefully in 1810, thus creating the Kingdom of Hawaii. He was super brutal and slaughtered hundreds
of men. Remember that famous cliff scene from 300
that I’m not going to show you because of copyright? Yeah, that actually happened (Battle of Nuuanu). At spear-point, Kamehameha’s army drove
over 400 people off of the cliff at the modern-day Pali Lookout. Anyway, being smack in the middle of the Pacific
Ocean, Hawaii was a prime trading and military location. Many countries were looking at taking it over,
but its distance from everywhere made it almost impossible to claim. Perhaps predictively, the United States became
its primary trading partner. But because of Kamehameha’s affinity to
the British, they made this the flag – with the union jack in the corner as if it were
part of the British Empire or Commonwealth. It never was; the British never recognized
it or claimed it as part of the empire. It was kind of like putting a fake ring on
it so when the United States came perving around Hawaii could say they were already
spoken for… but they totally weren’t spoken for. A few decades later the flag was changed to
this and has stayed the same ever since. Hawaii primarily grew sugar because of its
tropical climate. And just like Texas and California, it didn’t
take long before white settlers were the primary business owners and wealthiest people in the
kingdom. Over the decades the Kings and Queens slowly
gave up power in favor of a constitution and a more parliamentary style of government. But in 1893, when the last Queen tried to-
what you think I can’t say that? Queen Liluokalani. The state fish of Hawaii is the humuhumunukunukuapua’a. Don’t doubt my Hawaiian-ness again… even
though I’m totally white. Anyway, in 1893 the Queen tried to take back
some of her monarchical powers, and as a result the white settlers, with the help of some
US Marines, revolted and created the Bayonet Constitution – forming the Republic of Hawaii. It lasted four years before it was officially
annexed by the United States. And it was the last state to join the union
in 1959. Hawaiian history is actually incredibly complicated,
interesting, and downright comical at times. Like the fact that the Kamehamehas were so
worried about diluting their bloodline that they pulled a Targaryen and basically incested
themselves into extinction. When the last one died Hawaii had to elect
their next King – from House Kalakaua. Anyway, if you’d like to know way more than
you ever thought you wanted to about Hawaiian history, I highly recommend the book “Unfamiliar
Fishes” by Sarah Vowell. So the next time someone from Texas tells
you that they were the only republic to join the union, you can fire back with Vermont,
California, and Hawaii, because- wait wait wait, what about Deseret and Alaska and all
the other states you haven’t talked about- Sigh, okay I guess I just have to make another
one of these… but again, at least for now, you know better.

When is Independence Day?

When is Independence Day? Easy, July 4th. Everyone knows that, even non-Americans know
that. Yeah but… why? You may be thinking that the answer is simple,
because that’s the day that the Declaration of Independence was signed… I feel like I’m about to tell someone that
the tooth fairy isn’t real. Many people already know this, and if you
don’t, you will… now… the Declaration of Independence was not signed on July 4th. It was actually signed on August 2nd. Okay fine then, when the Continental Congress
voted to declare independence. That actually happened on July 2nd. In fact, John Adams thought that this should
be Independence Day, saying “The Second Day of July 1776, will be the most memorable
Epocha (? That’s not a word!), in the History of America.” He also said that about May 15th when he wrote
a preamble that HE regarded as a declaration of independence but nobody else did so, you
know, take that with a grain of salt. Okay well then what happened on July 4th? Congress ordered some final official copies
of the Declaration of Independence to be printed… This was the day that those famous, immortal
words were printed and spread to the masses. We hold these truths to be self-evident, that
all men are created equal, that we will not go quietly into the night! We will not vanish without a fight! We’re going to live on, we’re going to
survive! Today we celebrate our Independence Day! Really though aside from those first few sentences,
the rest of the Declaration reads like a whiny list of complaints aimed at the King. Ranging from fairly legitimate:
He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good. For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:
For depriving us in many cases, of the benefit of Trial by Jury:
To the fairly ridiculous: He has called together legislative bodies
at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their Public Records,
for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures. Really, you’re complaining about the location
of your meeting place? Anyway, since we’re already splitting hairs
– which Declaration of Independence is THE Declaration of Independence? Well, you should know by now that I wouldn’t
rhetorically ask something that had an easy answer. As I said on July 4th, 1776, the Continental
Congress ordered around 200 copies of the Declaration of Independence to be officially
printed and distributed to various state assemblies, military units, and institutions. These are known as the Dunlap Broadsides,
after the printer who printed them. They’re all a little different actually,
because the typeset would shift between prints or he would stack them on top of each other
or fold them in half before the ink was dry, so they all have their own little quirks. There are only 26 known copies existing today…
and there may be more! The most recent copy was found in 2008. In 1989, one was discovered hidden behind
a framed picture bought at a flea market for 4 dollars. Four dollars. That actually happened! Seriously! Fun fact, none of them were officially sent
to England or you know, the people who probably most needed to see it. If you’re going to declare war, the war
doesn’t start until the declaration of war is received. Not written, not announced, but received. At least, back in the days of gentlemanly
war. Which, 1776 was definitely back in those days. Granted, the fighting had started long before
the Declaration of Independence was even a glimmer in Thomas Jefferson’s eye. Just for the sake of being thorough, the date
that most historians view as the actual beginning of the American Revolutionary war is April
15, 1775 with the Shot Heard Round the World at Lexington and Concord. Well over a year before the Declaration, which
again, was never sent with an ambassador to deliver to the king or anything. It just kind of made its way to England through
various British officials still living in the US. Two months ago, in April 2017, a copy of the
Declaration of Independence was found in Sussex, England that was likely written between 1783
and 1790. And it’s a copy of a copy of something someone
read to someone else in a noisy bar, so it’s slightly different in its own little ways. It’s close enough, but it spent a few rounds
playing telephone. Anyway, I’m wildly off track here. There are 26 Dunlap Broadsides. Two of which are in the Library of Congress
and one in the National Archives. These were made on July 4th, 1776. But they were not signed. So on July 19th Congress commissioned an engrossed,
parchment copy to be hand written by Timothy Matlack. This is known as the Matlack Declaration,
and it is the one that was signed on August 2nd. This is the one that John Hancock signed all
huge and fancy because he was the President of the Congress. Not the President of the United States, there’s
a difference, and I made a video on that already. But this is the one that is on primary display
at the National Archives, and is the one that Nicholas Cage stole in National Treasure. This is the one that many people refer to
as THE Declaration of Independence. Just for completionist’s sake, in January
1777, Congress commissioned another set of official broadsides to be printed, this time
with the names of everyone who signed it, known as the Goddard Broadside. This was the first time that public knew who
signed the Declaration of Independence and there are currently 9 of those in existence. So if Congress declared independence on July
2nd, some copies were distributed on July 4th, but THE Declaration of Independence was
written on July 19th and not signed until August 2nd… why is Independence Day July
4th? For the same reason that Christmas is on December
25th. They just decided. Oh yeah, I’m about to ruin Christmas for
you too, but only a little bit. If you don’t know already, most historians
agree that Jesus was born in the year 4 BC… which doesn’t… that’s not important. The important thing is that nobody knows the
day. Back in the year 200, when they were trying
to figure this all out, the main guesses were April 20th-21st or May 20th. There were other guesses all over the place
(January 2, March 25, April 18, April 19, November 17, November 20) but weirdly none
of them were in December. So why December 25th? Because that WAS the Winter Solstice under
the Julian Calendar – it’s December 21st now. And that was during other existing holidays
and festivals like Saturnalia and Sol Invictus. So, again, why December 25th? Because they just decided to put it here. Why July 4th? Because they just decided to put it there. But should they have? Let’s look at it another way. What makes a country a country? I mean besides the whole, having land and
people and a government and stuff. It’s when you’re a recognized member of
the UN, right? Well let’s take a look at an example: Kosovo. If the majority of you were to look at a map,
you would see this, Kosovo. Because, according to my demographics, most
of your countries recognize Kosovo. But it can’t get into the UN because two
members of the Security Council, China and Russia, say it’s not a country. So if you looked at a map from there, you’d
see this. So is it a country? Luckily since there was no UN in 1776 this
example doesn’t really apply, but we can use that same vein of thought. It’s when other countries agree that you’re
a country. As you can imagine, since there was no single
body like the UN to declare your status as a country, this coulda little messy. So who was the first country – aside from
the United States – to recognize the United States as a country. Morocco. (December 20, 1777) What? No let’s talk about countries that actually
matter, please. Okay then, France (February 6, 1778). Without a doubt, that French recognition and
military aid is what helped America finally win the Revolutionary war. The French waited until after the American
victory at Saratoga, because well think about it, nobody wants to help a loser. And predictably just over a month later, Britain
declared war on France so they were taking a huge risk by recognizing the US. This is the same problem as during the Civil
War by the way… I know another tangent, sorry… but had anyone
recognized the independence of the Confederacy, things might have turned out differently. But since they kept losing, nobody did. So okay, France, Morocco, and a few others,
whatever. The one that matters is Britain right? Yeah well that’s where things get a little
fuzzy. Because while Britain did formally recognize
the independence of the US with the Treaty of Paris, which ended the Revolution, they
didn’t really act like it. They kept capturing American ships and “impressing”
the sailors into the Royal Navy, and other things which are generally considered not
cool things to do to an independent country. Which started the War of 1812. An often forgotten war, which is sometimes
referred to as the Second War for Independence, because like I said, the UK – Yes it was
the UK at this point (Acts of Union 1800) – didn’t really respect American sovereignty. After this war ended on December 24, 1814,
there has been over 200 years of uninterrupted peace between the US and the UK. But there’s yet another way to look at it. When did the United States become the United
States? I mean sure, the thirteen colonies got together
and declared independence on July to August 1776, but we didn’t have a real federal
government yet… and then we had those dumb Articles of Confederation. But when was the Constitution handed down
by Jesus? Again that’s a messy question. It was written in 1787, ratified in 1788,
and went into effect on March 4, 1789. That’s the day that the United States became
the United States that we know and love today. So when is Independence Day? July 4th, look at a calendar. Okay but like… should it be though? The Revolution had been going on for quite
a while but independence was declared on July 2nd, printed on July 4th, and signed on August
2nd… The war wasn’t won until 1783… or 1814
depending on how you look at it. And the Constitution didn’t happen until
1789 so… should it be? Yes, you have to pick somewhere okay? Okay well the next time someone asks you what
actually happened on July 4th, at least now, you know better. So when do you think Independence Day should
be? Let me know down in the comments and don’t
forget to declare that subscribe button’s independence. By… by clicking it.

08 Politics, War, And The Monkees from “Why The Monkees Matter: Even 50 Years Later

In this case obviously you’ve read the
lyrics. It’s some pretty amazing stuff to be on mainstream television in the middle
of what was the beginning I should say of the Vietnam War and how it was
affecting everybody. That’s very bold thing for anybody have to say which i
think is amazing. Then there was actually a movement to not draft Davy Jones.
So Girls wrote letters and that sort of thing which I think is adorable. He was an Englishman but he was here in the country working and so therefore
could have been drafted and so that was interesting.
Micky received a draft notice. Mike had been in the military. So they
couldn’t draft him back and Peter, as well, also received one. Peter
pretended to be crazy when he went to his interview and they
believed it. So this is the line from one of the episodes that was written by
Coslough Johnson about politics and the idea that you know what was going on
with teenagers — “They’re the ones doing all the fighting” but we didn’t say where
they would fight, right? We were sending them to fight. So there’s a lot happening
about politics in this early day.

Why the founders let Congress define impeachment-worthy crimes

JUDY WOODRUFF: It is a power that has been
exercised only rarely in American history: the power to impeach a federal official, even
a president. The U.S. Constitution mentions impeachment
only a handful of times. Article 1 assigns the sole power of impeachment
to the House of Representatives, and assigns the sole power to try all impeachments to
the U.S. Senate, where a two-thirds vote is needed to convict. Article 2 of the Constitution describes what
offenses may be cause for impeachment and removal: treason, bribery, or other high crimes
and misdemeanors. But how did the impeachment power come to
be in the first place? And have public views about these powers evolved
over time? Some questions for presidential historian
Michael Beschloss, who joins us now. Welcome back to the “NewsHour.” MICHAEL BESCHLOSS, Presidential Historian:
Thank you, Judy. JUDY WOODRUFF: Michael Beschloss, so, the
founders, where did they come up with this idea of impeachment in the first place? MICHAEL BESCHLOSS: Well, the idea was that
a lot of the founders, and when the Constitution especially was being written, the whole system,
the whole new America was designed as a way to be different from England, with monarchs
and the despots of Europe and tyrants and so forth. They wanted to make sure that no president
ever became a tyrant or abused his power. And they were thinking of them in terms of
men in those days. And so the result was that impeachment was
supposed to be a crucial check on presidents who perhaps behaved badly. But among the founders, there were two groups. One was a group that, you know, feared power
and wanted impeachment to be used if a president strayed. Others were sort of in the spirit of Alexander
Hamilton that wanted strong presidents, strong central government. They were worried that the power of impeachment
would be used sort of like a vote of confidence in the British Parliament, that, if members
of Congress didn’t like something that a president did, some policy, they would impeach him. JUDY WOODRUFF: So they came up this term,
as we just cited, for reasons of treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors. How did they pick those terms? MICHAEL BESCHLOSS: That was basically a product
of the fact that they couldn’t agree on exactly what the grounds for impeachment would be. They were sure that treason and bribery would
be grounds for impeachment. They weren’t sure about other things. So, as with so much else of the Constitution,
they decided to leave it to Congress to interpret. Gerald Ford, in 1970, much, much later, a
little bit casually said grounds for impeachment are whatever a majority of the House of Representatives
says it is. JUDY WOODRUFF: And over time, you were telling
us that our political leaders looked at this and looked at the distinction between getting
rid of a president or another central leader in our government just because we disagree
with their policies, vs. because they have done something really terrible. MICHAEL BESCHLOSS: That’s right. I mean, the intention was very much to reprimand
a president for having done something that could be interpreted as treason, bribery,
or other high crimes and misdemeanors. James Madison, when he was looking at those
things, he said, you know, unfitness would be one reason. Negligence would be another learn. Perfidy would be another reason. But they knew that it would depend on Congress
to make the decision. JUDY WOODRUFF: So, we look back. Impeachment has only been invoked, what, a
handful of times in the 243-year history of our republic. MICHAEL BESCHLOSS: Right. JUDY WOODRUFF: But, Michael, three of those
in the last 45 years. Why? MICHAEL BESCHLOSS: Because people have experienced
impeachment processes in the last couple of generations, perhaps they’re a little bit
more prone to use than they would have before. If you went before Richard Nixon, you would
have to go all the way back to Andrew Johnson, 1868, to look for an impeachment process in
history. And that was one that historically wasn’t
well thought of, because, historically, Andrew Johnson was saved from removal by a Kansas
senator named Edmund Ross, one vote. And Ross essentially said, I think Johnson
shouldn’t be impeached because I don’t think his infraction has been large enough. And also he said, essentially, that he thought
that Johnson was being impeached for reasons of policy, as we were talking about earlier,
rather than because there was a — there was treason, bribery, or another high crime. And that generation of Americans came to agree
with that. So there was a reluctance to go to impeachment
later on. JUDY WOODRUFF: But, as we said, just since
Richard Nixon, this is now the third time, Congress looking seriously. They have got an impeachment inquiry under
way right now. Does it say that our system is more political
than it used to be? What do you think it says? MICHAEL BESCHLOSS: I think there are two schools
of thought. One would be that the impeachments of the
last number of years were done for political reasons. Richard Nixon would have said that, for instance. He said that the move to impeach him in 1974,
he said — and these were his words — was an effort to overturn the mandate of 1972. Others would say that, in the case of Nixon
and in the case of Clinton and later in our own time, that these are cases of real infractions. JUDY WOODRUFF: President Trump is saying he
won’t cooperate in any way with this House inquiry. How does that compare with how other presidents
have cooperated or not? MICHAEL BESCHLOSS: There has been evidence
of that in the past, historically. James Buchanan, there was a movement against
him, and he said, I will not cooperate. It didn’t go very far. Richard Nixon, one of the three articles of
impeachment against him was contempt of Congress, because he refused to cooperate with subpoenas. (CROSSTALK) JUDY WOODRUFF: Because he refused to cooperate. MICHAEL BESCHLOSS: Yes. JUDY WOODRUFF: And then you were also telling
us Bill Clinton, President Bill Clinton, did cooperate. (CROSSTALK) MICHAEL BESCHLOSS: There was no such article
of impeachment. In the Clinton case, there were only two. JUDY WOODRUFF: Michael Beschloss, looking
back for us, thank you very much. MICHAEL BESCHLOSS: Pleasure always, Judy.

Patti Dillon: Record Breaking Marathon Runner | Biography

>>I was the girl that hung
out before school and smoked. [music playing]>>When I went to races,
if you were going to beat me, I was ready to spit blood. I’d fight to the death of me.
(laughter) It’s the only way
to do it right? [music playing]>>Patti Dillon interview,
take one. [clap]>>Hi, I’m Patti Dillon. I’m a former World and
American record holder for long distance running. And I was the
first American woman to break 2:30
in the marathon. [water pouring] [mixer blending]>>Ask me anything.>>What are some of the major
American or World records that you held?>>Ok, the first one I did was
a 20k and then I had the 10k, the 15K, the 10 mile,
the half marathon, the 30k
in the marathon. And I think I did
them all in a year. It was a
pretty good year. [music playing] [crowd cheering]>>This photo,
Boston Gardens 1981, so were you like a celebrity,
a Rockstar in Boston?>>Umm, no
but I was known. Larry Bird gave me season
tickets to the Boston Celtics because I was a fan. As a matter of fact,
each time I set a record I got standing ovations. [crowd cheering]
Patti, Patti (laughing)
It’s pretty cool.>>This was in
1981 in Boston. A great shot, with
you and your sisters. Can you tell us
about the photo?>>I had three sisters
come to the marathon and I thought for sure
I was going to win this thing. But then I got hit
with the horse…>>Rewinding it, what
happened with the horse?>>Oh! (sighs) Come down to 23 miles. It’s packed! I get into – get ready
to get into gear. Boom! Smack! Into the
hindquarters of a horse. (laughing) The police had the horses out
and you couldn’t see it because the crowd
was so tight. By the time I was
getting myself together, I could hear Allison Roe
of New Zealand pass me. I think I even
reached out, like no! It’s not supposed
to happen like this. I mean
I’m shattered. And all I’m thinking is
close the gap, close the gap,
close the gap. I didn’t close the gap.
(laughter) And I got second, but it was a PR,
new American record 2:27. It was great. [music playing] If you win Boston,
I mean, you’re like golden. You know you’re
like you’re set! And I got second
three times. And so my coach, who also happened to be
my husband at the time, said to me I don’t know
want else to do with you Patti. Right out.
Right out.>>What did he mean he doesn’t
know what to do with you, doesn’t know as a
runner or as a wife?>>As a runner because he did
every – he wanted me to win. He wanted to be a
world class coach. When that was said,
I went to a spot where I’m not running
for Patti anymore, I’m running for
somebody else. I’m seeking approval
for something else. This is not me. And it was basically over. My career was over. [music playing] It was 1976. I didn’t see anything
really for myself. Nothing. No ambition
no thought no dream. And I got heavy,
got very heavy. And I stayed like this
for quite a while until I saw a classmate
that I went to high school with. And she looked gorgeous
and I thought you know… She’s got it,
whatever she has, I want it. [music playing] I wanted to go back to a
time that I was the happiest and I was the happiest
between eight and ten and that is when
I rode my bike, I ran. You just run, and you get
your friends and you play. The next day, I rode my
bike to the cemetery. I had cut off jeans
with the fringe, you know, I guess
Daisy Dukes (laughing) and I took a
deep breath and… started running. [music playing] I ran the first
two laps and ugh, I was discombobulated. I had arms
and legs and feet. I had no idea
how it’s connected and what it was
supposed to do. By the third
and fourth lap… it didn’t matter. I was ecstatic! I was like
over the moon! I didn’t know
that I had it in me. Well, that night,
I had the best sleep. The next morning, I went
to reach for my cigarettes. And I couldn’t! Like, everywhere hurt! But I fought my way through. I did light my cigarette. I did enjoy it. And it took me
about two weeks to be able to go
for another jog. And I did! [music playing] Oh, do you think it’s arrogant
to call yourself a pioneer for women’s athletics
even if it’s true? Arrogant. Oh gosh
that’s a strong word. Somebody gave me a
title and I went with it. I ran in the streets. I did the best I could do,
and it was noted. That’s the way I
see it so, yeah. I showed up
and it was great. This is my biography. No, this one. You see this one?>>What is it?>>What does it feel like
to lose your toenails during a race? It’s painful… afterwards. I had a race one time, I took off my shoes
and I lost all 10 toenails. (laughing) I never felt it! But I paid for it.

How America became a superpower

The modern United States is the most powerful country in human history. With over 800 military bases and 37% of global military spending, the United States has become the leader of a vast interconnected global system that has helped usher in an era of unprecedented prosperity and low levels
of conflict. To understand America’s position in the
world, and why it’s so pivotal for world politics as we know it, you have to go back
to the country’s founding — back to when America wasn’t a global power in any sense
of the word. During the first 70 years of its existence,
the United States expanded in both territory and influence in North America eventually
reaching the Pacific Ocean in a wave of expansionism that resulted in the wholesale slaughter of
the indigenous people who populated the continent. But early Americans were deeply divided as
to whether the country should expand beyond the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. This became a major debate after the civil
war, when some leaders, like post-war Secretary of State Seward, argued that America
should push to become a global power. Seward succeeded in pushing a plan to purchase
Alaska from Russia, but his attempts to buy Greenland and Iceland, as well as annex territory
in the Caribbean, were all blocked by Congress. That’s because some Americans, including
many on Capitol Hill, had a strong anti-imperialist bent. These people worried about America getting
more involved in global politics, as well as having to integrate populations from “inferior”
races. And this opposition applied major checks on
the imperialist urge to expand. But something was happening in the late 1800s
that would change the debate about American expansionism. The industrial revolution produced explosive
economic growth, and the bigger US economy required a more centralized state and bureaucracy
to manage the growing economy. Power became concentrated in the federal government,
making it easier for expansionist presidents, like William Mckinley, to unilaterally push
United States influence abroad. The key turning point came in 1898, when President
McKinley dragged the country into war with Spain over the island of Cuba despite intense
opposition. The rising US easily defeated the moribund
Spanish empire, acquiring Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines in the process (1898). Over the next two years, the US would annex
the Kingdom of Hawaii (1898), Wake Island (1899), and American Samoa (1900). A few years later the US took control of the
Panama Canal Zone (1903) and sent troops to occupy the Dominican Republic (1916), it also
purchased the American Virgin Islands (1917). This period of rapid acquisition of far flung
territories put the US on the map as a truly global power. During this time, America also began using
its influence to protect its growing commercial and military interests abroad, installing
pro-American regimes in places like Nicaragua and playing a major role in international
diplomacy regarding the Western presence in China. World War I showed how just how much America’s
influence had grown. Not only was American intervention a decisive factor in the war’s end But President Wilson attended the Paris Peace
Conference which ended the war and attempted to set the terms of the peace. He spearheaded America’s most ambitious
foreign policy initiative yet, an international organization, called the League of Nations,
designed to promote peace and cooperation globally. The League, a wholesale effort to remake global
politics, showed just how ambitious American foreign policy had become. Yet isolationism was still a major force in
the United States. Yet isolationism was still a major force in
the United States. Congress blocked the United States from joining
the League of Nations, dooming Wilson’s project. During the Great Depression and the rise of
Hitler, the US was was much more focused on its own region than on European affairs
Ultimately, though, America’s ever-growing entanglements abroad made it impossible for
it to stay out of global affairs entirely. In East Asia, the growing Japanese empire
posed a the direct threat to American possessions and troops bringing the United States and Japan into conflict. This culminated in the Pearl Harbor attack bringing the United States into World War II. World War Two would transform America’s
global presence forever. The United States was the only major power
to avoid economic ruin during the war, and it was the sole country equipped with atomic
weapons. As such, it was in unique position to set
the terms of the peace — and, with the aim of preventing another war in mind, it took
advantage. The most famous example of this is the creation
of the United Nations. The UN charter set up a system of international
law prohibiting wars of conquest, like the ones waged by the Nazis and the Japanese. It also served as a forum in which the international
community could weigh in on disputes, and help resolve them. This way, the Americans hoped, great powers
could resolve their differences through compromise and law rather than war. But while the UN is the most famous of the
post-war institutions, it isn’t the only one. 730 delegates from all 44 Allied nations
came together in a small vacation haven in New Hampshire. Their goal? To establish a global financial system that would prevent another Great Depression and World War. The resulting agreement, called the Bretton Woods Agreement ultimately became backbone of the global financial system. Resulting in the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. By creating these institutions the United
States committed itself to being deeply involved in the world’s problems. The issue, though, is that the world’s second-largest
power — The Soviet Union — saw things differently. World War II had made allies out of the democratic
West and communist East in the fight against Hitler, but that couldn’t last. The United States saw Soviet expansion in
Eastern Europe and elsewhere as a direct threat to its vision of a free-trading world. “To a substantial degree, in one form or another” Socialism has spread the shadow of human regimentation Over most of the nations of the earth And… the shadow is encroaching on our own liberty. Fearful of Soviet intentions towards Western
Europe, the US and other European nations created the North Atlantic Treaty Organization,
a military alliance meant to stop Russia from invading other countries in Europe. Globally, the US committed to a strategy called
“containment” — so called because it was aimed at containing the spread of Communism
everywhere on the globe. This new global struggle meant that the US
had to exert influence everywhere, all the time. Instead of disbanding the massive military
machine created for World War II, its wheels mostly kept turning. This had two main results: first, the US was
pulled into unlikely alliances with countries like Saudi Arabia, Israel, and South Korea,
seeing each of them as bulwarks against communist influence in their region. Secondly, the US began intervening, often
secretly, in dozens of countries to contain Soviet influence. Sometimes this meant propping up sympathetic
dictators like in Iran, other times supplying rebels with arms and money like
in Afghanistan in 1979 and Nicaragua in 1985. Over the course of the Cold War, the US intervened
in hundreds of disputes around the globe, ending up with a complicated set of alliances, tensions, and relationships in basically every corner of the earth. After the Berlin wall fell, the US could have
withdrawn from this system, severing ties with its allies and drawing down the size
of its military. And while the US did military
spending, much of the military infrastructure and alliances from the Cold War war remained. Presidents George H.W. Bush and Bill Clinton
decided that it was in both America and the world’s interests for the United States,
now the sole superpower on earth, to continue actively managing global affairs. ” We should be and we must be Peacemakers” NATO, created solely as a tool for countering
the Soviets, stayed together and even expanded, a way of keeping European nations united in
the absence of the Soviet threat. Washington’s support for countries like
Israel and Japan stayed intact, ostensibly as a means of preventing war in those regions. The global system of alliances and institutions
created to keep the peace during the Cold War became permanent — as did the American
military and political commitments needed to keep them running . This system remains in operation today, and no leading
American politician since the Cold War has seriously called for dismantling them — except, perhaps for Donald Trump. Trump has said contradictory things about
these commitments. But he’s consistently argued that American
allies are not paying America enough for its protection, and questioned the value of free trade. That calls NATO and even the World Trade Organization into question. At some point, we have to say, you know what, we’re better off if Japan protects itself against this maniac in North Korea. We’re better off if South Korea is going to start to protect itself — and Saudi Arabia?– Saudi Arabia? Absolutely. This is a sharp divergence from the consensus
that has dominated US foreign policy since 1945, and something closer to the isolationism
that came before it. So will President Trump act on some of candidate Trump’s ideas, and reverse decades worth of institution building and alliances? We’ll find out, soon enough.

Black Republicans: They Exist(ed)

– [Azie] What do Maxine Waters,
Cory Booker, Kamala Harris, Condoleezza Rice, Ben
Carson, Barack Obama, and all of these people have in common? – I mean, they’re Black. – Huh, what? – Black, they’re all Black politicians. – Whether it’s a hotly
contested gubernatorial race or a symbolically strategized
bid for president, across party lines there are
more Black people running for and holding political
office than ever before. – Now, we don’t need to know who you’re voting for, but we are curious about your favorite
candidate’s predecessors, literally the first to ever do it, and how the end of the
Civil War meant the start of Black people in US government. – Why are you whispering? (funky instrumental music) I think we all kind of
have an understanding of the American Civil War, right? – Hey, shout out to Mr.
Smith, third period. – Mr. Smith probably
taught you the basics: Union/Confederacy,
North/South, Abraham Lincoln and the Emancipation Proclamation. – It changed the legal status of people in certain states from enslaved to free. And we’re not talking a
couple folks here and there. We’re talking almost four million people. Now, what do you do
with four million people who used to be considered property? Are they, like, citizens now? Where do they work, where
can they live, go to school? How do you even attempt to keep them safe? – The time period after the Civil War is called Reconstruction, and part of rebuilding the nation was helping freed people start a new life. So in 1865, President Abraham Lincoln established the Freedmen’s Bureau. (telephone ringing)
– Freedmen’s Bureau Hotline, how can I assist you today? – Good day, my bride and I
have already jumped the broom, but we’d like to be legally married. – Aw, congratulations. (telephone ringing)
Oh, you want us to do that? All right, please hold. Hey, we got a wedding planner? – [Woman] I think that’s line seven now. (telephone ringing) – Freedmen’s Bureau Hotline. – Yes, I’d really like to
connect with my mother. – All right, well, Family
Communication Services can help you, when was the
last time you saw your mother? – Well, about 30 years ago. I was three years old and they sold me, and I haven’t seen her since
they came to take me away. – Um, sure, um, I’ll transfer you now. It’s one of those days. (telephone ringing) – Freedmen’s Bureau Hotline. – Yes, I’m trying to find a doctor who will treat me and my family. – Um, where are you located, ma’am? – Hold on.
(child yelling) Josiah, hush, I’m on the phone. I’m in Mississippi. – Oh, baby, you’re not, I’m sorry. Please hold while I page
our Northern Doctor Network. – You got train money? (telephone ringing) – What?
– Howdy, yes, ma’am. Now, what is all this I’m
hearing about us being free? – You must be from Texas,
yep, you’re free now. Happy Juneteenth, okay, bye-bye. – In the middle of all this chaos, free Black people took
this as an opportunity to do something pretty bold:
run for political office. – They did participate in politics prior to Reconstruction, though. There are court cases
where people petitioned for their freedom as early as 1781. But freedom did not equal citizenship. Until the 14th Amendment
passed during the Civil War, free Black people were
considered illegal aliens. So becoming a US senator,
impossible, until now. – Though most offices
were technically held at the local level, like a sheriff, the change was still hugely significant. In 1867, no African American
held office in the South. But in a couple years, they made up about 15% of all Southern office holders. The reason for this? The Republican party pretty
much took over the South after the war and elected Black men. – So I’m gonna say this in the
most unbiased way possible. Republican?
– Ah, you probably don’t remember this from your
seventh grade history class. For a few years after the Civil War, Republican politics were a
vehicle for social change and political empowerment,
focusing on social and economic development. But things slowly changed
when tensions arose between newly enfranchised freedmen, Northern carpet baggers,
and Southern white folks, which meant that, during Reconstruction, the GOP had to broaden its appeal. – Got it, so Republicans led the charge in electing Black politicians. Well, we did some
digging to find more info about who these guys were. They came from different backgrounds, but all went on to do
groundbreaking stuff. Some were free long before
the war, like Hiram Revels. Born in North Carolina
to free people of color, he received formal education,
spent his adulthood as a minister throughout
the Midwest, and in 1870, became the first Black US
senator representing Mississippi. There’s Josiah Walls, who
was born into slavery, forced to fight in the Confederacy with his master, captured
by Union soldiers, and eventually discharged and emancipated, to go from slavery to being the first Black congressman from Florida? – Okay, and Josiah’s low-key cute. If any of his descendants are watching. – Focus.
– I mean, have you seen these guys, even the ones with, like, the Wolverine sideburns,
I can work with that. – Some of them had left
the United States entirely, like Mifflin Gibbs, who moved to Canada, and Thomas Chester, who spent
time in Liberia and England. They returned with hopes that
things were gonna get better. Gibbs became a municipal judge
in Little Rock, Arkansas, the first in US history,
and Chester was appointed as district superintendent in Louisiana. – So given the history,
all of this was huge. Holding political office
was a way for Black people to solve problems in their communities and society as a whole. In the indelible words
of Southern rapper T.I., big things poppin’! – These Reconstruction-era
politicians opened the door for so many others,
even if it took a while. There’s Barbara Jordan, the
first Black person elected to the Texas Senate since 1883, and the first woman to do so. – You got former U.S.
Secretaries of State Colin Powell and Condoleezza Rice, the
first to hold that position. And we gotta throw it
back to Shirley Chisolm, first Black woman elected to Congress, and the first Black woman to run for president of the United States. – Speaking of presidents, the
44th one also makes the list. – And sure, we just shouted out a bunch of these firsts, but make no mistake, progress isn’t one-dimensional or linear. We just think it’s cool to learn more about these forefathers,
because if a mixed guy from North Carolina can become a senator, maybe a mixed guy from Hawaii can, too. – Without outspoken congressmen
ready to risk it all in 1865, maybe this
outspoken congresswoman wouldn’t be making headlines in 2019. – The opportunity.
– Reclaiming my time. When you’re on my time, I can reclaim it. He left that out, so
I’m reclaiming my time. Please, will you respond to the question? – When you take a look at US history and then current events,
lots of decisions made during Reconstruction end up
impacting all of us today. What if formerly enslaved
people did receive reparations? The whole 40 acres and a mule? How would that have changed the landscape of American towns and cities? Then there’s the Black Codes, the laws that Southern states passed post-Emancipation Proclamation. Those laws set the precedent for what is now the prison labor force. – The 15th amendment was
so 1870s, but voter rights are still in question today. It’s like, ever since we
got the right to vote, they’ve been trying to
limit our access to voting. In fact, the South taking back the vote from black citizens is
what led to us losing all the initial gains we
made during Reconstruction, gains we wouldn’t get back
until 100 years later, the Civil Rights Movement, and what’s called the
Second Reconstruction. Black politicians obviously
have their own agendas and values, sometimes you vibe with ’em, and sometimes you don’t. – And sometimes you read the news and you wanna throw the whole
thing away, that’s okay. What we can learn from these
Reconstruction-era politicians is the almost dumbfounding
resilience required to take up space within a government that couldn’t agree whether
owning people was bad. – And that is something to be proud of. If you could run for any office,
what would it be and why? – And if you’re interested
in learning more about Reconstruction and how
it still affects us today, check out the new Henry
Louis Gates, Jr. documentary, Reconstruction: America
After The Civil War, airing and streaming April 9th on PBS. Like, comment, subscribe,
follow us on social media, and we’ll see you in the next one. – [Both] Bye!
(funky instrumental music) (windchimes tinkling) (electronic chords)