PBS NewsHour full episode September 18, 2019


Captioning sponsored by NEWSHOUR PRODUCTIONS, LLC>>Woodruff: GOOD EVENING, I’M JUDY WOODRUFF. ON THE NEWSHOUR TONIGHT, MONEY MOVES– THE FEDERAL RESERVE CUTS INTEREST RATES. WE STEP BACK TO LOOK AT HOW THIS EFFECTS THE BROADER ECONOMY. THEN, SECRETARY OF STATE POMPEO CALLS ATTACKS ON SAUDI ARABIA AN “ACT OF WAR.” WHAT IS NEXT? AND HOW WILL A NEW NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISOR SHAPE THE U.S. RESPONSE? PLUS, IN A PINCH– HOW WARMING WATERS IN THE ATLANTIC OCEAN ARE HURTING LOBSTERS.>>I’S A LOT LIKE A BATHTUB WHERE IF YOU TURN DOWN THE COLD TAP, TURN OFF THE WARM TAP YOU GET A REALLY, REALLY HOT BATH.>>Woodruff: ALL THAT AND MORE ON TONIGHT’S PBS NEWSHOUR.”>>MAJOR FUNDING FOR THE PBS NEWSHOUR HAS BEEN PROVIDED BY:>>SUPPORTING SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS TO THE WORLD’S MOST PRESSING PROBLEMS– skollfoundation.org.>>THE LEMELSON FOUNDATION. COMMITTED TO IMPROVING LIVES THROUGH INVENTION, IN THE U.S. AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. ON THE WEB AT lemelson.org.>>SUPPORTED BY THE JOHN D. AND CATHERINE T. MacARTHUR FOUNDATION. COMMITTED TO BUILDING A MORE JUST, VERDANT AND PEACEFUL WORLD. MORE INFORMATION AT macfound.org>>AND WITH THE ONGOING SUPPORT OF THESE INSTITUTIONS:>>THIS PROGRAM WAS MADE POSSIBLE BY THE CORPORATION FOR PUBLIC BROADCASTING. AND BY CONTRIBUTIONS TO YOUR PBS STATION FROM VIEWERS LIKE YOU. THANK YOU.>>Woodruff: THE FEDERAL RESERVE HAS CUT SHORT-TERM INTEREST RATES BY A QUARTER POINT, FOR THE SECOND TIME IN THREE MONTHS. BUT THE CENTRAL BANK HELD BACK TODAY FROM PROMISING ANY FURTHER MONEY MOVES THIS YEAR. FED CHAIRMAN JEROME POWELL SAID IT ALL DEPENDS ON WHERE THE ECONOMY SEEMS TO BE HEADED.>>WHAT WE THINK WE’RE FACING HERE IS A SITUATION WHICH CAN BE ADDRESSED AND SHOULD BE ADDRESSED WITH MODERATE ADJUSTMENTS TO THE FEDERAL FUNDS RATE. AS I MENTIONED, WE ARE WATCHING CAREFULLY TO SEE WHETHER THAT IS THE CASE. IF IN FACT THE ECONOMY WEAKENS MORE, THEN WE’RE PREPARED TO BE AGGRESSIVE AND WE’LL DO SO IF IT TURNS OUT TO BE APPROPRIATE.>>Woodruff: PRESIDENT TRUMP TOOK TO TWITTER TO CRITICIZE THE FED, AND POWELL, FOR NOT APPROVING A LARGER RATE CUT. HE SAID: “NO GUTS, NO SENSE, NO VISION.” WE’LL TAKE A CLOSER LOOK AT THE FED’S MOVES, RIGHT AFTER THE NEWS SUMMARY. THE PRESIDENT TODAY TAPPED ROBERT O’BRIEN TO BE NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISER, HIS FOURTH, TO DATE. O’BRIEN HAD BEEN SPECIAL ENVOY FOR HOSTAGE NEGOTIATIONS. MR. TRUMP REMOVED JOHN BOLTON AS NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISER, LAST WEEK, OVER POLICY DISPUTES. SAUDI ARABIA SAYS IT HAS MOUNTING EVIDENCE THAT IRAN WAS BEHIND WEEKEND ATTACKS ON KEY OIL FACILITIES. SAUDI OFFICIALS TODAY DISPLAYED REMNANTS OF DRONES AND A CRUISE MISSILE. THEY SAID THE WEAPONS WERE IRANIAN-MADE, BUT IRAN AGAIN DENIED ANY ROLE. U.S. SECRETARY OF STATE POMPEO ARRIVED IN SAUDI ARABIA TODAY. HE SAID THE ATTACKS WERE AN “ACT OF WAR.” WE’LL TALK ABOUT ALL OF THIS, AND THE NAMING OF THE NEW NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISER, LATER IN THE PROGRAM. THE GOVERNMENT OF ISRAEL WAS IN POLITICAL LIMBO TODAY, AFTER TWO MAIN PARTIES DEADLOCKED IN TUESDAY’S ELECTIONS. NEITHER LIKUD NOR THE BLUE AND WHITE PARTY WON ENOUGH SEATS FOR A MAJORITY IN PARLIAMENT. FORMER DEFENSE MINISTER AVIGDOR LIEBERMAN LEADS A SMALLER PARTY THAT COULD BECOME THE KINGMAKER. HE UNDERSCORED HIS POSITION TODAY.>>( translated ): THE CONCLUSION IS CLEAR. ALL THAT WE HAVE SAID DURING THE ELECTION CAMPAIGN IS COMING TRUE. THERE IS ONLY ONE OPTION– A NATIONAL UNITY GOVERNMENT, A LIBERAL, BROAD GOVERNMENT. AND WE WILL INDEED SAY AGAIN, WE WILL NOT JOIN ANY OTHER OPTION.>>Woodruff: PRIME MINISTER BENJAMIN NETANYAHU, OF LIKUD, INSISTED TODAY THAT HE WILL STILL TRY TO FORM A RULING COALITION ANYWAY. THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT HAS APPROVED ANOTHER EXTENSION TO THE BREXIT DEADLINE, BUT, WITH CONDITIONS. IT WOULD HAVE TO BE USED TO PREVENT A NO-DEAL BRITISH DEPARTURE FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION, OR TO ALLOW FOR NEW ELECTIONS OR EVEN A NEW REFERENDUM ON BREXIT. BRITISH PRIME MINISTER BORIS JOHNSON HAS INSISTED ON LEAVING THE E.U. BY THE CURRENT DEADLINE, OCTOBER 31, WITH OR WITHOUT A DEAL. THE PRESIDENT OF THE PHILIPPINES, RODRIGO DUTERTE, IS OFFERING BOUNTIES OF NEARLY $20,000, FOR HUNDREDS OF CONVICTED CRIMINALS. THEY INCLUDE KILLERS AND RAPISTS, MISTAKENLY FREED UNDER A GOOD-BEHAVIOR PROGRAM. DUTERTE SAID TODAY THEY ARE WANTED DEAD OR ALIVE, BUT HE PREFERS THEM DEAD. THE JUSTICE MINISTER SAID LATER THAT HE SHOULD NOT BE TAKEN LITERALLY. I BERMUDA, SCHOOLS, TRANSPORTATION AND GOVERNMENT OFFICES CLOSED TODAY WITH HURRICANE “HUMBERTO” BEARING DOWN. THE STORM IS ON TRACK TO PASS NORTH OF THE ISLAND TONIGHT, WITH SUSTAINED WINDS OF 120 MILES AN HOUR. MEANWHILE, THE REMNANTS OF TROPICAL STORM “IMELDA” WERE DUMPING UP TO 18 INCHES OF RAIN IN SOUTHEASTERN TEXAS AND PARTS OF LOUISIANA. PRESIDENT TRUMP HAS CONFIRMED THAT HIS ADMINISTRATION IS REVOKING CALIFORNIA’S POWER TO SET ITS OWN CAR MILEAGE STANDARDS. HE ARGUED TODAY THAT THE MOVE WILL LEAD TO CHEAPER, SAFER CARS. BUT, CALIFORNIA’S ATTORNEY GENERAL, JAVIER BECERRA, SAID IT WILL ACTUALLY MEAN MORE POLLUTION, AND HE VOWED TO FILE SUIT.>>OUR COMMUNITIES ARE SCREAMING FOR HELP TO ADDRESS THE CLIMATE CRISIS. UNLIKE THE TRUMP ADMINISTRATION, WE DON’T RUN SCARED. AND SO WHETHER IT IS CLIMATE CHANGE OR AN ADMINISTRATION RECALCITRANT IN TAKING ON ITS RESPONSIBILITIES, WE’RE PREPARED TO LEAD, WE’LL PREPARE TO FIGHT, WE’LL DO WHAT WE MUST.>>Woodruff: WE’LL HEAR FROM CALIFORNIA’S GOVERNOR GAVIN NEWSOM LATER IN THE PROGRAM. ABORTIONS IN THE UNITED STATES HAVE REACHED THE LOWEST LEVEL SINCE 1973, WHEN THE PROCEDURE WAS LEGALIZED NATIONWIDE. A RESEARCH GROUP, THE GUTTMACHER INSTITUTE, SAYS THERE WERE 862,000 ABORTIONS IN 2017, DOWN FROM AT 1.6 MILLION, BACK IN 1990. THE INSTITUTE SAYS THE DECLINE IS DUE MAINLY TO FEWER PREGNANCIES AND GREATER ACCESS TO BIRTH CONTROL UNDER THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT. AND, ON WALL STREET, STOCKS PLUNGED, THEN REBOUNDED AS THE FEDERAL RESERVE GAVE MIXED SIGNALS ABOUT FUTURE INTEREST RATE CUTS. THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE GAINED 36 POINTS TO CLOSE AT 27,147. THE NASDAQ FELL 8 POINTS, AND THE S&P 500 ADDED ONE. STILL TO COME ON THE NEWSHOUR: WHAT THE FEDERAL RESERVE CUTTING INTEREST RATES MEANS FOR YOUR WALLET. SECRETARY OF STATE POMPEO CALLS ATTACKS ON SAUDI ARABIA AN “ACT OF WAR.” THE GOVERNOR OF CALIFORNIA TAKES ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND THE GIG ECONOMY, PLUS MUCH MORE.>>Woodruff: THE FEDERAL RESERVE CUT INTEREST RATES FOR THE SECOND TIME IN SEVEN WEEKS TODAY. LET’S TAKE A LOOK AT SOME OF THE LATEST THINKING BEHIND THIS CUT, THE REACTION TO IT, AND THE ROLE THE FED PLAYS; AND MORE SPECIFICALLY THE ROLE ECONOMISTS PLAY, IN THE ECONOMIC FORTUNES AND STABILITY OF THE COUNTRY. THE CURRENT CHAIRMAN OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE JEROME POWELL MAY NOT BE AN ECONOMIST, BUT HE IS THE EXCEPTION. NEARLY ALL HIS PREDECESSORS SINCE THE 1970’s HAVE BEEN. AND THE INFLUENCE THE PROFESSION WIELDS IN KEY AREAS OF AMERICAN LIFE HAS GROWN DRAMATICALLY IN THAT TIME. BINYAMIN APPELBAUM WRITES ON BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS FOR THE “NEW YORK TIMES” EDITORIAL PAGE, HE IS THE AUTHOR OF “THE ECONOMISTS’ HOUR,” WHICH TRACKS THE RISE OF A NUMBER OF PROMINENT ECONOMISTS. MR. APPLEBAUM, WELCOME BACK TO THE “NewsHour”.>>THANK YOU FOR HAVING ME.>>Woodruff: TODAY THE FEDERAL RESERVE VOTED TO CUT THE FEDERAL FUNDS RATE BY A QUARTER OF A POINT. WHAT WAS THE REASON THEY GAVE FOR DOING THIS?>>JEROME POWLL THE FED’S CHAIRMAN SAID THEY’RE WORRIED ABOUT THE IMPACT OF UNCERTAINTY AROUND GLOBAL TRADE, THAT IT IS DISCOMBOBULATING THE ECONOMY, CAUSING CONCERN, MAKING CORPORATIONS HESITATE BEFORE INVESTING AND WEIGHING ON ECONOMIC GROWTH.>>Woodruff: AND WHY DO YOU THINK IT WASN’T MORE OF A RATE CUT THAN IT WAS, THAN A QUARTER OF A POINT?>>IT TAKES A LOT FOR THE FED TO MOVE MORE THAN A QUARTER A POINT. A MOVE MORE THAN THAT SAYS IT’S AN EMERGENCY, WE NEED TO DO SOMETHING REALLY BIG. POWELL SAW IT TO PROJECT A MESSAGE OF CALM. HE SAID WE THINK THIS IS A APPROPRIATE AND SUFFICIENT MEASURE.>>Woodruff: THE VOTE OF THE FED BOARD WAS 7-3. IT’S SOMEWHAT UNUSUAL TO SEE THAT KIND OF A DIVISION. HOW UNUSUAL IS IT?>>IT IS, AND NOT JUST DISSENT BUT DISSENT ON BOTH SIDES. ONE MEMBER OF THE BOARD SAID WE SHOULD BE DOING MORE AND TWO SAYING WE SHOULD BE DOING LESS. YOU’RE SEEING SIGNIFICANT DECISIONS INSIDE THE FED ABOUT HOW TO HANDLE THE SITUATION. IT’S CAUSING DEBATE INSIDE THE INSTITUTION.>>Woodruff: WE REPORTED EARLIER PRESIDENT TRUMP UNHAPPY THEY DIDN’T CUT RATES ANYMORE. IS THERE A WAY TO READ HOW MUCH THIS PRESSURE, PUBLIC PRESSURE FROM THE PRESIDENT, HOW MUCH OF AN EFFECT IT’S HAVING ON THESE FED BOARD MEMBERS?>>I THINK THAT THE JOB OF RUNNING THE FED IS NOT EASY, EVEN IF THE PRESIDENT IS SITTING QUIETLY. YOU FACE HUGE QUESTIONS ABOUT THE ECONOMY AND IT’S FUTURE COURSE, A LOT OF YOU BE CERTAINTY, BUT THIS ADDITIONAL PRESSURE IS CLEARLY CAUSING ISSUES FOR THE FED. IT’S PUTTING IT UNDER A SPOTLIGHT. IT THREATENS ITS INDEPENDENCE, IT PUTS IT UNDER PRESSURE TO JUSTIFY ITS ACTIONS TO CONGRESS AND THE NATION, IT MAKES A DIFFICULT JOB THAT MUCH HARDER.>>Woodruff: BUT EVEN SETTING THAT ASIDE, IS THERE ANY KIND OF CONSENSUS OUT THERE ABOUT WHETHER THE FED IS GETTING THE ECONOMY RIGHT OR NOT?>>NO, JUST AS THERE ARE DIVISIONS INSIDE THE FED, THERE ARE DIVISIONS OUTSIDE THE FED. THERE’S THIS BROAD DISAGREEMENT RIGHT NOW, BOTH ABOUT WHERE THE ECONOMY IS HEADED AND ABOUT HOW MUCH THE FED CAN DO TO HELP. IF YOUR PROBLEM IS TRADE UNCERTAINTY, IF BUSINESSES ARE HESITATING BECAUSE THEY DON’T KNOW WHAT’S GOING TO HAPPEN IN NEGOTIATIONS WITH CHINA, LOWERING INTEREST RATES BY A QUARTER POINT MAY NOT REALLY AFFECT WHETHER OR NOT THEY MAKE INVESTMENTS AND THAT MAY NOT HELP THE ECONOMY.>>Woodruff: WELL, LET’S USE THIS AS A CHANCE TO SEGUE TO YOUR NEW BOOK WHICH I MENTIONED JUST A MINUTE AGO, “THE ECONOMISTS’ HOUR,” THE TITLE IS “FALSE PROFIT, FREE MARKETS AND THE FRACTURE OF SOCIETY ” IN WHICH YOU LAY OUT THE CONSEQUENCES OF GIVING A LOT OF POWER TO ECONOMISTS SPREAD THROUGH GOVERNMENT THROUGH THE LAST FEW DECADES WHO PUT A LOT OF STOCK IN THE BELIEF THAT FREE MARKETS ARE THE ANSWER TO EVERYTHING. EXPLAIN PHOTO US FOR A MINUTE, BINYAMIN APPLEBAUM, WHAT WAS THAT THEORY ALL ABOUT? HOW DID THEY GO OVERBOARD AND WHAT DO YOU BELIEVE THE CONSEQUENCES HAVE BEEN.>>MY BOOK IS THE STORY OF A REVOLUTION THAT BEGAN IN THE LATE ’60s AND EARLY ’70s WHERE ECONOMISTS STARTED PLAYING A MUCH LARGER ROLE IN SHAPING PUBLIC POLICY, AND SPECIFICALLY IN URGING THAT THE GOVERNMENT SHOULD STEP BACK FROM ACTS OF MANAGEMENT OF ECONOMIC CONDITIONS, STOP REGULATING AIRLINES, THE FINANCIAL SECTOR, CUT BACK ON TAXATION AND LET MARKETS SORT THINGS OUT. AND THE REAL CONSEQUENCE OF THAT HAS BEEN A TREMENDOUS TRIESRISE IN INEQUALITY. THE GOVERNMENT STOPPED INTERVENING TO PREVENT INEQUALITY, IT STOPPED VIEWING INEQUALITY AS A PUBLIC POLICY PROBLEM, AND AS A CONSEQUENCE WE’VE ENDED UP WITH A LOT MORE INEQUALITY.>>Woodruff: AND YOU’RE SAYING THIS WAS THE RESULT OF AN INFLUENCE OF A NUMBER OF PROMINENT ECONOMISTS WHO WORKED IN DIFFERENT PLACES IN THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT?>>THAT’S RIGHT. SO AS THEY START TO INFLUENCE POLICY-MAKERS, THEY COME IN IN THE EARLY ’60s AND ’70s AND BASICALLY SAY TO POLICY-MAKERS, LISTEN, THE FOCUS SHOULD BE ON GROWTH AND IF YOU’RE TRYING TO DEAL WITH INEQUALITY, IT WILL COME AT THE EXPENSE OF GROWTH. SO INSTEAD OF REDISTRIBUTING, WHAT YOU WANT TO DO IS GET OUT TO HAVE THE WAY, LET BUSINESSES CONCENTRATE AND PROSPER, REDUCE TAXATION, REDUCE REGULATION, AND THE EFFECT OF NOT TRYING TO PREVENT INEQUALITY IS YOU END UP WITH A LOT MORE OF IT.>>Woodruff: SO WHAT ARE YOU SAYING HAS TO BE DONE NOW TO REDRESS WHERE WE HAVE BEEN AND WHAT’S HAPPENED?>>WELL, I THINK OUR PROBLEM IS INEQUALITY. IT HAS PROVED TO BE BAD FOR BOTH PEOPLE WHO ARE SUFFERING FROM A LACK OF OPPORTUNITY AND FOR THE ECONOMY AS A WHOLE BECAUSE IT PREVENTS THEM FROM CONTRIBUTING AS MUCH AS THEY COULD, AND, THEREFORE, THE ANSWER IS TO DO SOMETHING WE HAVEN’T DONE IN MORE THAN A GENERATION WHICH IS TO MAKE REDUCING INEQUALITY A SPECIFIC FOCUS OF PUBLIC POLICY, TO BE ASKING OF OUR PUBLIC POLICIES ARE THEY LEVELING THE PLAYING FIELD, THEY GIVING AMERICANS A CHANCE. ONE EASY EXAMPLE OF THIS IS UNIVERSAL PRE-KINDERGARTEN, AN AREA IN WHICH WE KNOW IF YOU’RE INVESTING AND ALLOWING CHILDREN TO GET INTO THE CLASSROOM, YOU IMPROVE THEIR PROSPECTS IN LIFE, THAT’S THE KIND OF POLICY THAT WE NEED.>>Woodruff: AND WE’RE HEARING THAT, AREN’T WE, FROM SOME OF THE DEMOCRATIC CANDIDATES FOR PRESIDENT, I MEAN, THEY’RE TALKING ABOUT POLICIES TO ATTACK INEQUALITY, INCLUDING THINGS LIKE UNIVERSAL KINDERGARTEN BUT OTHER IDEAS AS WELL.>>I THINK THE PERIOD IN WHICH THE IDEAS OF ECONOMISTS AND SPECIFICALLY EMPHASIS ON MARKETS IS US WAS DOMINANT CAME TO AN END IN 2008 WITH THE FINANCIAL CRY SIS AND SINCE THEN WE HAVE BEEN IN A PERIOD OF REAPPRISELE. ONE VIEW EMBODIED BY THE PRESIDENT IS TO DO AWAY WITH THE TECHNOCRATS AND EMPHASIZE CRAWL UP IN YOUR TURTLE SHELL NATIONALISM. ANOTHER APPROACH IS TO TAKE A MORE PROGRESSIVE SUBSTANCE TO INECALL, WE’RE HEARING THAT FROM THE DEMOCRATIC CANDIDATES.>>Woodruff: IS IT YOUR SENSE THAT THE COUNTRY HAS TURNED THE CORNER, THAT THE IDEA OF FREE MARKETS, CAPITALISM ABOVE ALL ELSE IS TRULY BEHIND US WHEN IT COMES TO ECONOMIC THINKING, OR THERE IS STILL A BATTLE UNDERWAY ABOUT THIS?>>I THINK THERE’S A GROWING CONSENSUS THAT WE NEED SOMETHING DIFFERENT, BUT I THINK WE ARE IN A PERIOD AGAIN AS WE WERE IN THE 1930s AND 1970s WHERE IT’S NOT CLEAR WHAT COMES NEXT, WHERE THERE’S A PROFOUND DEBATE ABOUT HOW WE MOVE INTO THE NEXT THING, WHAT TYPES OF RESTRAINTS SHOULD WE PLACE ON MARKETS, WHAT ROLE GOVERNMENT SHOULD PLAY IN THE MARKET AND SOCIETY AND I THINK THIS PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION WILL BE SUBSTANTIALLY ABOUT THOSE QUESTIONS.>>Woodruff: YOU’RE SAYING WE’RE HAVING THOSE DEBATES RIGHT NOW?>>YES, INDEED.>>Woodruff: BINYAMIN APPLEBAUM, HIS NEW BOOK IS “THE ECONOMISTS’ HOUR.” WE THANK YOU FOR TALKING TO US ABOUT THAT AND ABOUT WHAT THE FED DID TODAY.>>THANKS FOR HAVING ME.>>Woodruff: AS WE REPORTED, SECRETARY OF STATE MIKE POMPEO ARRIVED IN THE KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA TODAY. HE ONCE AGAIN BLAMED IRAN FOR ATTACKS ON SAUDI OIL FACILITIES OVER THE WEEKEND, SAYING THEY HAVE THE “FINGERPRINTS OF THE AYATOLLAH.” MEANWHILE, IRANIAN PRESIDENT ROUHANI SAID SAUDI ARABIA SHOULD SEE THE ATTACK AS A WARNING TO END THE WAR IN YEMEN. OUR YAMICHE ALCINDOR HAS THE LATEST.>>Alcindor: TODAY IN RIYADH, THE SAUDI CASE AGAINST IRAN WAS ON FULL DISPLAY. DEFENSE MINISTER TURKI AL-MALIKI SHOWCASED PIECES OF MISSILES AND DRONES. HE SAID THEY WERE FROM LAST WEEKEND’S ATTACKS ON CRITICAL OIL FACILITIES. HE ALSO PLAYED SURVEILLANCE VIDEO THAT PURPORTEDLY SHOWED A DRONE FLYING IN FROM THE NORTH. HE SPOKE IN ENGLISH, OVERLAYED WITH ARABIC TRANSLATION.>>THE ATTACK WAS LAUNCHED FROM THE NORTH AND WAS UNQUESTIONABLY SPONSORED BY IRAN.>>Alcindor: HOUTHI REBELS IN YEMEN, SOUTH OF SAUDI ARABIA AND ALIGNED WITH IRAN, INSIST THEY LAUNCHED THE ATTACKS. THE DEFENSE MINISTER DISMISSED THAT CLAIM. HE STOPPED SHORT OF DIRECTLY ACCUSING IRAN, BUT SAID THE EVIDENCE POINTS TO TEHRAN’S ISLAMIC REVOLUTIONARY GUARD CORPS.>>IT’S NOT COMING FROM YEMEN, THE HOUTHI MILITIA AND THE PROXY ARE JUST FOLLOWING THE ORDER OF THE I.R.G.C.>>Alcindor: IRAN HAS REPEATEDLY DENIED ANY INVOLVEMENT. AND TODAY, AN ADVISER TO IRANIAN PRESIDENT HASSAN ROUHANI TWEETED THAT SAUDI ARABIA “KNOWS NOTHING.” ROUHANI ALSO MET WITH HIS CABINET, AND BLAMED THE U.S. WITHDRAWAL FROM THE 2015 IRAN NUCLEAR DEAL FOR MOUNTING TENSIONS IN THE REGION.>>WE DID NOT START BREAKING DEALS. WE DID NOT START CUTTING RELATIONS. THOSE WHO HAVE TAKEN A STEP BACK SHOULD BETTER TAKE A STEP FORWARD.>>Alcindor: MEANWHILE, SECRETARY OF STATE MIKE POMPEO FLEW TO SAUDI ARABIA TO MEET WITH SAUDI CROWN PRINCE MOHAMMAD BIN SALMAN. HE TOLD REPORTERS HE SEES THE ATTACK AS AN “ACT OF WAR.” BACK IN THE U.S., PRESIDENT TRUMP TWEETED THAT HE PLANS TO “SUBSTANTIALLY INCREASE SANCTIONS” ON IRAN. HE ALSO ANNOUNCED THAT CHIEF HOSTAGE NEGOTIATOR ROBERT O’BRIEN WILL BECOME HIS NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISER– THE FOURTH IN THREE YEARS. O’BRIEN REPLACES LONGTIME WASHINGTON HAWK JOHN BOLTON, WHO WAS FIRED LAST WEEK. AND DESPITE THE ESCALATING TENSIONS, TRUMP, APPEARING WITH O’BRIEN IN CALIFORNIA TODAY, STILL SOUNDED CAUTIOUS ABOUT USING MILITARY FORCE.>>HOW DID GOING INTO THE MIDDLE EAST GO, HOW DID GOING INTO IRAQ GO? WE HAVE DISAGREEMENTS ON THAT. IT’S EASY TO START.>>Alcindor: TO UNPACK WHERE WE GO FROM HERE I’M JOINED BY ROBERT MALLEY. HE WAS A TOP MIDDLE EAST ADVISOR TO PRESIDENT OBAMA AND IS NOW PRESIDENT OF THE INTERNATIONAL CRISIS GROUP. AND DANIELLE PLETKA, SHE’S SENIOR VICE PRESIDENT OF FOREIGN AND DEFENSE POLICY AT THE AMERICAN ENTERPRISE INSTITUTE AND A PROFESSOR AT GEORGETOWN UNIVERSITY’S SCHOOL OF FOREIGN SERVICE. THANKS SO MUCH TO BOTH OF YOU FOR BEING HERE. ROB, SAUDI ARABIA PRESENTED DEBRIS THEY SAY IS FROM IRAN. WHAT DO YOU MAKE OF THAT AND WHAT SHOULD THE U.S. DO? HOW SHOULD THEY RESPOND IS THIS.>>FIRST OF ALL, YOU KNOW, WHETHER IT WAS IRAN DIRECTLY OR ONE OF IRAN’S ALLIES, I THINK IT’S HARD TO IMAGINE THAT IRAN DIDN’T HAVE A ROLE IN THIS, RIGHT, I MEAN, THIS IS A CRISIS THAT HAS BEEN BREWING FOR SOME TIME. MANY OF US PREDICTED IRAN WOULD REACT ALMOST IN THIS WAY, NOT EXACTLY, BUT IRAN WOULD TAKE STEPS IF IT WAS PREVENTED FROM SELLING ITS OIL WITH IS A RESULT OF THE SANCTIONS U.S. POSED ON IRAN, THEN IT WOULD TRY TO HINDER THE EXPORT OF OIL OF SOME OF AMERICA’S ALLIES IN THE GULF. SO WE KNOW THIS IS ABOUT IRAN AND YOU ASK ABOUT HOW WE GET OUT OF IT. LET’S START ABOUT HOW WE GOT INTO THIS. PEOPLE WERE NOT TALKING ABOUT IRAN ATTACKING OIL FIELDS, THREATENING NAVAL ACTIVITY IN THE REGION, VIOLATING THE NUCLEAR DEAL, NO ONE WAS TALKING ABOUT THAT UP UNTIL PRESIDENT TRUMP WALKED AWAY FROM THE NUCLEAR DEAL, IMPOSED SANCTIONS ON IRAN IN THE NAME OF MODERATING IRAN’S BEHAVIOR. SO WE’RE SEEING A POLICY DESIGNED PURPORTEDLY TO MODERATE IRAN’S BEHAVIOR IN THE REGION AND AS MANY FEARED HAS PRODUCE EXACTLY THE OPPOSITE. SO LET’S START FROM WHY WHERE WE ARE TODAY THEN TALK ABOUT WHERE WE GET OUT OF IT.>>Reporter: WHAT DOES IRAN HAVE TO GAIN FROM A STRIKE LIKE THIS BECAUSE OF THE TENSIONS WE’RE SEEING IN THE REGION, HOW DINING THAT’S GOING TO PLAY OUT?>>I THINK ROB ASKED A GOOD QUESTION, HOW DO WE GET HERE. THE NOTION IRAN SOMEHOW WASN’T A MALIGN ACTOR IN THE REGION DURING THE OBAMA-SIGNED IRAN DEAL AND PREVIOUSLY JUST DOESN’T STAND UP TO SCRUTINY. IT’S TRUE THEY WEREN’T ATTACKING SAUDI OILFIELDS, BUT THEY WERE ARMING THE HOUTHIS AND ENCOURAGING THEM TO ATTACK SAUDI ARABIA DIRECTLY. HALF A MILLION PEOPLE HAVE DIED IN SYRIA AT IRAN AND THE ASSAD REGIME AND RUSSIA’S HANDS, THAT WAS ALL HAPPENING AT THE SAME TIME. SO WHILE IRAN HAS, PERHAPS, DIRECTED ITS IRE SLIGHTLY DIFFERENTLY TO MORE DIRECTLY FROM IRANIAN TERRITORY ON TO SAUDI ARABIA, YOU KNOW, THEY’RE NOT EXACTLY INNOCENTS HERE.>>Reporter: WHAT DO YOU THINK THEY HAVE TO GAIN BY A STRIKE LIKE THIS.>>THAT’S A VERY INTERESTING QUESTION AND ALL OF THIS IS A LITTLE BIT OF POP PSYCHOLOGY THINKING WHAT ARE THEIR MOTIVATIONS BECAUSE THEY’RE DENYING INL VOLVEMENT. I THINK WHAT THE IRANIANS ARE TRYING TO DO IS SPLIT THE GULF ARABS OFF FROM THE UNITED STATES. WHAT THEY PERCEIVE RIGHT NOW IS THAT THE GULF HAS ALIGNED ITSELF WITH THE UNITED STATES AGAINST IRAN. THEY WANT TO MAKE THEM QUESTION THAT. WAS THAT THE RIGHT THING TO DO? SHOULDN’T YOU REALLY HAVE A RELATIONSHIP WITH US? SHOULDN’T YOU BE HELPING US UNDERCUT THE UNITED STATES? BECAUSE DONALD TRUMP IS GOING TO TALK BIG, BUT HE’S NOT GOING TO BE THERE FOR YOU WHEN YOU NEED HIM AND, IN FACT, THAT’S WHAT DONALD TRUMP HAS DONE.>>Reporter: WHAT DO YOU MAKE OF THAT, ROB.>>FIRST OF ALL, I AGREE WITH A LOT OF WHAT DANIELLE SAID AND I CERTAINLY WOULDN’T DEPICT EASTERN AS A BENIGN ACTOR IN THE REGION. WE DEALT WITH THEM IN THE OBAMA ADMINISTRATION. IT’S NOT AS IF WE CONSIDER THEM TO BE BENIGN. THE QUESTION I’M RAISING IS, AS BAD A SITUATION AS WE’RE IN TODAY WHERE WE MAY BE ON THE PRECIPICE OF WAR, WHERE PRESIDENT TRUMP MAY DECIDE TO RETALIATE, WE COULD BE IN A SPIRAL, AN ESCALATING SPIRAL WHICH WOULD PRODUCE EXACTLY THE RESULT THAT PRESIDENT TRUMP SAID HE WANTED TO AVOID WHICH IS TO GO TO WAR WITH IRAN OR THE MIDDLE EAST. IT’S NOT EVERYTHING WAS PERFECT BEFORE AND IS TERRIBLE NOW. THINGS HAVE BOT GOTTEN MUCH WORSE ON THE TWO ISSUES THE ADMINISTRATION TOLD US THEY WERE GOING TO WORK TO IMPROVE, IRAN’S GNASH NATURE AND THE NUCLEAR DEAL WHICH THEY SAID WAS A TERRIBLE DEAL. WE HAVE IRAN MORE PROVOCATIVE IN THE REGION TO THE POINT OF PERHAPS PROVOKING A REGIONAL WAR AND SECOND OF ALL WALKING AWAY FROM A NUCLEAR DEAL SO THEY WOULD BE LESS CONSTRAINED THAN UNDER THE DEAL. WHY WOULD IRAN HAVE DONE THIS? I THINK THEY’RE SENDING A MESSAGE TO THE GULF COUNTRIES, WE COULD ATTACK YOU, AND THEY KNOW THE GULF COUNTRIES CAN’T RETALIATE BECAUSE THEY DON’T HAVE THE MEANS TO DO SO AND, SECOND OF ALL, THEY’RE EXPOSING THE FACT THAT THE U.S. IS NOT GOING TO COME TO THEIR DEFENSE, I COULD SEE THAT ARGUMENT. THE OTHER THING THEY’RE GOING TO DO IS SENDING THE MESSAGE THEY’RE NOT PASSIVE RECIPIENTS OF ECONOMIC PRESSURE WHICH THEY CONSIDER AS ECONOMIC WAR FAIR. THEY CONSIDER THIS JUST ANOTHER MEANS OF WAR WHICH IS STRANGULATING THEIR ECONOMY. THEY WILL REACT AND THERE WILL BE A PRICE TO PAY, THEY WON’T BE THE ONLY ONES PAYING A PRICE, SAUDI ARABIA, THE U.S. AND OTHERS WILL. IF YOU WANT THIS TO STOP, THERE’S A WAY BACK BUT IT MEANS TAKING OUR INTEREST INTO ACCOUNT.>>Reporter: HOW LIKELY AHEAD OF THE 2020 ELECTIONS IT IS THAT YOU THINK PRESIDENT TRUMP WILL BE WANTING TO GET INTO A CONFLICT WITH IRAN, GIVEN THE TENSIONS THAT MIGHT CREATE?>>I DON’T THINK HE DOES WANT A CONFLICT WITH IRAN. THAT SEEMS ABSOLUTELY MANIFEST. HE’S MADE VERY CLEAR THERE HAVE BEEN TWO INSTANCES, ONE WHERE A U.S. DRONE WAS SHOT DOWN AND NOW A DIRECT ATTACK ON SAUDI ARABIA. PEOPLE SHOULDN’T MISPERCEIVE THIS AND THINK OF THIS AS JUST AN ATTACK ON SAUDI ARABIA, THEY SHOULD THIS OF THIS ON THE ATTACK OF THE ENERGY SECURITY, THE CONTINUITY OF ENERGY SUPPLY FOR THE WORLD, SOMETHING THAT THE UNITED STATES HAS ALWAYS, UNDER DEMOCRATS AND REPUBLICANS, SAID WAS SACROSANCT. THE PRESIDENT HAS, IN BOTH CASES, CHOSEN NOT TO RESPOND IN, LET’S SAY, IN A SIMILAR WAY. HE HAS NOT CHOSEN TO STRIKE IRAN. SO I DON’T THINK THAT WE ARE SPIRALING TOWARDS WAR. I THINK THE PRESIDENT IS TRYING TO INNOCENT THE IRANIANS TO SIT DOWN WITH HIM. THE PROBLEM IS, OF COURSE, THIS IS NOT PROVING AT LEAST AT THIS MOMENT TO BE A TERRIBLY EFFECTIVE STRATEGY AND IT IS NOT DETERRING THE IRANIANS FROM THEIR MALIGN ACTIVITIES IN SYRIA, IN YEMEN, IN SAUDI ARABIA, IN IRAQ — WE COULD GO ON HERE.>>Reporter: WE ONLY HAVE ABOUT A MINUTE LEFT. PRESIDENT TRUMP NAMED HIS FOURTH NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISOR ROBERTO BRINE. ROB — ROBERT O’BRIEN. ROBERT, WHAT DO YOU MAKE OF THE SHAKEUP?>>IT’S A BIT HARD TO FOLLOW. THE NEW NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISOR DOESN’T SEEM TO BE ONE TO REALLY PUSH HIS OWN AGENDA, SO IF PRESIDENT TRUMP WANTS TO INFRIEWNS WHATEVER POLICY PRESIDENT TRUMP WANTS INFLUENCED ON THAT DATE, HE MAY HAVE FOUND THE RIGHT PERSON, WHO KNOWS. CERTAINLY DIFFERENT THAN THE STYLE OF JOHN BOLTON. JOHN BOLTON WAS IN FAVOR OF ESCALATION WITH IRAN, SO MAYBE IT’S FINE THAT WE WILL BE HEADING IN A DIFFERENT DIRECTION.>>Reporter: DANIELLE, WHAT DO YOU MAKE OF IT?>>I KNOW ROBERT O’BRIEN, HE IS A DECENT MAN, A GOOD LAWYER, HE’S A CONSERVATIVE MAN, I THINK OF HIM AS A HAWK. HE’S NOT AS BOLD AND BRAZEN AS JOHN BOLTON, BUT AS WE’VE SEEN WITH ALL OF THE NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISORS, WE’VE ALL SEEN THIS MOVIE BEFORE, AND I SUSPECT THAT ANYBODY WHO IS IN THAT POSITION IS JUST GOING TO BE IN A DIFFICULT PLACE. I HAVE A LOT OF RESPECT FOR ROBERT O’BRIEN FOR T TAKING THAT VERY, VERY HARD JOB.>>Reporter: LOTS TO DISCUSS. THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR JOINING US ROBERT MALLEY AND DANIELLE PLETKA.>>THANK YOU.>>Woodruff: STAY WITH US, COMING UP ON THE NEWSHOUR: TURNING UP THE HEAT– HOW WARMING WATERS IN THE ATLANTIC OCEAN HURTS LOBSTERS. AND WHY A GRAIN OF SAND COSTS MORE THAN YOU THINK. PRESIDENT TRUMP BROKE AGAIN WITH PRESIDENT OBAMA AND FORMER PRESIDENTS GOING BACK SEVERAL DECADES. HE ANNOUNCED CALIFORNIA AND OTHER STATES WILL NO LONGER BE ALLOWED TO SET THEIR OWN FUEL MILEAGE AND EMISSIONS STANDARDS. THE STATES WERE GIVEN LATITUDE TO DO SO BACK IN THE SEVENTIES AFTER THE CLEAN AIR BILL WAS PASSED. BUT PRESIDENT TRUMP HAS BEEN TRYING TO REVOKE MUCH TOUGHER MILEAGE STANDARDS APPROVED DURING THE OBAMA YEARS. CALIFORNIA AND SEVERAL OF THE AUTOMAKERS HAD WORKED OUT AN AGREEMENT TO STICK TO TOUGHER STANDARDS VOLUNTARILY. I SPOKE WITH CALIFORNIA GOVERNOR GAVIN NEWSOM, A DEMOCRAT, EARLIER THIS AFTERNOON. GOVERNOR NEWSOM, THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR JOINING US. FIRST OF ALL, WHAT IS YOUR REACTION TO THE TRUMP ADMINISTRATION’S ANNOUNCEMENT?>>TWO REACTIONS — ONE, IT’S PREDICTABLE — THIS HAS BEEN RUMORED NOW FOR ALMOST THREE YEARS AND OBVIOUSLY DISAPPOINTED BECAUSE THE CONSEQUENCES, IF HE PREVAILS, WOULD BE CATASTROPHIC, NOT ONLY FOR THE HEALTH OF OUR PLANET, THE HEALTH OF THE AMERICAN ECONOMY WILL BE IMPACTED IF HE’S SUCCESSFUL.>>Woodruff: THE PRESIDENT SAYS, HOWEVER, TAT THERE’S GOING TO BE VERY LITTLE DIFFERENCE IN EMISSIONS BETWEEN THE U.S. STANDARD, THE NEW U.S. STANDARD AND THE CALIFORNIA STANDARD. WHAT ABOUT THAT?>>EVERY INDEPENDENT ANALYSIS OF THIS SAYS THAT’S JUST NONSENSE, AND I WOULD ENCOURAGE THE PRESIDENT TO ACTUALLY DO A LITTLE RESEARCH ON HIS OWN PROPOSAL. THEY’RE TRYING TO HOLD THE MILES PER GALLON STANDARDS ROUGHLY TO ABOUT 37 MILES VERSUS ROUGHLY 50 MILES IF THE OBAMA ERA RULES GO INTO EFFECT. YOU DON’T NEED TO BE A SCIENTIST TO ASSESS THE IMPACT OF TAILPIPE EMISSIONS, GREEN HOUSE GAS EMISSIONS, BUT NOR DO YOU HAVE TO BE AN ECONOMIST TO DETERMINE THE BILLIONS OF DOLLARS WASTED IN OIL CONSUMPTION THAT WOULD BE UNNECESSARILY CONSUMED IF HE’S SUCCESSFUL C THIS ROLLBACK.>>Woodruff: ANOTHER ARGUMENT THE PRESIDENT IS MAKING, HE TWEETED TODAY HE’S DOING THIS IN ORDER TO PRODUCE LESS EXECUTIVE CARS FOR THE CONSUMER AND CARS THAT ARE SUBSTANTIALLY SAFER. WHAT ABOUT THAT?>>THAT’S JUST NONSENSE. IT’S THE HEIGHT OF IRONY, ISN’T IT, WE’RE IN THE MIDDLE OF AN OIL CRISIS IN THE MIDDLE EAST, AN OIL-DEPENDENT NATION THAT WE REMAIN AND HERE WE ARE TRYING TO EXERCISE AUTONOMY AND INDEPENDENCE BY REDUCING OIL CONSUMPTION AND ALLOWING CONSUMERS TO KEEP MORE IN THEIR POCKET. THE QUESTION I THINK IS AN INTERESTING ONE BUT I THINK THIS IS A MORE IMPORTANT, IMPACTFUL POINT. YOU HAD FOUR MAJOR AUTOMOBILE MANUFACTURERS THAT REJECTED THAT ARGUMENT THAT, VOLUNTARILY, ON THE BASIS OF THEIR OWN DETERMINATION, THE BASIS OF WHAT’S IN THE BEST INTEREST OF THEIR COUNTRY AND BOTTOM LINE, THEY WANTED TO MOVE FORWARD WITH THE CALIFORNIA STANDARDS, THEY VOLUNTARILY AGREED NO MATTER WHAT THE TRUMP ADMINISTRATION PREVAILED THAT THEY WOULD TO CONTINUE TO SUPPORT THE OBAMA ERA RULES WITH A FEW TWEAKS THAT CALIFORNIA WAS WILLING TO ADVANCE.>>Woodruff: ONE OTHER THING ON THIS, GOVERNOR, THE PRESIDENT ALSO TWEETED TODAY THAT, IN DOING THIS, IN KEEPING THE FEDERAL STANDARD, HE SAID IT’S GOING TO LEAD TO MORE PRODUCTION, IT’S GOING TO LEAD TO MORE CARS BEING BUILT, MANY MORE JOBS CREAPTD, PRESUMABLY BECAUSE TO HAVE THE COST AND THE SAFETY THAT HE MENTIONED.>>AGAIN, JUST NONSENSE. YOU HAVE COMPANIES ON THEIR OWN, FORD LEADING THE EFFORT WITH HONDA AND VW, BMW, WHO SAYS THAT’S NONSENSE, BECAUSE THEY VOLUNTARILY AGREED TO CALIFORNIA STANDARDS BECAUSE THEY RECOGNIZE WHERE THE REST TO HAVE THE WORLD, CHINA, INDIA AND JAPAN ARE GOING. THEY’RE MOVING AWAY FROM THE INTERNAL COMBUNGS ENGINE AND MOVING AWAY FROM WHERE THE CUSTOMER IS GOING, ASK G.M. AND TOYOTA WHERE THEY’RE GOING, MAKING COMMITMENTS AND PLANS TO GET TO MORE ZERO EMISSION VEHICLES REGARDLESS OF WHAT THE TRUMP ADMINISTRATION IS DOING, BUT WHAT THEY DID IS EXTRAORDINARY. THEY CAN’T LAY CLAIM TO SUPPORTING FREE ENTERPRISE WHEN THEY HAVE AN ANTITRUST AGAINST THESE COMPANIES, THREATENED THE C.E.O.S OF THE COMPANY AND THREATENING THOSE WHO DID NOT JOIN CALIFORNIA. YOU CAN’T MAKE THIS UP. IT’S 2019, AND YOU HAVE THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES ATTACKING THE PRIVATE SECTOR AND TELLING THEM WHAT’S IN THEIR BEST INTERESTS AS OPPOSED TO THEM DETERMINING THEIR BEST INTEREST WHICH ALSO HAPPENS TO BE THE BEST INTEREST OF MOTHER NATURE AND LOW CARBON GREEN GROWTH.>>Woodruff: GOVERNOR, A DIFFERENT SUBJECT, THE CALIFORNIA LEGISLATURE PASSED LEGISLATION LAST WEEK TO HELP PEOPLE WHO WORK AS INDEPENDENT CONTRACTORS, UBER AND LYFT DRIVERS, FOR EXAMPLE, TO HELP THEM BE ENTITLED TO MINIMUM WAGE, OVERTIME PAY AND BENEFITS BUT, RIGHT AWAY, A NUMBER OF LARGE EMPLOYERS INCLUDING UBER, SMALL EMPLOYERS, RELIGIOUS LEADERS, WINE-MAKERS AND SMALL BUSINESS OWNERS SAY THIS WILL HURT THEM SIGNIFICANTLY, HURT THEIR PROFITABLE, THEY SAY IT WILL HURT THEIR ABILITY TO STAY IN BUSINESS. ARE YOU PREPARED TO NEGOTIATE SOME CHANGES IN THIS LAW TO ACCOMMODATE THEIR CONCERNS?>>ONE HOUR AGO I SIGNED THAT LEGISLATION. I CITED I STARTED 23 SMALL BUSINESSES THAT HAVE CREATED OVER 700 JOBS IN THE WINE INDUSTRY AMONG OTHERS, SO I KNOW A THING OR TWO ABOUT FREE ENTERPRISE AND THE IMPACT OF THE LAW. DYNO MEX MADE A NUMBER OF EXEMPTIONS INTO YOUR QUESTION. WE’RE ALWAYS WILLING TO NEGOTIATE AND I MADE THAT CLEAR AT THE BILL SIGNING WITH A LETTER ATTACHED TO THAT BILL THAT SAID I WANT TO CONTINUE TO NEGOTIATE WITH THESE COMPANIES BUT WE HAVE TO RECOGNIZE WE’RE GOING FROM A THREE-CLASS TO A TWO-CLASS SOCIETY AND THE COMMENSURATE BENEFITS THAT WE TAKE FOR GRANTED, WORKERS’ COMP, INSURANCE, HEALTHCARE, THEY’RE BACKLOST AND AS A CONSEQUENCE PEOPLE ARE MORE FEARFUL AND FRIGHTFUL ABOUT THEIR FATE AND FUTURE, SO THIS IS A MAJOR LANDMARK LAW THAT COULD HAVE A PROFOUND IMPACT IN HELPING REBALANCE THINGS. AT THE SAME TIME, WE DO HAVE TO RECOGNIZE THAT TECH GENIE IS OUT OF THE BOTTLE AND WE HAVE NEW PLATFORMS THAT ALSO PROVIDE FLEXIBILITY FOR THE WORKFORCE THAT ALSO HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED AND WE’LL CONTINUE TO ENGAGE IN THESE NEGOTIATIONS.>>Woodruff: GOVERNOR GAVE GAVIN NEWSOM OF CALIFORNIA, THANK YOU SO MUCH.>>Woodruff: SPEAKING OF CLIMATE CHANGE, OUR NEXT STORY LOOKS AT THE IMPACT IT’S ALREADY HAVING, SPECIFICALLY IN THE GULF OF MAINE. THE REGION IS KNOWN FOR LOBSTERS IN THOSE WATERS. LAST WEEK, WE TOLD YOU ABOUT THE UNEXPECTED FALLOUT OF TARIFFS IN THE LOBSTER BUSINESS. TONIGHT, MILES O’BRIEN EXPLORES WHAT THE WARMING OF THE OCEANS MEANS FOR THESE CRUSTACEANS, THE INDUSTRY, AND THE LARGER ECOSYSTEM. IT IS PART OUR SERIES ON THE “LEADING EDGE” OF SCIENCE. AND OUR CONTRIBUTION TO “COVERING CLIMATE NOW,” A GLOBAL COLLABORATION OF MORE THAN 300 NEWS OUTLETS TO ENHANCE COVERAGE OF THE CLIMATE STORY.>>Reporter: FOR MAINE LOBSTERMAN STEVE TRAIN, THE HARD WORK ABOARD THE “WILD IRISH ROSE” BEGINS DARK AND EARLY ABOUT 150 TO 200 DAYS A YEAR.>>I FISH YEAR ROUND. THIS BOAT CAN’T GO WITHOUT ME ON IT. IF I DON’T WORK, MY HELPER DOESN’T WORK, THERE’S NO PAYCHECK.>>Reporter: HE’S BEEN SETTING HIS TRAPS ABOUT FOUR MILES NORTHEAST OF PORTLAND FOR 30 YEARS. FEWER COMPETITORS HERE.>>I’D JUST COME OUT HERE AND GET AWAY, YOU CATCH A LITTLE LESS BUT YOU ARE ALL ALONG YOU DIDN’T HAVE A PROBLEM.>>Reporter: IN THE GULF OF MAINE, WHICH SPANS FROM CAPE COD TO NOVA SCOTIA, LOBSTER FISHING HAS BEEN ANYTHING BUT A PROBLEM FOR DECADES. IN FACT, WARMER WATER CAUSED BY CLIMATE CHANGE HAS SPURRED AN EPIC RUN HERE. ESTIMATED LOBSTER ABUNDANCE IN THE GULF ROSE MORE THAN 500% BETWEEN 1985 AND 2014. MEANWHILE, IN SOUTHERN NEW ENGLAND, ABUNDANCE DECREASED 78% FROM 1994 THROUGH 2014. ALMOST A COMPLETE COLLAPSE. SCIENTISTS SAY THIS TOO IS THE RESULT OF RISING OCEAN TEMPERATURES CAUSED BY CLIMATE CHANGE.>>WE’VE SORT OF AVERAGED REALLY WARM YEARS.>>Reporter: THAT’S ANDREW PERSHING, CHIEF SCIENTIST AT THE GULF OF MAINE RESEARCH INSTITUTE.>>RHODE ISLAND NOW REALLY INHOSPITABLE FOR LOBSTERS. IT’S SORT OF SHIFT THE OPTIMUM TEMPERATURE NOW. IT SORT OF LOCKED IN ON THE COAST OF MAINE AND THEN MAINE AS A REALLY GREAT LOBSTER HABITAT HAS BOOMED.>>Reporter: SO, MAINE IS IN THE SWEET SPOT AT LEAST FOR NOW?>>RIGHT NOW, YEAH, AND THEN THE QUESTION IS HOW MUCH LONGER IS THAT GOING TO CONTINUE.>>Reporter: LIKE ALL COLD BLOODED ANIMALS, LOBSTERS ARE HIGHLY TEMPERATURE SENSITIVE. AND THE GULF OF MAINE HAS WARMED FASTER THAN 99% OF THE WORLD’S OCEANS. WARMER ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURES HEAT UP THE WATER DIRECTLY, BUT THEY ALSO DISRUPT A CRUCIAL OCEAN CURRENT COMMONLY CALLED THE ATLANTIC “CONVEYOR BELT,” IT SENDS WARM WATER NORTH– THE GULFSTREAM– AND COLD WATER SOUTH– THE LABRADOR CURRENT. AS THE GLACIERS IN GREENLAND MELT, MORE FRESH WATER FLOWS INTO THE NORTH ATLANTIC SLOWING DOWN THE LABRADOR CURRENT ALLOWING MORE WARM WATER INTO THE GULF. AND THAT IS WHY THE WATER TEMPERATURES ARE RISING SO MUCH FASTER HERE.>>IT’S A LOT LIKE A BATHTUB WHERE IF YOU TURN DOWN THE COLD TAP, TURN OFF THE WARM TAP YOU GET A REALLY, REALLY HOT BATH. IT’S REALLY AN EXTRAORDINARY CHANGE THAT’S HAPPENED REALLY QUICKLY IN THIS REGION AND SO, NOW WE’RE TRYING TO WATCH HOW THE SYSTEM RESPONDS. WE’RE TRYING TO FIGURE OUT WHAT DOES IT MEAN FOR US AND HOW WE MAKE DECISIONS ABOUT THE OCEAN.>>Reporter: MUCH IS AT STAKE. THE AMERICAN LOBSTER IS THE MOST VALUABLE SINGLE SPECIES FISHERY IN THE U.S. AND CANADA. 80% OF THE U.S. CATCH ENDS UP IN MAINE, WHERE LOBSTERS LOOM LARGER THAN LIFE. SO THE STATE IS INVESTING IN SOME SERIOUS SCIENCE TO BETTER UNDERSTAND THE LIFE AND TIMES OF HOMARUS AMERICANUS. JES WALLER IS A LOBSTER RESEARCH BIOLOGIST WITH THE MAINE DEPARTMENT OF MARINE RESOURCES.>>THERE ARE STILL QUESTIONS ABOUT HOW THEY GROW, WHERE THEY MOVE, HOW THEY REPRODUCE, HOW THEY FIND EACH OTHER IN THE ENVIRONMENT. WE’RE STILL WORKING ON A LOT OF THAT, BUT THAT’S WHY IT MAKES IT AN AMAZING THING TO STUDY, IS BECAUSE THERE ARE REALLY ENDLESS QUESTIONS.>>Reporter: SHE IS FOCUSED ON LOBSTERS IN THE EARLY STAGES OF THEIR LIVES. A MOTHER LIKE THIS ONE CAN PRODUCE 10,000 EGGS A YEAR THAT SHE NURTURES UNDER HER TAIL. ONCE THEY HATCH, THE LARVAE MOVE TOWARD THE SURFACE. FINDING THEM IN THE WILD IS LIKE LOOKING FOR A NEEDLE IN A HAYSTACK. SO, EVEN THOUGH A MOM CAN PRODUCE 10,000 OF THESE GUYS, STILL HARD TO FIND THEM?>>STILL HARD TO FIND THEM. THE CURRENTS TAKE THEM EVERYWHERE. ONCE THEY’RE ABLE TO SWIM, THEY ARE REALLY LOOKING FOR THE PERFECT ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS WHICH TO GROW AND SETTLE TO BECOME THOSE JUVENILES. SO, THERE’S JUST A MILLION FACTORS THAT THEY TAKE WHERE THEY GO AND HOW LIKELY WE ARE TO FIND THEM ON A GIVEN DAY.>>Reporter: ONLY ABOUT ONE IN 10,000 WILL LIVE LONG ENOUGH TO REACH HARVESTABLE SIZE, AND POSSIBLY YOUR DINNER TABLE. THE DIET OF AN ADULT LOBSTER IS NO SECRET.>>SO, LOBSTERS ARE CARNIVORES. THEY FEED REALLY ON OTHER ANIMALS AND THEY’RE HORRIBLY CANNIBALISTIC. SO, THEY EAT ALSO THEIR BROTHERS AND SISTERS PRETTY REGULARLY.>>Reporter: BUT DAVID FIELDS IS MORE INTERESTED IN WHAT LOBSTERS EAT WHEN THEY ARE TINY. HE IS A SENIOR RESEARCH SCIENTIST AT THE BIGELOW LABORATORY FOR OCEAN SCIENCES. HE SPENDS A LOT OF TIME ANALYZING WHAT IS IN THE GUTS OF LOBSTER LARVAE.>>WHEN YOU OPEN UP THE SLURRY INSIDE OF A GUT, IT’S A LITTLE BIT DIFFICULT SOMETIMES TO IDENTIFY WHO’S IN THERE. THEY’RE EATING REALLY SMALL ANIMALS THAT DIGEST AND MIX UP PRETTY QUICKLY. SO, OPENING THEM UP AND POKING THROUGH THERE IS A GOOD FIRST STEP AND IT’S A TRADITIONAL METHOD. THE SECOND WAY IS TO PULL A SAMPLE OUT OF THAT AND LOOK AT THE D.N.A. AND MATCH THE D.N.A. INSIDE THERE TO THE D.N.A. OF ORGANISMS THAT ARE OUT IN THE WILD.>>Reporter: A PRIME SUSPECT IN THIS HUNT IS A TINY CRUSTACEAN CALLED CALANUS FINMARCHICUS. THEY ARE A KEY LINK IN THE FOOD CHAIN IN COLD WATER ECOSYSTEMS; A STAPLE FOR EVERYTHING FROM HERRING TO ENDANGERED RIGHT WHALES. CALANUS ARE ALSO VERY SENSITIVE TO RISING TEMPERATURES. THAT MIGHT EXPLAIN THE MYSTERY THAT FISHERIES ECOLOGIST AND ZOOLOGIST RICK WAHLE IS TRYING TO SORT THROUGH. HE LEADS THE UNIVERSITY OF MAINE’S ANNUAL LOBSTER SETTLEMENT SURVEY. IN RECENT YEARS, HE AND HIS TEAM HAVE FOUND MANY FEWER JUVENILE LOBSTERS ON THE SEAFLOOR. IT COULD BE THE FIRST INDICATION A POPULATION DECLINE IS UNDERWAY.>>THE OTHER THING THAT PEOPLE ARE THINKING ABOUT IS JUST THE WARMING WAS ACTUALLY EXPANDED THE ACCEPTABLE HABITAT FOR THE JUVENILES DOWN INTO SOME DEEPER WATERS WHERE MAY BE COULDN’T HAVE SURVIVED BEFORE. AND SO, YOU MIGHT JUST BE SORT OF STRETCHING THAT POPULATION OVER A LARGER AREA.>>Reporter: RESEARCHERS HOPE ALL THEIR EFFORTS WILL RESULT IN BETTER MODELS THAT CAN LEAD TO IMPROVED FISHERY MANAGEMENT. AS IT IS, MAINE LOBSTERMEN ARE EXTRAORDINARILY GOOD AT SELF POLICING THEIR INDUSTRY. THEY TOSS BACK SMALL ONES AND THE BIG ONES. FEMALES WITH EGGS GET SPECIAL TREATMENT– THEIR TAILS ARE NOTCHED– MARKING THEM AS “OFF LIMITS.”>>THAT LOBSTER CAN’T BE RETAINED. WE HAVE TO THROW IT BACK. SHE DOESN’T HAVE EGGS NOW, SHE PROBABLY DID AT ONE POINT, AND EVEN SHE DIDN’T IT DOESN’T MATTER, WE CAN’T KEEP HER>>Reporter: ALL OF THIS HELPS, BUT LOBSTERMEN LIKE STEVE TRAIN CAN’T HELP BUT WONDER IF THE BIG BOOM IS NOW PAST ITS PEAK?>>WE’RE NOT GETTING WHAT WE USED TO. AND IT’S NOT LIKE IT’S OFF 10%. YOU KNOW, IT’S OFF 30%, 40%, OUR DAILIES WERE OFF BUT THEY WERE LATE. THEY HIT LATER THAN THEY USED TO. SO, WE’VE HAD A BIG CHANGE AND THIS YEAR IS MORE LIKE A LONG TIME AGO, JUST NOT WHAT WE USED TO. EVERYONE SEEMS TO BE CRYING AS MUCH AS I AM.>>Reporter: FOR NOW, THE MODELS PREDICT OVER THE NEXT 30 YEARS IN THE GULF OF MAINE THERE WILL BE A STEADY DECLINE OF LOBSTERS TO PRE BOOM LEVELS. AFTER THAT, IT’S UP IN THE AIR, AND UP TO HOW MUCH CARBON WE KEEP PUTTING INTO IT. IF THE WARMING CONTINUES UNABATED, THE LOBSTERS WILL MOVE ON, AND SO WILL A WAY OF LIFE. FOR THE PBS NEWSHOUR, I’M MILES O’BRIEN IN PORTLAND, MAINE.>>Woodruff: ANOTHER GROWING ENVIRONMENTAL THREAT IS CLOSER TO SHORE: SAND MINING. IT ACCOUNTS FOR 85% OF ALL MINERAL EXTRACTION. MUCH MORE THAN ALL FOSSIL FUELS COMBINED. AND THAT COMES AT A HEAVY COST. SPECIAL CORRESPONDENT FRED DE SAM LAZARO TRAVELED TO CAMBODIA WHERE SAND MINING HAS BECOME A BIG BUSINESS AND WHERE IT THREATENS PEOPLES’ WAY OF LIFE.>>Reporter: FROM COMMERCE TO FISHING… TRANSPORT… AND RICE PRODUCTION, THE MIGHTY MEKONG RIVER IS THE LIFEBLOOD OF SOUTHEAST ASIA. BUT TODAY, ONE OF THE BIGGEST BUSINESSES ON THE RIVER IN CAMBODIA IS DREDGING IT FOR SAND TO MAKE CONCRETE-FEEDING ONE OF THE BIGGEST INDUSTRIES IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD: DEVELOPMENT. NOWHERE HAS DEMAND FOR SAND BEEN GREATER THAN IN ASIA. ACROSS THIS SPRAWLING CONTINENT, TENS OF MILLIONS OF MILES OF NEW ROADS HAVE BEEN BUILT CONNECTING HUNDREDS OF MILLIONS OF NEW HOMES. CONSTRUCTION HAS DRIVEN THE LARGE ECONOMIES LIKE CHINA AND INDIA AND THE SMALLER ONES LIKE CAMBODIA WHOSE CITIES LIKE PHNOM PENH HAVE JOINED THE BUILDING BINGE. SKYSCRAPERS, MALLS AND APARTMENTS CROWD THE SKYLINE, MUCH OF IT INVESTMENT FROM CHINA-FUELING AN ECONOMY THAT’S GROWN AT A HEALTHY 7.5% EACH YEAR SINCE 2005. MONYRATH YOS OF THE GOVERNMENT MINISTRY OVERSEEING MINERAL RESOURCES SAYS SAND MINING PLAYS AN IMPORTANT ROLE.>>( translated ): THE SAND MINING INDUSTRY IN CAMBODIA PROVIDES ECONOMIC BENEFITS TO CAMBODIA BOTH DIRECTLY AND INDIRECTLY. IT DEEPENS THE RIVER AND MAKES TRANSPORTATION EASIER. IT ALSO PROVIDES MATERIAL AND LAND FOR CONSTRUCTION. AND IT CONTRIBUTES TO THE NATIONAL REVENUE.>>SAND IS ACTUALLY A VERY FINITE RESOURCE, AND PEOPLE DON’T REALIZE IT.>>Reporter: PEOPLE OFTEN ASSOCIATE SAND WITH VAST DESERTS LIKE THE SAHARA, BUT BOSTON UNIVERSITY BIOLOGIST LES KAUFMAN SAYS INLAND SAND IS TOO FINE GRAINED AND NOT SUITED TO MAKE CONCRETE.>>SO THERE’S THIS BIG INCENTIVE TO MINE IT OUT OF WATER, OUT OF FRESHWATER OR THE OCEAN.>>Reporter: ASIDE FROM CONSTRUCTION, GLASS AND ELECTRONICS, SAND HAS FOUND OTHER USES ON A MASSIVE SCALE IN RECENT YEARS: IN THE AMERICA TO TO FRACTURE ROCKS FOR OIL AND GAS; IN SINGAPORE TO MAKE– WELL, MORE SINGAPORE. THE TINY PROSPEROUS CITY STATE HAS EXPANDED ITS LANDMASS BY ABOUT 25% IN RECENT YEARS. A LOT OF THE SAND FOR THAT CAME FROM CAMBODIA. IT PROMPTED CONCERN ABOUT ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE AND ACCUSATIONS OF CORRUPTION.>>( translated ): THE VOLUME OF IMPORTS RECORDED IN SINGAPORE SHOWS A DIFFERENT FIGURE FROM EXPORTS RECORDED IN CAMBODIA, SO YOU CAN SEE THIS IS A BIG ISSUE, A LACK OF TRANSPARENCY.>>Reporter: EXPORTS OF SAND TO SINGAPORE, WHICH CAME FROM CAMBODIA’S COAST, WERE BANNED IN 2017, BUT ENVIRONMENTALIST VANNAK HUN, WHO’S SPENT TIME IN PRISON FOR HIS ACTIVISM, SAYS SAND MINING ALONG THE MEKONG HAS CONTINUED AT A RECORD PACE. IT’S NOT JUST THE SKYLINE OF PHNOM PENH THAT’S BEING TRANSFORMED, HE SAYS, BUT THE VERY SURFACE OF WHAT WAS KNOWN AS A CITY OF LAKES. DESPITE LOUD PROTESTS, PNOM PENH’S BIGGEST LAKE, BOK KEUNG, WAS FILLED IN WITH SAND FROM THE MEKONG, TO CREATE MORE LAND FOR CONSTRUCTION. IT WAS THE LARGEST OF 12 LAKES AND WETLANDS THAT HAVE DISAPPEARED FROM THE CITY.>>( translated ): THE MOST AFFECTED COMMUNITY ARE PEOPLE WHO LIVE ALONG THE RIVER. WHEN THERE IS COLLAPSE, WHEN PEOPLE LOSE THEIR LAND, LOSE THEIR HOUSE, THERE’S NO COMPENSATION.>>Reporter: HE TOOK US JUST OUTSIDE PHNOM PENH TO SEE WHAT HAPPENS IN SAND MINING’S WAKE.>>( translated ): WE WOKE UP AT ONE IN THE MORNING AND WE FOUND THAT IT HAD ALL COLLAPSED INTO THE RIVER.>>Reporter: MOM MUT IS HAVING CONCRETE PILINGS BUILT TO SAVE WHAT’S LEFT OF HER HOME-AFTER PART OF IT DISAPPEARED.>>( translated ): ONLY FOUR MONTHS AFTER SAND DREDGING STARTED, WE NOTICED THE LAND WAS DIFFERENT, IT KIND OF CHANGED.>>Reporter: SHE SHOWED US PAPERWORK FROM THE DREDGING COMPANY PROMISING COMPENSATION IF HER PROPERTY WAS DAMAGED. TWO YEARS ON, SHE’S RECEIVED NOTHING AND ISN’T OPTIMISTIC THAT WILL CHANGE.>>( translated ): I HOPE TO PREVENT THE REST OF MY HOUSE FROM COLLAPSING.>>Reporter: IT’S COST HER $22,000, SHE SAYS, MORE THAN FIVE YEARS WORTH OF SAVINGS. AND THERE’S A CHANCE IT WON’T SAVE HER HOME. A NEIGHBOR JUST A MILE AWAY BUILT A SIMILAR UNDERPINNING ONLY TO SEE THE REAR OF HER HOME COLLAPSE.>>( translated ): I WAS JUST WALKING OVER THERE, IT GOT SLIPPERY AND I FELL AND THEN I BROKE MY ARM AND ALSO LOST ONE OF MY EYES.>>Reporter: IT’S A STORY REPEATED DOWNRIVER NEAR DREDGING PLATFORMS, INCLUDING THOSE IN VIETNAM, WHERE SAND MINING HAS ALSO TAKEN OFF. CAMBODIA’S GOVERNMENT INSISTS THAT DREDGING COMPANIES ARE APPROVED TO OPERATE ONLY IN LIMITED AND DEFINED AREAS AND AFTER AN ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT.>>( translated ): RIVERBANK EROSION HAS TAKEN PLACE FOR MILLIONS OF YEARS SINCE THE FORMATION OF THE EARTH. SO IN THE AREA THAT HAS THE RIVERBANK EROSION, IT’S A NATURAL FACTOR, A NATURAL CONDITION. WE ONLY ALLOW THE SAND DREDGING IN THE SHALLOW AREAS.>>Reporter: AND THE MINERALS MINISTRY’S MONYRATH SAYS PEOPLE IN AFFECTED AREAS HAVE RECOURSE.>>( translated ): WE HAVE A 24 HOUR HOTLINE THAT OPERATES SEVEN DAYS A WEEK. VILLAGERS WHO LIVE ALONG THE RIVER, THEY CAN MAKE A CALL TO FILE A COMPLAINT FOR ANY IRREGULARITY THAT THEY HAVE SEEN.>>Reporter: VILLAGERS WE SPOKE TO SAW A DIFFERENT REALITY HAVE YOU CALLED ANY OF THE AUTHORITIES?>>( translated ): I CANNOT READ, I CANNOT WRITE. I DON’T KNOW HOW TO DO IT AND ALSO THE VILLAGE CHIEF DOESN’T EVEN COME TO SEE WHAT IS HAPPENING TO THE HOUSE.>>Reporter: THERE’S ANOTHER THREAT THAT COULD HAVE EVEN WIDER CONSEQUENCES: PRICES FOR FISH ARE INCHING UP.>>( translated ): THE FISHERMAN TELL ME IT’S HARDER TO CATCH FISH NOW IN THE RIVER. I DON’T KNOW WHY.>>Reporter: HOW MUCH HAS THE PRICE GONE UP?>>( translated ): IT’S INCREASED ABOUT 25% SINCE LAST YEAR.>>Reporter: SEVERAL REASONS COULD ACCOUNT FOR RISING MARKET PRICES FOR FISH, BUT BIOLOGIST KAUFMAN, WHO STUDIES SEVERAL OF CRITICAL MEKONG SPECIES, SAYS FISH STOCKS ARE DECLINING. HE BLAMES THE COMBINATION OF SAND DREDGING AND DAMS, BUILT TO MEET SOARING DEMAND FOR POWER. THEY’VE WIPED OUT SPAWNING AREAS.>>PEOPLE DON’T REALIZE WHEN THEY ARE REMOVING THE SAND THEY’RE TAKING FOOD OFF PLATES. THAT’S THE TRADEOFF, IT’S NOT USUALLY RECKONED IN.>>Reporter: BUT HE SAYS FOR MANY WHO LIVE ALONG THE MEKONG AND MOST MAJOR ASIAN RIVERS, A DAY OF RECKONING SEEMS MUCH CLOSER AT HAND. FOR THE PBS NEWSHOUR, THIS IS FRED DE SAM LAZARO IN PHNOM PENH, CAMBODIA.>>Woodruff: A SEVENTH PERSON HAS DIED FROM LUNG ILLNESS RELATED TO VAPING. CALIFORNIA HEALTH OFFICIALS REPORTED THAT A 40-YEAR-OLD MAN DIED THIS WEEKEND. THE STATE IS LAUNCHING AN AD CAMPAIGN TO WARN AGAINST THE DANGERS AND RISKS OF VAPING. AND OTHER STATES AND CITIES ARE CONTEMPLATING BANS ON SOME E- CIGARETTES. FEDERAL HEALTH OFFICIALS HAVE SAID INDIVIDUALS SHOULD STOP VAPING UNTIL MORE IS KNOWN. VAPING AND THE USE OF E- CIGARETTES, OF COURSE, HAS SOARED AMONG TEENS IN THE PAST FEW YEARS. OUR STUDENT REPORTING LABS AROUND THE COUNTRY ASKED TEENS FOR THEIR RESPONSE TO THE NEWS AND THE WARNINGS. WE RECEIVED HUNDREDS OF RESPONSES. HERE’S A SAMPLING OF WHAT WE HEARD.>>I DON’T THINK PEOPLE ARE REALLY THINKING ABOUT VAPING. IT’S JUST KIND OF ONE OF THOSE THINGS THAT THEY GET ADDICTED TO, AND THEY DON’T REALLY CARE WHAT OTHERS HAVE TO SAY.>>IF YOUR FRIENDS ARE VAPING AT A PARTY AND STUFF LIKE THAT, YOU’RE NOT GOING TO SAY NO.>>A LOT OF PEOPLE I KNOW DO VAPE AND THEY’RE STARTING TO STOP BECAUSE OF THIS EPIDEMIC.>>A LOT OF PEOPLE ARE JUST PARANOID RIGHT NOW. THEY’RE WONDERING WHO’S NEXT. YOU KNOW, I’M PRETTY SURE A LOT OF THEM ARE THROWING THEIRS OUT RIGHT NOW.>>I MEAN, EVEN ON LIKE SNAPCHAT, THERE’S VIRAL VIDEOS OF PEOPLE, YOU KNOW, DESTROYING THEIR, THEIR VAPES AND STUFF LIKE THAT.>>I ALSO KNOW OF A KID MYSELF THAT GOES TO OUR NEIGHBORING HIGH SCHOOL THAT ACTUALLY HAD A SEIZURE AND PASSED OUT FROM VAPING. AND SO IT KIND OF HITS CLOSE TO HOME BECAUSE IT’S LIKE YOUR OWN PEOPLE THAT YOU KNOW THAT ARE IN DANGER OF THIS.>>I’M DEATHLY AFRAID THAT ONE MORNING I’M GOING TO WAKE UP AND THEY’RE NOT GOING TO BE HERE.>>I KNOW THERE’S EVEN LIKE PARENTS OUT THERE THAT WILL BUY THEIR KIDS THESE PRODUCTS BECAUSE THEY DON’T REALIZE HOW SEVERE THAT THIS LIKE CAN LEAD TO YOU BEING IN THE HOSPITAL.>>MOST OF THE TIME WHEN PEOPLE BUY VAPES THEY BUY IT FROM THEIR FRIENDS RATHER THAN ACTUAL OUTLETS.>>I THINK THAT THESE RETAIL STORES ARE ALSO SELLING TO UNDERAGE KIDS ILLEGALLY AND GETTING AWAY WITH IT. THEY’RE NOT CARDING OR ANYTHING.>>THERE’S PEOPLE YOU KNOW, THEY CALL THEM PLUGS. SO YOU JUST GO TO YOUR PLUG AND YOU’RE LIKE, OH, I WANT A PEN OR I WANT A JUUL, YOU KNOW, CAN YOU GET IT FOR ME, AS WELL AS WITH WEED. IT’S BASICALLY THE SAME THING JUST NICOTINE.>>YOU HAVE A CHOICE WHETHER TO USE SOMETHING OR NOT. YOU CAN’T BLAME ANOTHER PERSON FOR YOUR OWN SELFISH DESIRES.>>JUUL COULD MAKE THEIR PRODUCTS LESS APPEALING TO YOUNGER AUDIENCES, BUT IT’S OUR DECISION TO BUY THEM.>>I DID SOMETHING UNHEALTHY FOR SO LONG, AND NOW IT’S HURTING ME. THAT’S CRAZY.>>I’M VERY SCARED OF GETTING SICK FROM IT GETTING HOSPITALIZED. SO, I THINK, AT LEAST IN MY FRIEND GROUP, MOST OF US JUST WANT TO LIKE CUT IT OUT COMPLETELY AND JUST STOP.>>Woodruff: OUR STUDENT REPORTING LABS ARE A GREAT RESOURCE– LAST WEEK WE GOT A NUMBER OF EMAILS FOR BIG SKY HIGH SCHOOL IN MISSOULA, MONTANA. STUDENTS WROTE IN TO SING THE PRAISES OF A BELOVED TEACHER, MARK MOE. HE SHOWS THE NEWSHOUR’S NEWS SUMMARY EVERY DAY IN HIS CLASS. HE HAS ANNOUNCED HE WILL RETIRE ON FRIDAY, BUT HIS STUDENTS ARE NOT HAPPY. THEY WILL MISS HIM DEARLY AND THE REPORTING LAB THERE SENT IN THEIR THOUGHTS.>>MR. MOE TAUGHT ME MANY IMPORTANT THINGS BUT THE MOST IMPORTANT IS TO THINK ABOUT THE BIGGER PICTURE.>>MR. MOE TAUGHT ME HOW TO COME INTO CLASS AND SMILE EVERY DAY.>>MR. MOE TAUGHT ME THAT YOU NEED TO REALLY KEEP UP TO DATE WITH CURRENT EVENTS AND IT’S AN IMPORTANT PART OF SOCIETY AND YOU NEED TO KNOW WHAT’S HAPPENING IN THE WORLD SO YOU CAN MAKE INFORMED DECISIONS.>>MR. MOE HAS TAUGHT ME SO MUCH THE PAST YEARS THAT I’VE HAD HIM. HE’S TAUGHT ME THE VALUES OF HARD WORK — OOOH — DEDICATION, AND TO BE ABLE TO LOVE YOURSELF AND HAVE THE CONFIDENCE WHEN NO ONE ELSE DOES FOR YOU. MR. MOE IS SUCH AN AMAZING TEACHER AND I’LL MISS YOU SO MUCH, MR. MOE. WE WERE.>>WE WERE SO SAD TO HEAR YOU WILL BE RETIRING THIS FRIDAY. WE WANT YOU TO KNOW HOW MUCH WE ALL REALLY APPRECIATED YOUR ALMOST 30 YEARS AT BIG SKY HIGH SCHOOL. IN ORDER TO SHOW YOU, WE THOUGHT WHO BETTER TO SAY IT THAN JUDY.>>Woodruff: WOW. SO MARK MOE, LET US AT THE “NewsHour”, ALL OF US, ADD OUR THANKS TO YOU FOR BEING SUCH A DEDICATED TEACHER. SOME OF YOUR STUDENTS TOLD US THAT IF I ASKED YOU TO KEEP WORKING, YOU WOULD, BUT, OF COURSE, THIS IS A BIG DECISION, IT’S YOURS. YOU KNOW HOW THEY FEEL, YOU KNOW HOW MUCH YOU HAVE TOUCHED THE LIVES OF THESE YOUNG PEOPLE. WHATEVER YOU DO, AND PLEASE LET US KNOW WHAT IT IS, WE AT THE “NewsHour” WANT TO WISH YOU WELL. CONGRATULATIONS AND THANKS FOR SHARING THE “NewsHour” WITH YOUR STUDENTS. ON THE NEWSHOUR ONLINE RIGHT NOW, ONE OF THE MOST WELL- REGARDED SCIENCE PUBLISHERS IN THE WORLD CORRECTED A STUDY TODAY THAT INCORRECTLY CLAIMED SMARTPHONES ARE CAUSING MILLENNIALS TO GROW HORNS. WE EXPLORE HOW THE STUDY WAS FLAWED, AND WHY IT’S SO HARD TO CHANGE PUBLIC MISPERCEPTIONS. THAT’S OUR WEB SITE, pbs.org/newshour. AND THAT’S THE NEWSHOUR FOR TONIGHT. I’M JUDY WOODRUFF. JOIN US ONLINE AND AGAIN HERE TOMORROW EVENING. FOR ALL OF US AT THE PBS NEWSHOUR, THANK YOU AND SEE YOU SOON.>>MAJOR FUNDING FOR THE PBS NEWSHOUR HAS BEEN PROVIDED BY:>>CONSUMER CELLULAR BELIEVES THAT WIRELESS PLANS SHOULD REFLECT THE AMOUNT OF TALK, TEXT AND DATA THAT YOU USE. WE OFFER A VARIETY OF NO- CONTRACT WIRELESS PLANS FOR PEOPLE WHO USE THEIR PHONE A LITTLE, A LOT, OR ANYTHING IN BETWEEN. TO LEARN MORE, GO TO consumercellular.tv>>AND WITH THE ONGOING SUPPORT OF THESE INSTITUTIONS AND INDIVIDUALS.>>THIS PROGRAM WAS MADE POSSIBLE BY THE CORPORATION FOR PUBLIC BROADCASTING. AND BY CONTRIBUTIONS TO YOUR PBS STATION FROM VIEWERS LIKE YOU. THANK YOU.>>SO YOU DON’T THINK MCCONNELL WILL HAVE TO RESORT TO THE SO-CALLED NUCLEAR OPTION?>>I’M HOPEFUL THAT HE DOESN’T. ARE YOU QUESTIONING WHETHER THERE IS A MOVEMENT OF PEOPLE IN THIS COUNTRY WHO ARE WHITE NATIONALISTS.>>WHAT I’M SAYING IS I HAVEN’T SEEN IT.>>HOW MUCH A DENT IS RECYCLING MAKING.>>THE WAY WE RECYCLE PLASTIC AT THE MOMENT IS PART OF THE PROBLEM.>>THE WESTERN GOVERNMENT ACCUSED OF WAGING A NEW TYPE OF WAR WITH A NEW KIND OF SOLDIER, HACKERS. Captioning sponsored by NEWSHOUR PRODUCTIONS, LLC Captioned by Media Access Group at WGBH access.wgbh.org

Why Isn’t Communism as Hated as Nazism?


When people describe particularly evil individuals
or regimes, why is it that they use the terms “Nazi” or “fascist,” but almost never
“communist?” Given the unparalleled amount of human suffering
communists have caused, why is “communist” so much less a term of revulsion than “Nazi?” Communists killed 70 million people in China,
more than 20 million people in the Soviet Union (not including about 5 million Ukrainians),
and almost one out of every three Cambodians. And communists enslaved entire nations in
Russia, Vietnam, China, Eastern Europe, North Korea, Cuba and much of Central Asia. They ruined the lives of well over a billion
people. So, why doesn’t communism have the same
terrible reputation as Nazism? Reason Number 1: There is, simply put, widespread
ignorance of the communist record. Whereas both right and left loathe Nazism
and teach its evil history, the left – and I’m talking about the left, not traditional
liberals like Harry Truman or John F. Kennedy – has never loathed communism. And since the left dominates academia, almost
no one teaches communism’s evil history. Reason Number 2: The Nazis carried out the
Holocaust. Nothing matches the Holocaust for pure evil. The rounding up of virtually every Jewish
man, woman, child, and baby on the European continent and sending them to die is unprecedented
and unparalleled. The communists killed far more people than
the Nazis, but never matched the Holocaust in the systemization of genocide. The uniqueness of the Holocaust and the enormous
attention rightly paid to it have helped ensure that Nazism has a worse name than communism. Reason Number 3: Communism is based on nice
sounding theories; Nazism isn’t. It’s based on heinous sounding theories. Intellectuals in general – including, of
course, the intellectuals who write history – are seduced by words – so much so, that
they deem actions as less significant than words. For that reason, they haven’t focused nearly
as much attention on the horrific actions of communists as they have on the horrific
actions of the Nazis. They dismiss the evils of communists as perversions
of “true communism.” But they regard Nazi atrocities (correctly)
as the logical and inevitable results of Nazism. Reason Number 4: Germans have thoroughly exposed
the evils of Nazism, have taken responsibility for them, and have attempted to atone for
them. Russians have not done anything similar regarding
Lenin’s or Stalin’s horrors. To the contrary, Lenin, the father of Soviet
communism, is still widely venerated in Russia. And as regards Stalin, as University of London
Russian historian Donald Rayfield puts it, “People still deny, by assertion or implication,
Stalin’s holocaust.” Even less so has China exposed the greatest
mass murderer and enslaver of them all, Mao Zedong. Mao remains revered in China. Every Chinese currency note has his picture
on it. Until Russia and China – and Vietnam, and
Cuba, and North Korea – acknowledge the evils their countries committed under communism,
communism’s evils will remain less known than the evils of the German state under Hitler. Reason Number 5: Communists murdered mostly
their own people. The Nazis, on the other hand, killed very
few fellow Germans. “World opinion” – that largely meaningless
and amoral term – deems the murder of members of one’s own group far less noteworthy than
the murder of outsiders. That’s why, for example, blacks killing
millions of fellow blacks in Africa elicits almost no attention from “world opinion.” And Reason Number 6: In the view of the left,
the last “good war” was World War II, the war against German Nazism and Japanese
fascism. The left does not regard wars against communist
regimes as “good wars.” For example, the American war against Vietnamese
communism is regarded as immoral, and the war against Korean communism – and its Chinese
communist backers – is simply ignored. Until the left, and all the institutions influenced
by the left, acknowledge how evil communism has been, we will continue to live in a morally
confused world. In the meantime, all good people owe it to
the victims of communism to learn what happened to them. Even worse than being murdered or enslaved
is a world that doesn’t even know that you were. I’m Dennis Prager.

Let's talk about the government's relationship with the environment….



well howdy there internet people its Bo again so tonight we're going to talk about government's relationship with the environment and I don't just mean the US government although it's gonna be part of the example I mean all governments in general the environments always a secondary concern very rarely the primary on July 10th 1985 there was a boat down in New Zealand it was called the Rainbow Warrior it was down there to draw attention to a French nuclear test French government didn't like this very much they didn't want people talking about it so French intelligence blew it up killed somebody in the process that's not a conspiracy theory they got caught pled guilty went to president it happened in a less dramatic way there's something very similar happening in the United States right now recently the president gave a press conference of sorts in which he proclaimed himself a land protector conservationists all over the world just stared at their TV and utter confusion this administration has rolled back so many environmental regulations I was going to list them but we have that kind of time it's insane it's it's an immense list but cliff notes he he's overseen the largest rollback of federal land protections in history he talks about the idea of opening the entire coastline of the United States up to offshore drilling while simultaneously getting rid of the safety regulations that help prevent spells he killed the moratorium on leasing federal lands to the coal industry squashed regulations about the disposal of coal ash Roback so many clean water regulations I don't even work again so yeah it's it's doublespeak politicians saying one thing and doing another that's kind of normal it's kind of normal but at the same time this is going on federal agencies are currently scrubbing all references to climate change because well can't have you talking about it kind of like bomb in that boat the test is going to happen climate change is gonna happen we just don't want people talking about so yeah it's it's normal politics as usual but this is done with malice there's no debate about whether or not climate change is a thing there's some debate although not vigorous debate over whether or not it is man-made or man assisted or whether or not it's natural you can debate that if you'd like but at the end of the day it's happening the Pentagon is drawing up plans to deal with it it's a national security threat but you're gonna be denied the information you need to deal with it because contrary to the very popular fiction government's not here to protect you it's not a protectorate it's a government it's there to govern you to maintain control and maintain power and that's what it's about back in 1985 was about military power so that's when they bombed the boat but today it's different we don't colonize anymore with flags and guns we do with corporate logos engage in cultural colonization as we rip whatever we can out of the ground it's worth noting that while he gave this press conference he was flanked by a former oil lobbyist and a former lobbyist for the coal industry it's something we need to keep in mind as the environment gets politicized because the environment as a whole doesn't have any money but the oil and coal industry do anyway it's just a thought y'all have a good night

🇰🇭 Cambodia's Deadly Politics | 101 East



exiled locked up beater and gunned down speak out against the government in Cambodia and it seems one way or the other you'll be silenced I'm Steve Chow on this episode of one one needs to be travel from Bangkok to London Paris to pnom Penn as we trace the power and wealth of Cambodia's long serving leader Prime Minister who Sam about them Canadian bacon on top champion my husband lay in a pool of blood dear it was hard to believe I just couldn't believe it was my husband lying there in a pool of blood though rich Anna's husband Kym Leigh was one of Cambodia's most popular social commentators and a staunch critic of government corruption I always worried about his safety because his job was risky I told him darling please be careful we have four children but in July last year at the age of 45 he was shot dead within an hour of his murder a man was arrested and soon after paraded before the media he claimed his name was chopped some lab which in command literally means meat to kill he also said Kim ley owed him $3,000 and that's why he killed him you might wanna chill don't ruin it don't him dumping her on handicapped Benjamin I knew my husband's mind and heart very well he never uttered a word about borrowing money done a bit though quite a bit I can't accept that he was killed because of $3,000 tantowel I dismiss this but it's not true my husband was a good man I didn't expect them to be so brutal they killed my husband this is a say an act of state terrorism only the state has the means to perpetrate such an act and to cover it up chem lay was was not an isolated incident it was part of a much broader campaign of the ruling elite to silence the opposition voices and it had all the hallmarks of a political assassination having endured the horrors of genocide and war many Cambodians believe they're once again battling an enemy within the 1991 Paris peace agreement sanctioned by the United Nations promised to bring democracy to Cambodia but more than 25 years later Campbell are faced with an increasingly repressive and deadly regime the 2013 national election saw Hun Sen's ruling party win with a narrow majority amid claims a widespread electoral fraud now in the long lead up to the 2018 election the government has launched an intensive crackdown on the opposition party and government critics in a desperate attempt to cling to power opposition party members have been seriously beaten and more than a dozen are widely believed to be victims of politically driven trials serving prison sentences of up to 20 years for anything from posting false information on facebook to insurrection on the other side of the world longtime opposition leaders Sam Ramsey has recently been stripped of his leadership title while he lives in exile in Paris not only is he banned from entering his own country on the grounds he'd caused bloodshed and destruction if he returned but he's also facing jail sentences and is being sued for accusing the government of killing Kim lei I am NOT a friend I will explain and expose why I believe that Hudson and his government and he's a police were behind the murder when Ken Lay was murdered Bo rachana and her children lost a husband and father and it seems Cambodians lost a favorite son tens of thousands turned out for his funeral and memorial to pay their respects the aroldo Solanco stands along he loved his family and all chimere's he cared for the people more than himself in a country where more than 1/3 of the population lives on or below the poverty line the former medical doctor was a champion of the poor and vulnerable he travelled to some of the most remote parts of the country to listen to the concerns of his compatriots and educate them about their rights he was just doing his job not opposing anyone but he was considered a dissident some don't want people to understand they want them to be flying so it's easy to subjugate them and plunder the houses and land the powerful people do not want their subjects to understand that right the last thing the ruling elite want is for people to hear the truth about this exploitative and abusive system that they are perpetrating Richard Rodgers is an international human rights lawyer based in Paris he previously worked for the United Nations in Cambodia and has taken the extraordinary step of filing a case in the International Criminal Court against the country's ruling elite he's alleging they've committed crimes against humanity in relation to land grabbing and persecuting dissidents Kim leis killing will now form part of his evidence as well as the forcible evictions there's also been some shootings as villagers resist being forced from their land and we've seen massive amounts of land transferred from regular Cambodian people to a very small minority of very wealthy Cambodians with many government ministers and senators at the top of that hierarchy now of course in order for a small number of people to steal so many of the resources from a much larger number of people they need to maintain power and clearly Kim Lee became a threat he became too popular and particularly at this period of physical instability before the election in 2017 2018 clearly there was a motive to silence him they lied there's a money plate that they make a fat report to make it will pay much attention on that the concern government spokesmen face a fan rejects the ICC case outright and says Kim leis murder was an attempt by anti-government forces to smear the ruling Cambodian People's Party or CPP shocked everyone shocked even my Prime Minister's shocked my protocol parish shot that a wise happened and we feel we know that why they kill him they're going to be put that burden to CPP local party as well the government a london-based anti-corruption NGO may hold a clue as to why Ken Lay was targeted less than a week before his death Global Witness released a groundbreaking report exposing the widespread business interests of the Winston family they control who can invest in Cambodia they control all of the main arms of government that enable that to happen and so they just built this Empire they have an economic stranglehold not just as the businesses that they can create for themselves or whatever but a stranglehold of the competition so you know think they've got it made what this family tree shows is you know either the family or in positions of power or they're married to people in positions of power so there's not much that can go on in that government whether it's in terms of law enforcement military or investment that they haven't got a finger the Woon sin firmly is tight-knit the Prime Minister and his wife have five children and a large extended family among them are members of the government senior military figures and numerous entrepreneurs between them they have links to more than a hundred companies across all sectors of the economy including tourism agriculture mining electricity and the media as well as affiliations with top international brands estimates of the families combined wolf range from $500,000,000 to $1,000,000,000 if you're a consumer in Cambodia it's hard to go through a day without putting money into the pockets of the family numerous times you know whether you're visiting the Museum in Angkor filling a car with petrol having a cup of coffee or buying condoms you're putting money Luna's edema they are normal people two days before he was murdered Kim Leigh was a guest on a radio talk show the topic of discussion was a global witness investigation into the wounds and family business empire many now believe it was a fateful interview to buy candy catarata bark or protein or the tools for hand we mean tourism no swagger got to pay it fuck up or try the knowledgeable on of Noam Murro it up wouldn't from Konami home but Pechanga the people with a mid-cap extraction back Cheeta more chill ethnic hide in cancer que presenta talk about his friend and fellow analysts on the panel Nizhny started to feel uneasy in this one is touching really touching directly to the family couldn't family this area just make me a little bit scary you know if someone could come and kill us you know we have nothing to do just fine you're feeling it that I have never had before it might have been the first time he feared for his own safety but it wasn't the first time he feared for chem lays sometime he told me that there was someone came in looking for his house in your building police uniform and from time to time you know the coke and I have a lot on thing with high-ranking an officer so one way or the other he would get some signal you know from gum dat and you had to be careful then whatever so within the government he had some supporters yeah who would look after him yeah but on the morning of Sunday the 10th of July last year there was no one to protect him so this is the kel-tec service station in central phenom penh on one of the city's busiest boulevards where Kim Lai was doing what he regularly did having a morning coffee at the star Mart cafe when he was shot dead a man has been charged with his murder but it seems few are convinced he's the real culprit it was along the footpath in this street about a kilometre from the petrol station that the accused was seen running a phone video of his apparent escape was posted anonymously on the Internet so that's a policeman man yeah this is a policeman and the motorbike is a special believe that we know this motorbike the first peculiar thing you notice on the video is that the policeman pulls up alongside the accused and rather than attempting to arrest him that sim run on might be the police told him that no no you have to further running and then a little while later the accused runs across the road directly to the same policeman you know why this guy running along the path to the police as by standards begin to deliver their own justice the police finally take the man into custody I think normally no police would put him on handcuff yeah this video clip just keep public a lot of suspicion how might enrollment look out for mr. that's kind of killing and there's been no attempt by the government to counter those suspicions although the service station is surrounded by security cameras no CCTV footage has been released to the public we have the widow who killed that we have we met we knew I mean released to the public because the law because in investigation ambient period one and second one we understand that the can braceland become a a particle timing issue so the government does have the CCTV vision of the murder scene yeah we do have and it actually shows what happily stay said that the same face as a perpetrator that we get him get hold of him I leave that for you to check with the cameras wife because I didn't see that video has she seen it yes he's already seen she shall be seen done right but that's not what she tells us they have never invited me to see they should not say they showed the footage to me no no ha ha it's a lie the government is more concerned about protecting itself than telling the truth did didn't show the CCTV footage yet this shirt meet to kill as the killer other thoughts go on I can't accept him so who is this accused man who calls himself meet to kill and claims he shot Kim lay with a powerful and expensive Glock pistol all because the commentator owed him $3,000 in search of answers were heading to his hometown about four hours drive from the world heritage site of Angkor Wat in the northwest province of Siem Reap a long way from the scene of the crime our first stop a remote Buddhist temple where he spent a couple of years as a monk leaving seven months before the murder here he was known as a thing Novus monks were under earth on complain about him they say he behaved savagely beating out the threatening and bullying he stole money that the locals donated to build a rope he spent it on himself and lost a lot gambling online the monk was dubious when news broke of Earth Aang's arrest I didn't believe it because he never mentioned Kamla and never had money to lend to anyone I believed that he must have been hired by someone to commit the killer the monk goes on to tell us that boo thing was a former soldier and that he often boasted about his prowess with a gun and his coarseness to his former commander konoe he still went to visit him at his house or at his barracks in the province colony he said he could ask for anything he wanted and get it I believe he was hired as he wanted money on the table and could be bored back on our journey we're deep inside a former Khmer Rouge stronghold propaganda posters of the prime minister who thin are everywhere in this village where the accused lived until recently we find a man who's known him since the late 80s when he was a Khmer Rouge soldier after leaving the monkeys he asked me if you could stay at my house and I allowed him a room like the monk the man says he only ever knew his friend as oof Aang and is still trying to fathom why he would have killed Kim Lai while he was staying here he couldn't even afford to feed himself where did he get the money from how did he even know Kim Lee he lives so far away the man says whose own suddenly disappeared from the village but a week before the killing called from pnom pen and said he'd got a job as a soldier with a big salary of $300 a month at all morning police want a job for me if the pay is that good I said yes brother I'm recruiting two more people who said but then the phone lines dropped out he says the next time he heard from henan who was in prison I questioned him about the killing as I wanted to know why did you kill him he said brother this is my affair let me solve it myself not everyone we talked to is this forthcoming many people have told us that they're too scared to talk on camera but off camera a number of people from different villages have told us that a week or so before Ken Lay was shot the accused murderer was called to a meeting of senior district and military officials and straight after the meeting was put in a car and driven out of the air one of the last people to see who thing in his home province was this taxi driver who dropped him off on the outskirts of the town of Siem Reap when I arrived I dropped him at the taxi stand right there he was in the hurry he didn't even pay my taxi fare I saw him get into Alexis but I don't know where he was going they have arrested somebody but the the story behind that assassin that alleged assassin is completely implausible nobody believed that story now it may be that he pulled the trigger but the the question is who put him up to it it's a same pattern of assassination they never identify any culprit credible culprit and the real murderers are always free exiled opposition leader Sam Ramsay says that's what happened in 2004 in another assassination of another outspoken critic of the Hongshan government union leader Chia the chair was gunned down in very similar circumstances Jimmy Jia was killed at a place where he used to go every morning he used to to go to buy newspapers and they follow him they knew his habit and they Santino's and the lady who who saw the newspaper saw the killers are very clearly and well organizer and they did not arrest them and instead they found some other people who have nothing to do with the with the real killers the government grabbed a couple of of random young men from the countryside tortured them into confessing into the crimes and threw them in prison after a lot of international pressure they were eventually released by the Supreme Court and I imagine that we're going to see a similar sort of fasts in the case of Kemmler while there is no direct evidence linking one sin or his government to either the killing of chia-chia all Kemmler until there are thorough investigations and the real culprits are court the accusations are likely to continue in his home province of Tokyo a couple of hours from the capital per Phnom Penh can lay lies at rest his elderly mother never leaves her son's tomb sleeping beside it day and night the board American and Lib Tanana I don't want to think about who killed him I just feel sad I miss my son not only has she lost her son her family has been torn apart her daughter-in-law and grandchildren fleeing the country Norina by I miss them so much I don't know when I will see my grandchildren again Kim leis wife and children are now temporary refugees in Thailand's capital Bangkok they escape to the neighboring country after fearing for their lives my husband was killed in the center of the capital and justice has not been done I worried about my own safety and that of my children they might kill all of us I'm still worried and scared because Cambodia is very close to Thailand they might do whatever they want we have to live in hiding unable to go to school or stray too far the boys only playground is a stairwell of the apartment building keeping them close to their new baby brother born in Bangkok just three months after his father's murder it was a bittersweet time for rachana I've felt such pain as I remembered her past deliveries when my husband cared for me from day he was killed today I gave birth I have felt so alone living in this tiny one-room apartment without a kitchen the family struggles to make ends meet their lives in limbo as they wait for asylum in a third country they hope Australia offers them the protection they now crave why don't you go come on it is painful for us we are Khmer people but we can no longer live in our own country I've lost my husband I've lost my home and I've lost my country I'm determined that I must be strong my husband once told me that in his absence I should not cry but go on no matter what where I must stand up and challenge them