American Puritanism (II)


>>Alright let’s take care of a few business items
first before we get started with today’s fun and games. You’ve got a paper coming up. We’ve discussed it as a
teaching staff and we decided to push it off a week. Of course you could
always turn it in sooner. But we wanted, it’s
about poetry. And we’re going to take the
most challenging of the poets that we’re going to have read
up until that point and ask you to write about one of the poems
that we’re not doing in class. So we thought it might be a
nice idea if all of you had at least one session in
section in which you could talk about the analysis of poetry
and particularly puritan poetry. And to sort of do the kind of
analysis orally and together that you’ll then be called
upon to do in written form. So we’re going to push
that off but I am going to make the assignment available
online almost immediately after the class or later this
afternoon, later this evening. So that’s one thing. At the same time I’m also going to make available the
scavenger hunt assignment which isn’t due then, it’s due
basically the Friday before the mid-term. So there’s more time for that. But it’s a good thing to
have in mind as a task as you begin the process
of reading the poetry that we’re going to be doing
over the next couple of weeks in part because the poetry
provides the most fertile ground I think for discovering
the kinds of things that you’re going
to be looking for. Typically speaking
again we’re asking you to do something that’s related to using the literature
major’s tool box. Especially in formal terms. So we’ll be asking
you to look for stuff. A metrical foot, not an
IM but something else like an anapest trochee
dactyl spondee. And we’ll be asking to
look off of two other kinds of figurative language,
figures of speech, and figures of rhetoric. We’ll give you a few of
these to choose from. And the goal will not only
be to find it, but to figure out what it’s doing there. Or you might say to figure
out what the effect is that the poets, or really you
could use it from prose too, the writer in general, what
effect is the writer getting out of the use of that
particular metrical foot or rhetorical device
in that moment. Alright? So we’ll be
doing a little bit of, it’s not only just finding, but
it’s talking about how it works. And of course to talk about
how it works you’ll need to be thinking about things
like language, rhythm, syntax, diction, and also meaning. How is the way in which this
meaning is being expressed affect the creation of
that meaning itself. Okay? So that’s, we’ll have
both of those things available and you should take
a look at them if possible before section
this week, so even tonight, so you could ask
your sections row about questions that
you might have. And there’ll be opportunity
to do that next week as well. But I think again the point
of these two assignments is to get you to be thinking
about what it means to do close reading and to think
about what’s at stake in it. One thing I should say about
the paper assignment is it has a word limit indicated. We want you to adhere
to that word limit. And part of the reason for doing
that is we basically want you to go through these poems
when you read them and mine for evidence of different
kinds, evidence that has to do with meaning, and
evidence that has to do with formal attributes. We would love you to
find more evidence that you could actually use
and to have to take out some of the things that you
might have used in order to fit it in to the length. And we want you to make your
best arguments using your best evidence. Okay? But to start with
that, you’ll need to kind of make a catalog of the possible evidence
that you could use. Okay? So we’ll have, we’ll be
able to talk a little bit more about that as the weeks go by. The second assignment in
the course, we’ll ask you to do basically the
same thing for a piece of prose rather than poetry. And then later on you’ll
do a final paper of a topic of your own choosing in which
we’re hoping you’ll put together the kinds of analysis
that you’ve been doing in these shorter papers and
may be able to mobilize it in the service of the
slightly longer argument of your own devising. Okay. Are there any immediate
questions about that? Alright. In that case we’ll
press on with the Puritans. I fought the law,
the law won, right? It almost always does. A antinomianism is one of our
subjects for today and it comes from the Greek words anti
nomas [assumed spelling] which means, against the law. And one of the things are
going to see is the way in which Anne Hutchinson
sets herself against at least one version of what some puritans
think is the law. And hence antinomianism is a
kind of derisive term is applied to her and the people who
were her followers and later on it becomes something
of a caution for people in the romantic era. Both Emerson and Hawthorne
are very aware of the idea of antinomianism and want in
some sense, for Emerson he wants to be avoid being
seen to be someone who follows Anne
in that tradition. Hawthorne has a more
complicated relationship to antinomianism as
we will discover. But before we do that,
I wanted to finish up some conceptual
business from last time. So I’m going to show you a brief
clip that I didn’t have a chance to show less time, which
comes from President Reagan. And it is his account
of Winthrop when he finally names
Winthrop and talks about him, but I also want you to just
listen to the way this moment of the speech can be seen to
work as a piece of rhetoric and to think about what
it is that he is promoting in addition to, you know, thinking about the
individual and the community. So let’s take a look
at this together. [ video/audio of
President Regan ]>>I’m warning of an
eradication
of that, of the American memory that could result
ultimately in an erosion of the American spirit. Let’s start with some basics. More attention to
American history, and a greater emphasis
on civic ritual. And let me offer lesson
number one about America. All great change in America
begins at the dinner table. So tomorrow night in the kitchen
I hope the talking begins and children, if your parents
haven’t been teaching you what it means to be American let
them know and nail them on it. That would be a very
American thing to do. And that’s about all I
have to say tonight except for one thing, the past
few days when I’ve been at that window upstairs,
I thought a bit of the shining city upon a hill. The phrase comes from John
Winthrop, who wrote it to describe the America
he imagined. What he imagined was important,
because he was an early Pilgrim, an early freedom man,
he journeyed here on what today we’d call
a little wooden boat. And like the other
Pilgrims, he was looking for a home that would be free. I’ve spoken of the shining
city all my political life. But I don’t know if I ever
quite communicated what I saw when I said it. But my mind, it was a tall proud
city built on rocks stronger than oceans, windswept, God
blessed and teeming with people of all kinds living
in harmony and peace. A city with free ports
that hummed with commerce and creativity and if there had to be city walls the walls had
doors and the doors were open to anyone with the will
and the heart to get here. That’s how I saw it
and see it still. And how stands the city
on this winter night? More prosperous more
secure and happier than it was eight years ago, but
more than that, after 200 years, two centuries, she still
stands strong and true on the granite ridge, and her
glow has held steady no matter what storm. And she’s still a beacon,
still a magnet for all who must have freedom. For all the pilgrims from all
the lost places who are hurtling through the darkness toward
home, we’ve done our part. And as I walk off into the city
streets a final word to the men and women of the Reagan
revolution, the men and women across America who for
eight years did the work that brought America back. My friends, we did it. We weren’t just marking
time we made a difference. We made the city stronger. We made the city freer, and
we left her in good hands. All in all, not bad. Not bad at all. And so goodbye, God bless you, and God bless the
United States of America. [ end video/audio
of President Regan ]>>The great communicator. And he had that kind of folksy
homespun storytellers way. George HW Bush tried to emulate
him, but it didn’t work so well. And you might say
that George W. Bush, his real political father
isn’t his own father but that guy, Ronald Reagan. And I think that’s what
George W. Bush aspired to. That vision of America,
that Reagan had. It became a little bit,
let’s just say in the years after that maybe some
of the assumptions that Reagan makes became
a little more problematic. So what is the vision of
America that Reagan talks about? I’m particularly interested
in what you think some of the continuities and the
discontinuities might be with say Winthrop’s
vision of America. I already suggested to
you one thing last time. Winthrop is promoting the
idea of community over and above the idea
of the individual. We’re going to harness
individual energies, but we’re going to
harness them, they’re going to serve the community,
they’re going to serve God’s purpose
above all. Reagan changes things
a little bit around. I mean, he sort of thinks that the starting point
has to be the individual. And then it’s almost like with
the logic of laissez-faire. You start with the individual,
let the individual pursue his or her senses of the good,
her economic interests and all good things will follow. But what else, what have some
of you, did you notice some of the things that he said about
America or how to be American? Yeah.>>What’s interesting
is that he talks about diversity in everyone.>>Okay diversity.>>Different and then
coming
together but his first point is, it starts at the family table. Which is interesting because
that excludes, you know, I don’t know, a percentage of people would not consider
themselves to be part of a family table
kind of atmosphere. But I mean, nowadays it’s
not uncommon to not have that family table kind of thing. So it’s interesting to say
this is where it begins and kind of inherently.>>Alright so there’s a
presumption of a typical or traditional American
family perhaps? One that has the luxury of everybody gathering
at the table. So clearly dad is not working
the night shift and unable to be at the dinner or mom is able
to be there and you know, there’s a certain, so there’s, you can see that there’s a
certain idea of the family that I think you’re right
about that behind that. But think about the
logic of that then. If it begins with the family
table and then he gets to the idea of diversity. You know, he hasn’t
talked right in the moment about the individual
but you could see in his mind there’s almost
a kind of progression. Promote individualism,
we promote family life. Why? Because you have kids and
you want to care about them. And then ultimately we have
the sense of the nation as one large family
you might say. There’s an interesting analysis,
which we’ll probably talk about later in the
term of the fact that the family is an overriding
metaphor for American people and yet one of the things we
realize is when we start talking about families, and I think
your point is getting at this, we may not all have
the same idea of what constitutes a family
or an ideal family in mind. And so we’ll talk a little bit
later on about really, you know, there’s a kind of powerful metal
metaphor metaphorical language of the family. But the fact that the
metaphor obscures the fact that people have
radically different notions about whether a family
should be run by say a strict father figure
who is an authoritarian and is kind of like,
you know, like, God’s representative
in the family unit. Or by nurturing parents, both
of whom are kind of equal who are setting a
model for behavior for their children rather than laying down,
as it were, the law. So I think that’s some
things to bear in mind. Yeah what else. Did you have something
you want to add?>>Regan was talking
about the doors being open and that he wants the heart and
the will to make it [inaudible]. But I mean, I don’t think
Winthrop was at all interested in [inaudible] he
saw differently than they did [inaudible].>>Alright so the doors
were opened for them.>>Right.>>And you might say yes, that idea of diversity
is not something that comes along
with Puritanism. So that would be another
way I would suggest in which Regan is breaking with the Puritans at
least in rhetoric. Although again we might want
to think about you know, how deep that commitment
to diversity actually goes. Or what it is that Regan
thinks he means when, you know, all these people are
coming and what kinds of people are they
going to be really. There’s a certain, there’s
a joke about the melting pot which is, I don’t even know
who told this joke originally, that you know, people come
in from all different kinds of race, religions,
and ethnicities and basically everybody comes
out Presbyterian, right? [ laughter ] The melting pot is
a homogenizing pot. You all come out the same thing. Well, we have a different
conception I think, today of what diversity
could and should mean. So that’s one of the ways in
which you might say Regan. Regan, that belongs to
the moment before the so called culture wars in this
country which take place kind of towards the end of
Reganism and beyond, before multi-culturalism
becomes kind of an assumption that most people have within institutions
of higher education. So it’s important to think
about Regan in that moment. Anything else? I think he is right about the
sense of ritual and I want to talk a little bit
more about that today. And I think that’s
one of the ways in which there is a continuity
between Regan and the Puritans. Both of them understand
the power of rituals. For him. It’s kind
of like daily rituals like having the dinner
table together. For the Puritans it
was a larger sense of communal rituals
mostly oriented around the church
and around sermons. And of course around the
Communion table as well. So these are some of the things that I think we’ll
want to talk about. But before we go
onto that I wanted to just give you an example of
the other kind of association in which the Puritans
were engaged when they came to the New World. This is just a description
of the joint stock agreement that the Plymouth Puritans
had when they came, all right? So you can look at all
the capitals invested by both merchants
and the colonists and it’s put into a joint fund. Divided into shares every person
over the age of 16 is rated at 10 pounds, 10 pounds
is a single share, any colonist outfitting
himself with 10 pounds worth of provisions was
considered worth 20 pounds or a double share, for
example William Moens [assumed spelling], a well-to-do colonist
left in his will his stock of 40 pounds worth of boots and
shoes expecting it to increase to nine shares at the
end of seven years. Investors who contributed
only money and stayed at home, and the colonists both work
to continue the joint stock for even years during
which all profits were made from trade traffic, etcetera. Then they would eventually
divide up, excuse me, that should be seven years. I think it was seven years
during which all profits from trade would be
in the common stock and then they would
eventually divide it all up including the lands,
houses and the goods. And a common stock will
furnish the food, clothing and provisions during
those seven years. And I think you could
see that that’s the, that’s a more extreme version of
a kind of communal orientation that the Plymouth Puritans had. There were different provisions for the Massachusetts
Bay colony. But again they’re very specific,
they indicate, you know, actual pounds worth of value, and they’re thinking
in economic terms. So for both Bradford
and Winthrop. We want the economic
arrangements to reinforce the
spiritual arrangements. But again, they belong
to joint stock companies, it’s an economic venture
come to the New World as well as a spiritual venture. And I told you last time
that one of the things that Winthrop is trying to do is to harness the energies
of the individual. The economic energies of
the individual in order to make this kind
of arrangement work. And also, not get, you know,
not so leave the individuals to pursue economic
interests that the other kind of communal aspects of the
venture would start to fail. So you needed to make
use of individualism but find a way to rein it in. And so the antinomian
controversy becomes an example of precisely the thing
that is, you know, the subtext of Winthrop’s
sermon, what it is he’s afraid
of happening, right? And ironically, it happens not
because of economics but because of doctrine, a theological
doctrine, and spirituality, right? But it is a case in which
individualism is threatening to get out of hand and what
happens is the Puritans fathers as it were clamped down on
it and it’s worth talking about that notion
of Puritan fathers because the antinomian
controversy is very much to a large case of kind
of feminist response to a patriarchal hierarchy, and
it’s quite clear that the people who were in charge of
Puritan society at that point, recognized it as such. It made a big difference that Anne Hutchison was
a woman mounting this particular challenge. Right? So that’s what
we call antinomianism, and this is the picture
of Anne Hutchison. Now in order to understand
the context for antinomianism we need to
go back to some of the things that Bruce Tickler talks about in his article
particularly the idea of preparationism
[assumed spelling]. And preparationism is a way
that the Puritans responded to the problem between, the
problem of, you might say, the lack of fit between
good works on the one hand, which you would think, you know,
Christians would be interested in promoting and
this idea of grace. I remember that for
them arminianism from the Dutch philosopher
Jacobus Arminius, the idea that, you know, good works
would be the way that you could get yourself,
earn a place, merit salvation. For them that’s a heresy. Salvation occurs only
because God is merciful only because he gives grace
to his chosen few, right? So there isn’t a necessary
connection between good works and the reception of
grace, although I started to say last time why it was that the Puritans would probably
not want to completely misbehave because they would then be
interpreting their own impulses to misbehave as a sign that
you weren’t among the elect and nobody wanted that. So you might say that this idea of preparationism is another
form of compromise, right? The doctrine goes like this,
since nobody can tell whether or not he or she is
predestined to be a member of the elect, only
God knows this. It made sense to engage
in good moral behavior. So you should live your life
acknowledging God’s supreme power, you should be looking
for certain signs that the life of the sincere penitent, right? Somebody who’s accepting God’s
grace, would be exhibiting. And among these would be, not
surprising, a kind of yearning for grace a natural inclination
to good moral behavior and virtuous actions, right? Wanting to be good, you could be
interpreted as one of the signs. Now none of these things
would have any kind of causal efficacy. You’ve got to be
clear about that. You can’t merit grace. But they have this idea
that you could sort of could prepare for grace. As if, I don’t know,
grace were seeds that were going to be planted. And then if you were preparing
for grace, you were just going to make sure the ground
was especially receptive or fertile or well watered. Or just some of those seeds are
going to take root right away. Right? If you think about the
parable of the talents when, or the parable of the seeds,
the sower when Christ talks about certain seeds are
going to fall on rocky ground and certain seeds, and
they’re not going to prosper, certain seeds are
going to prosper. Well preparationism as the idea
that you can prepare that ground and make sure it’s, you know,
grace is going to take root. And it doesn’t actually
from my point of view make a lot of sense. I mean, when push comes to
shove there really isn’t a way to prepare for grace. It shouldn’t really shouldn’t
make a difference whether you’re prepared or not, right? Whether you’re getting it or
not, you’re getting it, right? Yes you wanted to say something.>>[inaudible] that they
thought that God’s grace was
completely arbitrary?>>No, it’s God’s will. It’s anything but arbitrary,
it’s the most determined and reasonable thing there is. Because it’s God’s will and who
are you to ask about it at all? [ laughter ] You think I’m joking that’s
really what they thought. I mean, who are you? Do you remember the book of Job? Did anybody ever
read the book of Job? The book of Job, okay? The book of Job is a
wonderful book because it gets at the problem of why is
there evil in the world. Does anybody know why? And so we know about Job. And by the way Job is a big
intertext [assumed spelling] for Melville’s Moby
Dick, so, you know, if I, I should probably assign you to read the book
of Job but I won’t. But it would be good if
you were familiar with it. Anybody remember why Job gets
tormented the way he does by God? Yeah.>>Isn’t it because Satan
was sort of goading God by saying well this guy loves
you and worships you but only because you’ve been
so good to him. He wouldn’t be so nice to
you if he had a hard life.>>Yeah that’s basically
right. I mean, remember that the Satan
that we see there is not Satan. Anybody ever watch reruns
of Saturday Night Live? The word Church lady
mean anything to anybody? [ laughter ] So, Dana Carvey is wonderful. So, but Satan’s not
that Satan yet. Satan is still the kind of
advocate, the adversary, it’s almost like the
devil’s advocate, that comes from that
conception of Satan. He’s going to pose the contrary
just to test things out. So it’s yeah, Job, you know,
is your faithful servant. Because God’s saying have
you, Satan’s kind of walking around the earth
looking at everything, and God’s really proud of Job, saying have you seen my
faithful servant Job? Satan says yeah, you know
your faithful servant Job, he only loves you because
you’ve been good to him and maybe he fears you a bit. You take away all those
good things and we’ll see. So God says okay, test him. Don’t kill him, but
anything else, you can do. So he does. Alright? And this is a series
of like terrible disasters. Job is kind of sitting
there one day, and then all these messengers
come to say, you know, everybody in your
family was killed, all your livestock was killed, and I only escaped
alone to tell thee. Okay so it goes on, right? But there’s a reason for it. It’s a way of, you know, testing
God’s principles, there’s this, you know, it’s almost
like a thought experiment that God is allowing
Satan to engage in. Alright? Do you remember,
we’ll cut to the chase, do you remember what
happens at the end? Does Job get to find out why
this all happened to him? He’s covered with
boils, and, yeah, why did, what happens to Job?>>God speaks to him and
explains that, he tells him who are you to pretend to understand the
divine providence.>>Exactly. So you might say the nicest
thing that God could do to Job, Job is a, Job never
wants to ask to die or anything like Jonah does. Jonah’s kind of a wuss. But Job, Job takes it although
he does complain, a little bit of whiny moments in
Job’s monologues. But for the most part, he comes,
but he does, and he does sort of register the unfairness, I
mean I can’t really talk to you, you come, you speak
in the whirlwind, you know, is that really fair? But okay. So anyway he comes in. Now the nice thing for God to
do would be to explain it all. Look, this had a purpose,
there was a reason, you were my representative,
I’ve proven to Satan that my followers really
believe, and they have faith, and it’s not because
they either want rewards or because they fear me. Does He tell him all that? Does He give him that
satisfaction of knowing that it wasn’t all arbitrary? He does not. Who are you to ask,
who are you to presume, were you around when
I created the world? Were you around when I
put Leviathan in the sea? No. Quiet. He smacks him down. And that is the way the
Puritans understand the world. They trust that there is a
purpose, they also understand that they are not
going to know it. So you don’t get to ask that
question if you’re a Puritan. And you wouldn’t. Wanting to ask that
question, very bad sign. Okay? So, I mean that’s kind of,
but that’s where the precedent for it comes in books
like the book of Job. That’s the way that they
understand the relationship. Now that could drive some people
to despair although I think when we get to Edward Taylor you
will see that what he decides to think about is that, there’s
something fundamentally comic or comforting about
the incommensurability between the divine mind
and our own, right? It’s kind of taken care of for
us, we shouldn’t worry about it, you shouldn’t worry too much about grace not coming,
it will come. You know, and in the
meanwhile you sort of see human beings predicament
not as a predicament but as, I don’t know, an opportunity
or the idea, you have kind of assurance that there’s
providence in place, right? So there’s no connection
between grace and works and preparationism, you say
well, it’s kind of a little, of course it doesn’t
have any affect, but it’s not a bad idea, right? I mean, even if you’re
not predestined for grace, if you’ve been preparing the way
for grace and you don’t get it, still you’ve been
leading a good life and it’s benefitting
to other peoples. So it’s better than
the opposite, right? But push it too far and it
starts to look like arminianism. And that’s what Hutchinson says. I mean, basically when
preachers would get angry with one another, they
would accuse one another of being Arminian, you know,
they were falling into the trap of the Arminian heresy
of preaching a doctrine of works rather than grace. So Anne Hutchinson started
to get disaffected with some of the preachers in
Boston because she believed that they were in fact
producing a doctrine that was very close
to arminianism. Too much preparationism,
too little account of grace. And so she starts to create
a kind of, well it starts out as a kind of book group
or reading group of her own, and then she gets
a lot of followers. Hutchinson and her family
emigrated to Boston in 1634. She comes from a
prominent family. Her husband William is
elected to the deputy, is elected as a deputy of
the Massachusetts court and she is somebody who is very
active in community service. She serves as a nurse
and a midwife and a spiritual advisor
to women. And in effect that’s where
the problem sometimes starts. Sometimes in her first
years in Boston she began to hold these weekly meetings in
her home to discuss the sermon of the previous Sunday. And they soon became very big,
I mean people heard about them, and she would get, you
know, about 60 people in her house including
the governor and other prominent figures. Now the trouble starts when
she begins to criticize some of the leading clergy for basically preaching what she
thought was a doctrine of works or she accused them of being
legalists who suggested that people could earn
salvation somehow. And that the conversion
process could in fact be charted
and understood. She wanted to go back to the
hard-line, mainline Calvinism which regarded grace
as inscrutable. That’s a big word
for the Puritans. Can’t understand that. Inscrutable and individual. It’s a mystical experience
that happens only between God and the individual sinner. And they’re really,
when you think about it, the clergy has no role to play in that fundamental act
of a Christian life. You don’t need the clergy. So all of this stuff,
the clergy, the churches, the prayers, everything, she thought of as what
is called sanctification. Everything has to do with good
works, and churchly trappings and all this kind of stuff,
part of sanctification. Which is all well and fine. I mean, insofar as it promotes
good behavior that’s great with her. But what she’s really interested
in and what she thinks of as the center of the Christian’s
life is justification. The moment when the Holy
Spirit becomes indwelling, when you get grace. And she says there
is no connection between justification
and sanctification. Let’s take a look, and to say that she says is a
form of arminianism. Let’s take a look on page 160
of the Norton, there’s a moment, we looked at the moment of the
snake and the mouse last time, but let’s take a look at another
moment from Winthrop’s journal in which he talks
about Anne Hutchinson. This is on page 160
at the bottom. The entry that’s
October 21, 1636. And he writes this;
One Mrs. Hutchinson, a member of the church of
Boston, a woman of ready wit and bold spirit brought over
with her two dangerous errors. One that the person of
the Holy Ghost dwells in a justified person, that’s
a kind of obscure point of doctrine, and this is
the bigger problem right? Two, that no sanctification
can help to evidence to us our justification. From these two grew
many branches as one, our union with the Holy Ghost
so as a Christian remains dead in every spiritual action,
have no gifts nor graces, other than such as
are in hypocrites, nor any other sanctification
but the Holy Ghost himself. They’re joined with her in these
opinions, a brother of hers, one Mr. Wheelwright a silence
minister sometime in England. Right? So Winthrop
is noting this. And you can see that the
problem that they have is that if you push this doctrine,
what you might say is a kind of, within puritan terms a kind of right wing conservative
doctrine, it’s the most conservative
interpretation of Calvinism. If you push it too far you
don’t need the minister. You don’t really
even need the sermon. You don’t need any of
the church hierarchy. All you need is your own sense of you’re leading a Christian
life and your expectation that ultimately you
will receive grace. So if she’s mounting a
challenge you might say to the church hierarchy
by preaching this. And people are starting
to listen to her. So finally they find
a way to try her. She’s tried twice. She’s tried once in the civil
court, the general court, in 1637, she’s tried in the
next spring by the church, she refuses to confess the
errors of her ways and finally if you look at some
of the transcripts, you’ll see that she
gets caught up in a kind of Achaean point of doctrine. Ultimately she and her
family are banished in 1638 to Rhode Island. Right? So they clamp down. Now, the earliest sermon
that still survives from Puritan Plymouth is
one that’s called the sin and dangers of self-love,
and it was preached by a guy named Robert Cushman. And it was preached in 1620. Interestingly, again, there’s
kind of, you know Cushman had to sort of split interests. He was a Puritan, and therefore
got to preach this lay sermon because he was the business
agent for the colonies. So he was going back to England
and before he goes he wants to make sure that everything is
shipshape with that agreement that they have made with
investors back home. Right? So the problem,
the biggest threat to the Puritan enterprise
is going to be this idea of self-love or egotism. And he wants to preach
against that. Yes?>>So what exactly did
they
claim to be trying her for? What did they say?>>They tried her for
these
errors, what they consider to be errors of doctrine and
preaching against the ways in which the ministers
were preaching. So if you look at the two things that Winthrop identifies
here are the reasons that they try her in court. The idea that the person
of the Holy Ghost dwells in a justified person and
so that it’s a question of, is the Holy Ghost outside. Or is it actually inside? And I believe she
says it’s inside and they didn’t want
to say that. I mean, that’s the
obscure point of doctrine. But the other thing is important
even perhaps more important. That no sanctification can help, evidence us to our
justification. Right? Because they are
developing this doctrine that goes by the name
of preparationism. And that doctrine is
the official doctrine. You’re not supposed
to challenge that. Even to say that it doesn’t
exactly make sense or, so when she starts to challenge
that that becomes a reason for them to bring her up and to
try her in both of these courts. I don’t remember what the,
I’ll check it out and see if I can put it in the
notes, I don’t remember with the actual charges
in a civil court was. It was something akin
to disorderly conduct, but it was really,
it was basically for promoting dangerous
heresies among the people. That was both a civil offense
and a theological offense. And there’s a very
complicated thing that goes on, John Cotton is a good friend of
yours, she kind of saves some of the ministers who are
interested by claiming that they aren’t culpable at
all, that it’s all, you know, it’s just her own idea. And ultimately she is
the one that suffers most of the punishment,
she and her family. But the point is therefore that
self-love, egotism, is the thing that they’re afraid of,
so they kind of suggest that that’s what
she’s preaching. Even though, if you
look at it on the face of it you would say she’s really
just preaching the doctrine. The problem is that in trying
to make the doctrine something that can serve as a template for
society in some senses they have to compromise the doctrine. It needs to be a place for that
kind of disciplinary powers of the church and
the elders to be. And Hutchison wants to say, you
know, that’s kind of irrelevant. So they saw it as, you know,
a form of individualism or egotism getting out of hand. They thought she was
doing it impure motives. Because she declared that the
church, which thought of itself as having this mediating role
between the individual sinner and God, was actually
unnecessary. So you see this kind of a double
offense, it’s theological, but it’s also social
and ideological. I mean she’s going up
against the church hierarchy on these grounds of doctrine. And more than that as
I suggested earlier, she’s a woman, who
is openly challenging patriarchal structures. And if you look at the
things that they write about, we’ll look at a snippet
right now, you can see that her
gender is clearly an issue. Take a look at page 163. There is a sort of entry about,
after, later on there’s an entry about her child and the
monstrous birth is attributed to her. So September 1638, Mrs.
Hutchison being removed to the Isle of Aquitaine,
in the Narragansett Bay after her time was filled
that she expected deliverance of the child was delivered
of a monstrous birth. Here upon the governor wrote
to Mr. Clark a position and a preacher to
those of the island to know the certainty there of
who returned to this answer. I know this is kind
of weird for you and interested in
what’s going on. Mrs. Hutchinson six weeks before
her delivery, perceived her body to be greatly distempered and
her spirits falling and in that regard doubtful of life,
she said to me etcetera. And not long after in
inmoderatofluoriauterino [assumed spelling] it
was brought to light, and I was called to see it. Or I beheld innumerable
distinct bodies in the form of a clove not unlike
the swims of some fish so confusedly knit together
by so many several strings, which I could see were the
beginnings of veins and nerves. So that it was impossible either
to number the small round pieces in every lump much less to
discern from whence every string to fetch its original. They were so snarled
within one another. The small globe to likewise open
and proceeded to matter them, setting aside the membrane
in which it was involved to be partly wind
and partly water. The governor not satisfied with this relationship
spake afterward with the said Mr. Clark, who
thus cleared all the doubts. They want details of
the monstrous birth. The lumps were 26 or 27 distinct and not joined together became
the second on after them, six of them were as great
as his fist in the smallest about the good bigness
of the top of his thumb, globes were round things,
included in the lumps about the bigness of
the small Indian being, unlike the pearl in a man’s eye. The two lumps which differ
from the rest were like liver or congealed blood and
had no small globes in them as the rest had. Okay. You can see that the
kind of interest in this and the fixation on this. Here is this woman and she’s
delivered this monstrous birth. I mean, only, the only
thing better would’ve been if she delivered an
actual devil child that was walking around, right? But they can, you could see
that anger is linked to the fact that they understand
that she has committed that kind of gender offense. An offense against their
hierarchy of gender. And so that comes across I think
in the language that they use, the way in which they’re
particularly interested in the facts of her failed
maternity in this instance. So the Hutchison’s spent about
five years in Rhode Island, and then they moved actually
up to Pelham in the Bronx and on page 164 you can find
out what happens to them. This is the middle of
the page September 1643. The Indians knew the Dutch
having killed 15 men began to set upon the English
who dwelt under the Dutch. They came to Mrs. Hutchison’s in
the way of friendly neighborhood as they had been accustomed to taking their opportunity
killed her and Mr. Collins, her son-in-law, who had
been kept prisoner in Boston as it was before related
and all her family and such other families that
were as were at home in all 16 and put their cattle into their
houses and there burnt them. These people have cast off
ordinances and churches, and now at last their own people and for larger accommodation
had subjected themselves to the Dutch and dwelt
scatteringly [assumed spelling] near a mile asunder. She deserved what she got. Right? Is the message here. In other words, they see, you
know, as to what happened to her and they saw it as a sign
of God’s divine judgment. That she was wrong and
therefore she had this fate. So you would say her old
enemies would’ve been satisfied by this outcome. And it would be a further
justification for them of the way they think
about history. And history is not
secular, but history is part of a divine plan is unfolding. Yeah.>>How do you reconcile
God
punishing those who’ve done evil deeds with Job being
punished or.>>Again, you’re asking
about God’s purpose. It’s a big black hole. You do not get to
ask about that. God has his purposes
who are you to presume? He’s seen the past the
present the future, he knows. It’s all part of a plan. We call it Providence.>>Then wouldn’t it be a
sin to presume that she died because of what she had done?>>Yeah, probably, except
that it suits their purposes. You know, yeah. Right? I mean one of the
things that you would say about this is, I’m
a mean, you know, I’m not even really religious
myself let alone subscribing to a former fundamentalism like
this, it made sense to them. And part of it was because
there were certain lines that were drawn beyond which
he wouldn’t cross with reason. You only got to the
other side, by faith. So you just had faith. And so you had an intuition
about something, right? I mean, that’s the point of it. That God has an invisible
Church. What we have is a
visible church. The Puritans are trying
to make those two matchup as much as possible. So they have some ideals that
some people are going to be, Winthrop, yet he’s
in the church. Bradford sure, church. You know, part of a
problem arises later with the second generation. They’re not so sure about them. Are they going to
be a part of it. But they didn’t do
with these things so that you have these
intuitions then you look for signs to try to
interpret things so that that might be a sign
of divine approval. So this would be a sign
of divine disapproval. Again, you’re trying judge
this preparationism self, and you could say if you
were absolutely hard-line, you shouldn’t even be
thinking about this, right? Because you’re treading
on God’s ground. God knows and you should, but insofar as you
could say that’s a sign. It seems like were not
presuming to ask why or to question the
purposes, but it looks like God is approving
these things, that’s the way they thought. They live in a kind of haunted
world where they are sure of the larger outlines
of the story. They even know the
end of the story. It’s called the book of
Revelation, the apocalypse, they even know the role that
they play as a people in that. What they don’t know,
what no individual knows, is the role that he or
she is going to play. Alright? So, you run
into various kinds of theological problems. They tried to try
to get around these. Yeah?>>But, I mean, you
believe
in this sort of thing, where you would know if you
were my new [inaudible].>>You still wouldn’t
know exactly until you’d actually had
the experience of grace. See, here’s the rub. And they actually feel like they
have the experience of grace. In order, after the antinomian
controversy in order to try to settle things down a
little bit and so that someone like another Hutchison
couldn’t come along and say look grace
is inscrutable. You know, who nobody can
say whether you’ve had it or haven’t, they start
to develop, and again, this would seem to us to be
counterintuitive, and certainly to Hutchinson, they started
develop a series of steps by which individual
sinner and those around him or her could recognize
that you’ve received grace. And historians following
somebody named Edmund Morgan have instead, they
called this kind of a morphology of conversion. And these are kind of
squishy steps, but Morgan said that the steps towards
the reception of grace for something like this. Knowledge, conviction,
faith, combat, and true and perfect assurance. Now, he would derive
these by looking at lots of different conversion
narratives. Because one of the things that
came after this is the idea that in order to have full
church membership you had to give an account
of your conversion. And how could anybody know
if you were telling the truth or not, well it’s
because people had an idea of what a real conversion
would look like and so if your conversion
matched their idea, your account convincingly
matched their idea of what it was, it
was going to be okay. And I just want you
to look at this stuff. When we get to Edwards you’ll, this will become a
little clearer I think. But there’s a sense in which we
start off with knowledge, right? So that may be something
like knowing the bible, listening to the ministers,
understanding the principles. And we believe as
a result of that. We move from a strong belief to actual faith that’s
beyond questioning or reason, and then something happens
to us and we are forced to question everything
or we’re forced to put those principles
into place. We’re severely tempted. Or members of our family die,
or something like that happens. We have this kind of struggle. And as a result of that
struggle we emerge stronger, we emerge with an
assurance that’s true but we’re always aware
of its imperfection. It’s the same logic I talked
about before in moving from the covenant of works
down to total depravity up to the covenant of grace. You start off in a place
that’s okay, you’re tested, things get bad, and you rise
to a place that’s much higher. It’s that same kind
of Puritan logic. And so, I think it looks
almost like a square root sign, or something like that. Anyway, that’s one of the
things they try to do. They try to develop a series of steps whereby you
could actually tell. And so then they come
up with this idea, it’s called a Cambridge platform
1648, which they say all of these conversions must
be personal and public. Personal meaning
you have to account, you have to recount your
own story of conversion, but public because you have to
tell everybody else about it. Sometimes women who were
afraid, you know, as women are of speaking in public,
they were allowed to have somebody else
recount is for them. And many of these
things were written down and so we have some of them. John Cotton who was actually
one of the people that was in Hutchinson’s circle
for awhile and was a conservative minister
wrote this tract called the true constitution of a
particular visual church. Again you’ll see that
terminology here, in which he gave a kind
of question and answer, sort of an early FAQ for how
you know all the mechanics of being saved and not
saved and what you can know. So question, what manner
of men hath God appointed to be received as brethren
and members of his church. Answer, such as are called
out of God, of this world to the fellowship of Christ
and do willingly offer and join themselves towards
the Lord and then to the church by confession of their sins,
by profession of their faith, and by laying or taking
hold of His covenant. And this doesn’t actually map
onto this, this are the things that you do after
you’ve received this true and perfect assurance. Right? So this is sort of steps. In an earlier tract, he’s made
it even a little clearer what they did. Candidates are called
for before the church and each one maketh confession
of his sins and profession of his faith, in confession
of his sins that it may appear to be a penitent confession, he
declareth also the grace of God to his soul drawing him
out of his sinful estate into fellowship with Christ. In the profession of his faith
he declareth not only his good knowledge of the principles of
religion, not only knowledge, but also his professed
subjection to the gospel of Christ with his
desire of walking here, therein with the
fellowship of the church. So again you get the sense
that knowledge isn’t enough, there’s got to be something more and that something more is
what you get when you get to the experience of grace. Edwards is a very late
Puritan by the way. I mean, this is, he’s writing
100 years after these people. And he’s the last great
Puritan thinker I suppose. But in some of the things that
you’ll read, you’ll get a sense of what it, you know,
he’s trying to get across, but he uses language that’s
much more familiar to us because it’s a, just, it’s a kind of proto-romantic
language that, at that time, feels licensed to use
examples from cultural life or from nature to get
across what it is. But let’s just say, anybody
seen the movie The Wizard of Oz? Yes?>>Yes.>>People still watch
The Wizard of Oz? Well before grace, the
world is black and white. After grace, Technicolor. And you don’t have to go back
to Kansas because Oz is better. That’s grace. Okay? So we’ll talk
about that some more. But so you see, I want you to
see how it is, they are trying to figure out a way to make this
rather impractical doctrine work in practical terms as the
basis of, for a society. And so they come up
with these various kind of compromised positions. And part of what happens is that
these things, this whole idea of the morphology of conversion
and other things become more and more standardized as they
encounter more and more problems in Puritan New England. These include problems with the
weather, there are earthquakes and bad weather and
failed crops. Yes there actually are
earthquakes in New England, not the way there are some other
places, but they did occur. I experienced one
myself back in the day. Had been out for
awhile the night before so I thought it was
something else when I woke up. But when you see that the
room is not at right angles to itself you kind of figure out
that it’s just an earthquake. Anyway, one problem that
I’ve already hinted at is that there’s a problem with the
second generation, the children of the supposed saints
of the first generation who are not getting converted
at the rate they should’ve been. So they came up with this idea
called the halfway covenant by its opponents. In other words, they said,
look we’ll meet you half way. No they didn’t say that. What they said was
that the children of full church members could
have their children baptized and they could have all, many
of the rights and benefits, they couldn’t go to
the communion table yet until they fully
receive church membership. But you know, you’ve
got to be baptized. You’ve got to chose
God to be baptized because you’re not baptized,
it’s kind of a non starter. Not that baptism has any
efficacy or anything, right? I mean, because you’re baptized, you’re not causing anything
or creating anything. But let’s just say if it turns
out that you weren’t baptized that would be the surest sign that you weren’t
among the elect. So you really want to make
sure your kid is baptized. Okay. So that’s another example
and people talks about this. That’s another example of the
way in which Puritans are trying to make the, create these
compromised positions that could make this
society work. A form that arises as a
result of these problems that Puritan New England is
having is a form that’s called the Jeremiad and it’s a
particular kind of sermon. Once a year in front
of the general court, something called an
election sermon was, and that’s election was
preached, and that’s election in the sense of being
among the elect rather than voting for anything. And this form called the
Jeremiad, arose in part in response to the troubles
that New England was having. And as you might imagine it
was a kind of sermon that took as its text Jeremiah or
sometimes Isaiah, you know, the Old Testament prophets who were constantly decrying
the failure of the Israelites to keep their covenant, right? The prophets were howling
in the wilderness you know, all that kind of
stuff, that’s them. So it’s a kind of gloomy sermon. And the paradicmaraquan
[assumed spelling] is one that was preached in 1670 in
front of the general court by a man named Samuel
Danforth [assumed spelling] and it was called
a brief recognition of New England’s errand into
the wilderness And you might say that the content of these
sermons was expected to integrate a kind of theory
of puritan society with current and religious social practices. That’s what the election
sermons tended to do. So you’ve got a kind
of familiar ritual in which the preacher
would pick a text, summarize the larger
historical picture, take stock, and then find some
way to apply it, and typically follow the pattern
of, text, explication, doctrine, reasons and propositions,
and then application that I set out last time. The application became
more and more important as Puritan New England
started to have problems. And so we would see in Danforth’s sermon this
same kind of pattern. He gave it to the Massachusetts
general court in 1670 and the larger question
he was asking was this, what is it that distinguisheth
New England from other colonies and plantations in America. And of course the answer is, what makes Puritan New England
distinctive is exactly the thing that Winthrop talked about. It’s the fact of its
pursuit of religious annuls that will make it this
kind of city on a hill. So I’m going to show you a
passage, a very brief passage from Danforth’s sermon, and
you’ll see how he’s taking cues from texts like Bradford’s
with their depiction of a howling wilderness, into
which the Puritans have come on this errand, and also
Winthrop, this idea of serving as a model or a beacon and
having made a kind of covenant. So this is part of
Danforth’s sermon. You have solemnly professed
before God, angels and men that the cause of leaving
your country, kindred and fathers houses and
transporting yourselves with your wives little ones and
substance over the vast ocean, into this waste of howling
wilderness was your liberty to walk in the faith
of the gospel with all good conscience
according to the order the Gospel and your
enjoyment of the pure worship of God according
to his institution without humane mixtures
and petitions, right? This is why you’ve
wanted to do this. Good conscience and he talks
further on about this kind of compact that you’ve made. And for a while,
he says, it worked. When the people were saintly in the first generation
was there we created out of this howling
wilderness, a kind of garden, but we have not been
tending our garden properly. And he takes as an
additional text from Proverbs, the Vineyard is all
overgrown with thorns and nettles cover
the face thereof and the stone wall
is broken down. Things are not good. Yes?>>I still don’t
understand
what it would be a problem with the second generation. How do they know, when the
first generation was more chosen than the second?>>Well, the
first-generation
were A, the leaders so you didn’t really
question them very much, and B, they are all have these
professions of faith, and they were part
of church members in the second generation became
interested in other things. They actually became
interested in exactly the things that winter was afraid of. They were more interested
in their economic lives, perhaps in the spirituality. There were fewer confessions
or professions of faith. You know, it’s like
kids these days. They’d say, it was
an, something, it’s an abiding problem,
but they set it in this religious context. So they’re saying like okay, now we understand why
there are the earthquakes and Indian troubles and bad
crops and all that stuff. Why hath the Lord smittened
us with blasting and mildew, now 7 years together adding
sometimes severe draught, sometimes great tempest
floods, and sweeping rains. Blazing stars, earthquakes,
dreadful thunders, lightenings, fearful burnings, right? The very, it’s like
one of these moments from a Shakespearean play,
the very earth is erupting because of the bad stuff
that the Puritans are doing. Every, this became a kind
of ritual after this. It’s like every week
these sermons would be, whenever you go to church
you’d be hearing these kind of Jeremiads preached over
and over and over again. You find it very
depressing, right? Well they didn’t I don’t think. And what we think is that
they started to understand that this was a ritual. And it’s been described by American scholars
Americanist scholars is a ritual of consensus. Because remember the logic. God afflictest just most
those whom he loves best. The worst it is the
more he loves you. Think Job. And these sermons were
for constantly, you know, excoriating those present
for their failure to live up to the ideals of the fathers. Every week they would
also end with the idea that it’s not too late. You still are the chosen people. Get back with it. And everything will be fine. God’s grace is waiting for
us there, don’t ask questions about efficacy please. This is the rhetoric
of it, right? We’re still the chosen people. Time to get back to where
we’re supposed to be, right? So is was a constant
reinforcement of the idea that God, that the Puritans
were God’s chosen that they were that they had a role to
play in the end of days, and the end of days
were coming pretty soon. So pretty in general,
best not to be caught out when the end of days comes. Okay. Are there questions
about that? Yeah.>>[inaudible] half way
covenant
you said that the children of whole church members,
is it their children?>>Well no, the children
of
full church members were allowed to have most of the privileges that full church members
could have They couldn’t go to the communion table
but they could do some of these other things
like participate and also, most important, baptize
their children.>>So they could
baptize their children.>>They could baptize
their
children even though they’re not full church members because
there was the expectation that if, you know, you’re
Winthrop’s kids, you’re going to get converted, just might
be taking a little bit longer.>>Was that, [inaudible]
, study the duration or do they see as
just a [inaudible]>>Well again, you know,
to say
that baptism caused election or anything like that would be to preach a doctrine
of works somehow. So it’s not that. It’s just, it’s more
like you have to think of a retrospect of logic. If it turns out that
you weren’t baptized, that’s a pretty good sign that
you’re not among the elect. Again don’t think too much about where the human
agency falls within this. They all hate this right? Bitch to your section
leaders about it. [ laughter ] But I mean, one of the things
I’m saying is there are, the Puritanism is
full of contradictions and they struggle with it. I mean, one of the earliest
ways that people thought about Puritanism was that is
was kind of fundamentalism, it was kind of monolith,
everybody believed but for example, a history of New England Puritanism
would look a lot different if you started not with
Winthrop as we’re doing, but say with a count of
the Salem Witch Trials. You would get some of the
same elements in place but they would take on a much
more sinister kind of cast in which there are certain
kinds of enthusiastic behaviors and it kind of works
almost virally. People start to believe
that they’ve seen things. And later on, if you read
the transcripts of Salem, what you’ll realize
is that the people who were saved are the
people that say I’m guilty. And I saw the black woman
with the, I mean the black man with the cat on his shoulder
and whatever it is they figure out that there’s certain signs,
not unlike the kind of flipside of the morphology of conversion. I say these things and then
say I’m sorry about it, it’s better than saying
what are you talking about. I’m innocent It’s the
people that continue to profess their innocence
until the very end. In Arthur Miller’s
play, the Crucible, it’s a wonderful
twentieth century capturing of this kind of hysteria. And of the refusal to kind
of kowtow to this kind of ritualized behavior. The people that profess
their innocence, they’re the ones
that died, right? So New England becomes a very,
kind of ritualized society and people start to understand
the way these rituals work. Alright. One other thing to say about the Jeremiad is it becomes
a form that you might say, explodes beyond the
boundaries of simply the sermon. And that many things
beyond sermon start to take on this powerful kind
of Jeremiadic form. We will read one
of them next week which is Michael Wigglesworth’s
poem the Day of Doom which takes basically
the form of a kind of instruction manual to, instead of mostly
for young readers. It was written in a verse form
that was very easy to memorize and it of course ends with
the idea of God’s grace, but that’s like 10
verses out of 300. The rest of it, all hellfire
and damnation, right? A lot of Jeremiadic
kinds of elements. And some people have read the
longer thing that we looked at for today also as a Jeremiad,
the narrative of the captivity and restoration of
Mrs. Mary Rowlandson. So let’s turn to that on
page 236 of the Norton. And this is a picture of Mary
Rowlandson from a later edition. Actually they make her look
more colonial probably, I mean like kind of later
colonial than she probably did. But Rowlandson is
thought of as the kind of paradigmatic captivity
narrative and many of these things often follow
the kind of Jeremiadic design in which somebody has a
captivity happen, and they say, they berate themselves,
take responsibility for it, say some kind of failing,
I’m being punished or I’m being tested and then
ultimately since you only get to write a captivity
narrative if you’re redeemed from your captivity, you
find that in fact, you know, things have worked out well
and that God has saved you. Rowlandson’s captivity occurs
during something that’s known as King Phillips War which
erupts in 1675 and proves to be devastating
both, for both sides. Under the leadership of
Chief Sechametacomet [assumed spelling] of the Wompanoads
[assumed spelling] several Native American tribes
banned together finally to keep basically, to keep
the Puritans in check. I mean, they see, you
imagine the situation. They’ve been living there,
they see these puritans coming, they’re taking control of
the land, they have larger and larger settlements,
they’re increasing in number, they’re pushing these tribes
out of their homelands. So there’s 18 months of citing in which both sides engage
apparently in atrocities and suffer high casualties,
and the economy of the English colony
is completely disrupted. You can imagine a
major refugee situation around Boston as
a result of this. Metacomet [assumed
spelling] is finally killed which marks the end,
effective end, of Native resistance
to the English. You might say the English
win but it’s a kind of purit [assumed
spelling] victory. And people social and economic
history suggest that the end of puritan New England comes
in part, or in large part, because of the effects
of King Phillip’s war. Alright, February 10, 1676, a Wompanoad raiding
party attacks Lancaster, kills 12 citizens, burns
their homes, takes Mary and 23 others captive. Mary’s brother in law,
her eldest sister, her sister’s son are all killed
and her youngest daughter, 6 year old Sarah,
who she is holding in her arms is fatally
wounded by a bullet that also passes
through Mary’s side. Rowlandson carries her daughter,
as you know from the account, for 8 days until she,
the daughter dies on February eighteenth. She has two other
children, 10 year old Mary, 13 year old Joseph,
they are kept apart from her during the
captivity, although she reports that she did see them. And they’re eventually
all ransomed about 3 months later in May. So, when she lived during
her captivity she lived with and was the servant of
Quantapin [assumed spelling] who was the chief of
the Narragansett’s. And in fact was the leader of
the raiding party, on Lancaster. And with his wife. Okay. After that the
Rowlandson’s live in Boston for a year and then her husband
becomes minister to the church in Wethersfield, Connecticut. And it’s some years
after, sometime after this, probably at least a year
may be too that she starts to begin writing this narrative. We know it has to
be, no more than two because her husband dies
in 1678, and in fact, the last public record of Mary,
we don’t know what happens to her, of course in 1679 when she’s given some
money for his funeral. And until recently
historians assume that you probably died sometime
before the narrative was actually published in 1682 but
there’s actually new evidence that suggests she might’ve been
remarried and that she lived in, Wethersfield, Connecticut
until 1711 when she died at the age of 73. So, unclear about the completely about the fate of
Mary Rowlandson. Now it’s interesting to think about what’s going
on in this narrative. She was encouraged to write
it by Increase Mather, the father of Cotton Mather,
who was prominent minister and who was also a historian. He’d written a history of King
Phillip’s war and both the point of his history and the point
of Rowlandson’s narrative is to find some kind of providential understanding
of the war. To convince people both in
England and in the Americas that New England was still okay, the Puritan New England was
still okay after the war. And that their ordeal
was justified. But take a look at the
title page of this. What do you notice about the
title page of this compared with the first page of your, of the narrative
that we had you read? [ silence ]>>What’s the title
of this narrative?>>[inaudible]>>Yes that’s right, it is
the sovereignty and goodness of God together with
the faithfulness of his promises displayed. So it’s often anthologies
referred to in the short hand as a narrative of the captivity
and restoration, it’s spelled in a different way, of
Mrs. Mary Rowlandson. But that’s not the real title. The title we’ll use is the
sovereignty and goodness of God. Okay, what else might we
notice about this title page? The footnote gives
you the full title. The sovereignty and
goodness of God, together with the faithfulness of his promises displayed being
a narrative of the captivity and restoration of Mrs. Mary
Rowlandson commended by her to all the desire to know the
Lord’s doings to and dealings with her especially to her
dear children relations. The second edition,
corrected and amended written by her own hand for
her private use. And now made public at the
earnest desire of some friends and for the benefit
of the afflicted. Deuteronomy 32:30 See
now that I even, I am He and there is no God with me. I kill and I make alive,
I wound and I heal. Neither is there any can
deliver out of my hand. Alright. Look at the
structure of that. What do you notice about it?>>[inaudible]>>What’s that?>>It’s like a sermon.>>It is a sermonic
set up complete with a reference to the bible. What else? Anything? Where is
Rowlandson in it? She comes kind of late
in the title doesn’t she? So it’s the sovereignty
and goodness of God here, and then God here and she
gets Mary Rowlandson here at her family. But what I want you to see is that her narrative is
quite literally even by the title framed by
a theological context. It’s about God at the
beginning and the end and she has one little
role to play inside. So that’s one of the
things to bear in mind. The other thing to
bear in mind is that the narrative itself is
also framed by the doctrinal and by the patriarchal. It’s introduced by
Increase Mather and then there’s a sermonic
afterward by her son, her husband Joseph as well. Alright so that her own text
is also bookended and framed by narratives that have to do
with God and that are written by men as if she needs to
be authorized to speak. And this is the first, you
know, big prose thing by a woman that is published
in the colonies. So it is a kind of unprecedented
narrative to appear. And one of the things
that Mather and Mr. Reverend
Rowlandson are trying to do is give you a
way of reading it. Right? So it’s purposes
are set for you as a reader even before you
begin to read her narrative of the tenth of February
1675, right? We are taught how to read the
narrative, we are taught how to read the war that
is a part of. She has no sense
throughout the narrative that there are larger social and political contexts
for the war, right? Doesn’t have any sense that this
is really, this is an episode within a larger conflict
between the settlers of Puritan New England
and a larger Indian tribe. In fact, her understandings
of the natives are almost holy at the beginning in line with
the kind of representation of natives that we
see in Bradford. Let’s take a look, so on
page say, I don’t know, 237. And she’s talking
about her account. This is about 10
lines down or so. No sooner were we out of
the house that my brother in law being before wounded
in defending of the house in or near the throat, fell down dead whereat the Indians
scornfully shouted and helloed and were presently upon him
stripping off his clothes, the bullets flying thick. One went through my side and
the same as it would seem through the bowels and hand
of my dear child in my arms. One of the my elder sisters
children named William had his leg broken which the
Indians perceived and they knocked
him on his head. Thus we were butchered,
were we butchered by those merciless
heathen standing amazed with the blood running
down to our heels. My eldest sister
being yet in the house and seeing these woeful sights
the infidels hauling mothers one way and children another. Some wallowing in their blood
and her elder son telling her that her son William was
dead and myself was wounded. She said, and Lord
let me die with them. So what you get here is a
depiction of the Indians as heathens, as savages. Look at the bottom of the page. It is a solemn site to see so many Christians
lying in their blood. Some here and some there like a
company of sheep torn by wolves. All of them stripped naked by a
company of hell hounds, roaring, singing, ranting, insulting, as if they would’ve torn
our very hearts out. Yet the Lord by His almighty
power preserved a number of us from death for there were 24 of us taken alive
and carried captive. So it’s a horrible
thing happens to her. She tries to figure out a way of understanding what
has happened to her. What does she come up
with, do you remember? What does she do wrong? Why did she deserve
this kind of punishment? Yeah.>>She ignored a few
of the Sabbath days.>>yeah she didn’t
quite keep the Sabbath as holy as she might have. Anything else?>>It’s most explicit
and earlier [inaudible].>>Well that’s on 239
let’s take a look at that. This is about 10
lines from the bottom. The next day was the Sabbath, I then remembered how careless
I had been of God’s holy time. How many Sabbaths I have
spent lost and misspent and how evilly I have walked in
God’s sight which lays so close into my spirit, that
it was easy for me to see how righteous it was
with God to cut off the threat of my life and cast me out
of His presence forever. Okay. Anything else? Anything, any other
naughty bits? Well let’s see. There’s a bit about
smoking, she does a little, she liked smoking
every now and then. But I think when you look at it,
you would find that the reasons that she has given somehow seem
insufficient for the punishment that she has received. It doesn’t seem to be
quite enough to justify it. Right? And yet that’s
what it is. She says, the thing that
most worried her was that she had been cast
out of God’s sight. Right? It isn’t the
punishment it’s the idea that maybe God has
forgotten about her, that she’s no longer part of the chosen people
for whatever reason. And then what happens? She receives a bible. And she reads in it
and she starts to, you know, find comfort. Now I want you to think as
you’re thinking about this, about the portrayal
of the Indians. She starts in a certain
place with the Indians as kind of savages, right? And hell hounds and just the
instruments of divine wrath. But as the narrative continues,
they change a little bit. Take a look on page 253
in the fourteenth removed. The end of the fourteenth
removed she says, thus the Lord dealt
mercifully with me many times and I fared better
than many of them. In the morning they took the
blood of the deer and put it into a paunch and so boiled it. I could eat nothing of that,
though they ate it sweetly. And yet they were so nice
in other things, right? That’s barbaric it seems. That when I had fished water and had put the dish I dipped
the water with into the kettle of water which I brought, they
would say they would knock me down for they said it
was a slutters trick. In other words, they have
manners, they have customs, and she starts to
realize what they are. There are certain moments
in this when she is the one that seems uncivilized
in comparison to them. There are little reversals
that the text records. More than that, when we finally
meet in the nineteenth removed, King Phillip, who was completely
demonized by the Puritans. Does he seem like a demon? Not exactly. This is about 10 lines down. Going along, having indeed
my life, but little spirit, Phillip who was in the company
came up and took me by the hand and said 2 weeks more and
you shall be mistress again. I asked him if he spake true,
and he said, he answered yes. And quickly you shall
come to your master again who had been gone
from us three weeks. After many weary steps we
came to our chooses where he, her Indian master was,
and I was glad to see him. He asked me when I washed
me I told him not to smudge. Then he fetched me some
water himself and bid me wash and gave me glass
to see how I looked, and bid his squaw give
me something to eat, so she gave me a mess
of beans and meat and me a little bit
of ground nut cake. I was wonderfully
withvibed [assumed spelling] with this favor showed me. And again she has a
biblical parallel for this. He made them also to
be pity of all those that carried them
captives from the Psalms. One of the crucial
things to see as you look over this narrative
again, is the moment at which the natives become more
than just hell hounds for her. Is the moment in
which she figures out that she can
trade with them. She can engage in
barter for things, she begins in other words, to
see that they, or to intuit, she can’t actually use language
to say this but she begins to intuit that they have
a kind of an economy, that they have a culture
and she can partake in them. So they get names as precisely
the result of these kind of economic transactions. I’ll point some of these
out to you in the notes and you can look at them. That’s one thing to
understand therefore. There’s a kind of setup subtext
that runs through this text that are in some sense counter
to the doctrinal meanings that Mather and her husband are
trying to establish as context. This idea of economic
agency is one of them. And the other thing
that you should look for as you read the text is
moments when real grief seems to be coming through, right? She’s supposed to
process this grief in an almost impersonal way. It’s not supposed
to be about her and her own terrible
experiences, it’s supposed to have a doctrinal meaning. You should look for
those moments where somehow the personal
overflows, it isn’t restricted, it isn’t contained by
the ideological context. There’s some moments,
I’m thinking particularly of the moments where
she describes the death of her child, and how she
used to be afraid to be in the same room
with a dead body. Those are moments of detail that
seem to be in excess of anything that the doctrinal purpose
of the text would require. Real grief is seeping
through in moments, and that’s what interests
historians about this. It shows you the kind
of ruptures texturally within the ideological
formations that Puritan New
England is trying to set. She clamps down at the end
to a doctrinal meeting, but in the middle they’re
really interesting bits. Alright let’s leave
it there for today. Take a look tonight at the
assignments that are posted and ask your TA’s if you
have any questions about it. And we’ll listen to one
more version of a song.

Best Speech You Will Ever Hear – Gary Yourofsky


“Gary Yourofsky: Fighter for justice” “‏4 anti-fur activists arrested” “Animal rights activist vows to live and die for his cause” “Animals Are Slaves To The Circus” “Activist stages protest outside circus” “Driven by a passion for justice” “Taking a stand and standing alone” “Activist chained to car at Shrine Circus” “Yourofsky chained to car at fur store” “Animal rights activist won’t stand for cruelty” “Champion or criminal?” “Activists disrupt fur store business” “Activist devotes life to animal rights” “I’m prepared to go to prison” Breaking laws, from Jesus Christ to Nelson Mandela, from Rosa Parks to Martin Luther King, laws have always been broken to facilitate substantive change. Today’s speaker holds a BA in journalism from Oakland University and a radio broadcasting degree from Specs Howard School of Broadcast Arts. Gary Yourofsky has already experienced more than many people will ever want to in a lifetime. He has been arrested more than ten times, and spent 77 days in a maximum security detention center, all in the name of animal rights. Gary has lectured in hundreds of schools nationwide, including The University of Connecticut, Michigan State and Bowling Green, Author Charlotte Montgomery even included a chapter about Gary in her book, Blood Relations. Please welcome, national lecturer, Gary Yourofsky. Good afternoon, everybody, my name is Gary Yourofsky. Please take a moment and write down my email address and my website, in case you want to contact me later on. Today we are going to talk about the world’s forgotten victims: Animals. And the world’s oldest and strongest addiction: Meat. I’m going to challenge your belief systems today, so certain parts of the speech will be intense, but let me start with a quick disclaimer: I am not here to be your enemy. The views expressed today, do not necessarily reflect the views of your professor or this institution. I am not trying to take you away from your religion. No religion mandates meat eating! The Golden Rule states: “Do unto others as you would have done unto yourself” and animals qualify as “others”! and “Thou shalt not kill”! The four most important, and yet, most ignored words in all religious teachings. There is not an asterisk next to that commandment saying: “unless you walk on all four and have fur, feathers, horns, beaks or gills.” You can keep your friends, your politics and you patriotism, still watch your favorite TV shows and listen to your favorite music, even if it’s Ted Nugent. I’ll be making some sarcastic, yet truthful comments throughout the speech. Please feel free to laugh while I’m being sarcastic, just don’t laugh during the serious parts. And I’m gonna speak for around 65, maybe 70 minutes, but then we’ll do a Q&A session after, for about half an hour, so hold your questions until then. In the meantime, I have some rhetorical questions for you. Is slavery – owner, victim, profit, domination – exclusive to the human race? Have blacks, Jews, women and children been the only victims of this atrocity? Have not cows been enslaved? What about pigs, chickens, turkeys, fish, sheep? If they’re not enslaved, then what are they? Free? Can slavery have a victim that is neither a human, nor an animal? Have not the oceans, the forests, the earth itself, become victims of ownership too? And what about a slaughterhouse? HOUSE…OF…SLAUGHTER: SLAUGHTERHOUSE. Do you really think there is such a thing as “humane slaughter”? Exactly what is your definition of “humane”? Besides psychological and physical abuse, torture, dismemberment and murder, what else do you think happens to animals inside of a slaughterhouse? Do you think they get belly rubs and tushy slaps? And if you think there is such a thing as “humane slaughter”, I’m curious, do you also think there is such a thing as “humane” rape? “Humane” child molestation? “Humane” slavery? How about “humane” holocaust? In fact, what is your definition of a holocaust? Is it a massacre of human beings, or a massacre of innocent beings? I thought it was innocent… Which brings us to the biggest holocaust massacre of all: Every year in America, without mercy, we murder 10 billion land animals, and 18 billion marine animals. Not for health, survival, sustenance or self-defense. People eat meat, cheese, milk and eggs for 4 reasons: Habit Tradition Convenience Taste I want to define a word that might be new to some people right now, and it’s ‘vegan’, it’s up there, on the screen: V-E-G-A-N. Vegans, like vegetarians, do not consume the meat of any land or marine animals. Vegans, however, unlike vegetarians, also refrain from eating cheese, milk, eggs, honey or any animal product, whatsoever. We also don’t wear animals skins, no fur, wool, leather, silk or down. Now, I want to let you all know, that I was not raised vegan. I ate meat, cheese, milk and eggs for around 25 years. I used to wear leather shoes, belts and jackets like everyone else. In fact, around 20 years ago, I even owned a fur coat. Needless to say, I understand your lifestyle, it used to be mine. And for people involved in politics… Let’s get this out of the way right now. I am not a democrat, an anarchist or some hippie with a closet full of tie-dyed shirts. I’m not a republican, a socialist or a fascist. I’m an activist, root word is ‘active’. I’ve been banned from 5 countries so far, and arrested 13 times, for random acts of kindness and compassion, on behalf of my animal brothers and sisters, if you want to read up about that, check out my website. And today, I would love to give you a chance to actually do something, and truly get involved! Because I understand that a lot of people want to get involved, honestly I do. But putting a “Coexist” bumper sticker on your car, wearing a “What would Jesus do?” bracelet, or sporting a “Peace and Love and Sunshine” t-shirt: That is not “getting involved”! I understand that we are all on a journey in life. We all have different likes and dislikes, different nationalities and religions too, but there is one thing that we need to have in common with each other, and that’s peace! Genuine compassion and genuine peace for our planetary companions! Contrary to political and religious dogma, animals do not belong to us. They are not commodities! They are not property! And they are not inanimate, stupid objects, who can’t think and feel! That Descartes’ Cartesian way of looking at animals, like they’re machines… It is outdated, and quite frankly, 100% insane. Because, if we all understand that animals use their eyes to see, ears to hear, noses to smell, mouths to eat, legs to walk, feathers to fly, fins to swim, genitalia to procreate, bowels to defecate, I’m always perplexed that most people don’t believe that they can also use their brains to think, feel, be rational, be aware and be self-aware! Am I supposed to believe, that every body part of an animal functions just like it’s supposed to, except the brain? Those lies are thick. The propaganda from the animal abusers is enormous! I mean, when was the last time you turned on TV and saw a commercial for shiitake mushrooms? People singing and dancing down the streets, having a good time eating mushrooms? How about alfalfa spouts? Quinoa? (It’s a seed) Radishes? Raspberries? Tofu? You don’t see that stuff advertised on TV. What you see instead? HAVE SOME MORE MEAT! HAVE SOME MORE CHEESE! Have some more cheese on your meat! Meat, cheese, double cheese, extra cheese, and how about a little more cheese with your meat? Have some more cows milk, have some more eggs! And then what do you see interspersed between those advertisements??? Not feeling so well? Need to see a cancer specialist? How about a heart doctor? Needs some Lipitor? Zocor? Crestor? Plavix? Needs some diet pills? How about some energy drinks? Some Kaopectate? Tums! Pepto Bismol… You’ve been duped. They’re killing you, they’re killing the animals, and they’re killing this planet. And those blinders are on nice and tightly, but if you give me an open mind today, that’s all I ask for, an open mind, I’m gonna take your blinders right off! My goal is simple. All I want to do is re-connect people with animals. Awaken some emotions and some feelings and some logic, that is been buried and suppressed, intentionally, by our society. And the reason why I say “re-connect” it’s because each and every person in this room used to be a real animal rights person at one time, a true animal lover, and a real friend to the animal kingdom. And it’s when we were kids! When we were young…When we were kids…Man!…We used to be in awe of animals. They used to make us laugh, and giggle and smile. They made us pretty happy! And there was a time in our lives, when we would do just about anything in the world to make THEM happy as well. To protect them from cruelty! Or to, at least, ACKNOWLEDGE the cruelty they were receiving. I mean, if somebody was mean to an animal in front of us when we were little, we would have screamed and cried. And that’s because we all used to understand right from wrong, when it came to the treatment of animals. Until somebody told us, and taught us differently. You better believe that somebody told us to ignore their suffering! To MOCK and excuse, their pain, and their misery. To make fun of their very existence. And this is something I want you to focus on – today, tomorrow and beyond… What in the hell happened along the way?! Who taught us to be so mean, and nasty and vicious and hateful, or indifferent towards animals when they used to be our friends? These are innocent beings, who have done nothing wrong to us. Because I’m pretty sure, we can all agree on at least one thing right now… That hatred, in its purest form, is a learned behavior. Racism. Sexism. Heterosexism. Antisemitism. Misogyny… These are all learned behaviours! When kids are 2, 3, 4 years old, playing on a playground they couldn’t care less about the color of their friends’ skin or their religious background. I don’t think there is any doubt, that hatred, in its purest form, is learned. So species-ism is no different. That’s going to be a new word to a lot of people, it’s up here on the screen, below the word “vegan” is the word ‘species’, with an -ism attached to it, and I want to define this word as the unethical, unprincipled point of view, that the human species has every right to exploit, enslave and murder another species. And all because we believe that our species is so more special, so more superior than the other ones, that we’re the only ones that count, and we’re the only ones that matter. Now, correct me if I’m wrong, but that line of thinking, that thought process, that is the basis of all forms of discrimination. One group saying and thinking that they’re more special than everyone else, and they proceed to exploit them, oppress them, denying them their right to be free. They treat them like property, they enslave them in many cases, and in many other cases they murder them with premeditation, and without penalty. And understand something essential about discrimination! It is NEVER OK to be picking and choosing which forms of discrimination to be opposed to… And which ones to say are evil: Racism… And which ones to say are okay: Speciesism. Discrimination is evil on its foundation…Or it is not. We cannot have this one both ways, it doesn’t work like that. I want to ask you, to use some empathy right now. And when I say ’empathy’, what I’m saying is: place yourself in the position of the animals, and start to view this issue from the animals’ point of view. From the victims’ point of view. When you examine any form of injustice, whether humans are victims or animals are victims, please remember the victim’s point of view. If you are not the victim, don’t examine it entirely from your point of view because when YOU’RE not the victim, it becomes pretty easy to rationalize and excuse cruelty, injustice, inequality, slavery, and even murder. But when you’re the victim, things look a lot differently from that angle. And now, I want to show a graphic, 4 minute video right now, about what goes on inside of a slaughterhouse. I want to ask you, not to turn away, not to close your eyes during this video. It’s because, if you choose to eat meat, cheese, milk and eggs, I think, at the very least, you are obligated to see the pain and suffering you are causing. But if you do feel the need to turn away or close your eyes during this video, you might want to ask yourself a question: If it’s not good enough for my eyes, then why is it good enough for my stomach? Hurt! Hurt! Hurt! Hurt! If you’ve gotta hurt ’em, hurt ’em. Slamming baby pigs to ground when they don’t grow fast enough Killing dolphins in Futo, Japan Kosher slaughterhouse in Iowa Guillotine machine Debeaking Castration No anesthetic Force-feeding goose for liver pate Male chicks ground up alive Killing turkeys with crowbar when they don’t grow fast enough SASHA Farm Animal Sanctuary “Big Red” “Lorenzo” Happy cows they don’t come from California!!! De-horning SASHA Farm Animal Sanctuary Give love one more chance Did you ever wonder why McDonald’s and Burger King and Wendy’s never show you those images in their TV ads? Instead they show you smiling cartoon caricatures of animals singing and dancing and playing, LYING to you. Brainwashing you. Programming you not to care about things you would normally care about. Things that you used to care about. RIGHT NOW, at this very moment, on American highways, there are no less than 5,000 concentration camp trucks. Trucks that we have constructed. Inside these trucks, there are living, terrified innocent beings. Cows and pigs and chickens… These trucks are being driven to concentration camp’s slaughterhouses that we carefully constructed all across America. When the trucks arrive, the animals are so frightened that they won’t even get off the truck. They’re not stupid(!), they know what’s next. So people go on the trucks with electric prods and force them to walk down the chutes to their own deaths. Or if the animals are small enough to man handle, like chickens, we’ll just grab them off the trucks and toss them inside. Inside, these INNOCENT, living beings are hanged upside down, fully conscious. In other words, they go in alive, against their will, and come out CHOPPED UP, into hundreds of pieces. But do you know what’s more insane than that? Meat eaters. Walking around like their lifestyle isn’t causing any harm, like it’s normal and natural to be consuming violence and death. How would you feel, if the day that you were born, somebody else had already planned the day of your execution? That’s what it’s like to be a cow, a pig, a chicken or a turkey on this planet. I think this type of behavior is inexcusable, an unbecoming of a species that claims to understand right from wrong! The animals have not done one single thing to us, to deserve the wrath and cruelty that we hurl on them. And I hope you all understand what I’m offering you today… When you hit the door, after my speech… Are you aware, that for the first time ever, you can now directly participate in ending a massacre? Instead of sitting around and paying lip service to all the massacres, and all the problems that are always going on, on this planet. What is so frustrating to me, when I travel this country doing around 250 lectures every year, to some 7500 students, is that everybody talks a good game. I’ve noticed that people are quite the smooth talkers when it comes to peace and compassion. I mean, people always want to tell me, never show me(!), just how “peaceful” they are, because of what they believe in. Or what makes them sad. “Hey, Gary, I believe in God! And I believe in angels, and I pray all the time”… “And those earthquakes…The one in Chile, and Haiti…Aww, that was SO sad!” No shit, it was sad. Since when, does ‘feeling sad’ about an obvious tragedy, or ‘believing in’ something, make the world a better place, or make somebody a good person? And listen, folks, I am not trying to dog you out when I talk like this, I’m not! I’m just not a politician. I’m not a bullshit artist. I don’t know how to schmooze people, as you can see. It’s kind of beyond me. I hope you appreciate my honesty and my genuineness today. And I’m not a sales person. I’ve got no books to sell you after my lecture. No DVDs and no documentaries. No collection plate going around, I don’t want your money. I don’t want your e mail addresses, and I don’t want your mailing addresses. Keep all that stuff. I am here to talk about the worst form of cruelty and violence taking place on this planet… Even though most people don’t seem to care about it. But when you sit back in the comfort of your living room, and you start condemning atrocities elsewhere… That is pure, unadulterated, lip service! That’s the definition of “lip service.” But veganism, this is now a chance to actually walk the compassionate talk that everybody is always talking about. This is your chance to show others how truly peaceful you are. This is the chance for a personal revolution. To leave your mark on this planet by causing the least amount of harm possible! Always being vegan. Now come on, what’s the argument for not causing the least amount of harm? Inconvenience? Indifference? Apathy? Selfishness? I want you to know, I don’t live in fantasy land. I am well aware that animals are suffering and dying, just because we’re here on the planet with them. We build homes through their habitat. We pollute their environment. Destroy their habitat. Is there a reason we have to maximize the suffering? And maximize the cruelty and the death that they already endure, by eating them, on top of it all? You want to talk about pouring salt into somebody else’s wound, 98% !! And I repeat this stat, ‏98% of animals who are abused and killed on this planet, are abused and killed by the meat, dairy and egg industries. This is where all the harm is taking place! And in America, from birth until death, each meat eater consumes around 3000 land animals, and thousands of other marine animals. Those are USDA stats. And they seem to think a lot of people eat animals, because we’ve all been told that humans are carnivores, we’re omnivores, we’re meat eaters and we’re supposed to be doing this. Are you aware that physiologically the human body is actually 100% herbivorous? Plant eaters! The length of our intestines are somewhere between 7 to 13 times the length of our torso, our trunk. That’s the same length of all herbivore animal intestines on this planet. They’re very long. But the length of the intestines on real meat eaters, hyenas, coyotes, bears, tigers and lions, only 3 to 6 times the length of their torso. They have a short intestinal tract, so they can push through quickly, decaying and rotting animal flesh. Animal protein, cholesterol, saturated fat, trans-fatty acids, which is why it is impossible. I’ll repeat, impossible, for any genuine meat eater to ever, clog their arteries. Never happens to a real meat eater. What’s the number one killer of humans who choose to eat meat, cheese, milk and egg? Heart disease from clogged arteries, atherosclerosis. Humans and other herbivores, we sweat through our pores to cool ourselves. We don’t pant, like dogs and cats and lions to cool ourselves down. No claws on the human hand, claws are a trademark of the carnivore and the omnivore. We have carbohydrate digestive enzymes in our saliva, only herbivores possess that, meaning we’re supposed to be eating tons of carbohydrates like fruits and vegetables. Our teeth, broad, short, blunt, flat, just like the teeth of other herbivores and before somebody blurts out hey Gary what about these canines dog. Most of the herbivores have canines, incisors and molars it would not be possible for them, for us, to be eating hard fruit like apples without those teeth. Our lower jaw goes from side to side in a grinding chewing motion, like this….. We grind and chew when we eat. If you grind and chew when you eat, like you all do, you are an herbivore. The jaws of carnivores and omnivores can only go up and down, vertically, rip and swallow, there’s no chewing, grinding, side to side action. And I’m a fair guy. I mean if somebody out there truly believes that humans are meat eaters. I’ll give you 2 challenges to prove me wrong after class and please do so if you want. I want you to go outside and locate a squirrel on campus, and when you spot that squirrel, put that carnivores feet into affect that everybody has and chase that squirrel down, pounce on him and catch him in your mouth. No tools, no weapons, no cages, no ones allowed to be a cheater and a fake carnivore in this challenge, and when you are done killing this squirrel in your mouth, be my guest, EAT the squirrel. Eyes, nose, face, toes, tail, anus, inner organs, blood, fur and don’t forget about the brains. You don’t get to pick and choose which body parts you want to eat, and you don’t get to cook it either. If people want to be real meat eaters, I’d love to see people eat raw flesh from the bone, down to the bone with nothing left but the bones, day after day after day. And challenge number two, find a 2 year old child, place the child in a crib, in the crib put 2 things, a live bunny rabbit and an apple. If the child eats the bunny rabbit and plays with the apple, send me an email, would you let me know, because I’m gonna come back and buy everyone in this room a brand new car if that happens. Benzes and beamers, leather interior too, in fact, next time I’m at Georgia Tech, if that happens, I will eat a steak sandwich in front of everybody, chase it down with a chili dog with extra cheese, a bucket of ice cream and a bag of beef jerky, too. And I’ll take the jerky and I’ll dip it in the ice cream and eat it like that. Now I would not hold my breath on these promises, not that I won’t fulfill them, I’m a man of my word. but those things cannot and will not be happening, because humans also possess….. ZERO carnivorous instincts. ZERO omnivorous instincts, when we’re born, young and growing up, we’re all born vegan. We just acquire a taste for meat, cheese, milk and eggs after their forced down our throats during childhood. Now, all I’m asking you to do is something normal and natural anyways. Eat what comes from the earth. Every vitamin, mineral and nutrient that exists. Protein, calcium, iron, potassium, all the B-vitamins, you have an original source, and it ain’t the animals. You are aware that people eat animals AFTER the animals have already eaten from the earth. People eat cows AFTER the cows eat up the grass, some of the soil. Then we ship ’em to a feedlot and feed ’em most of our corn, wheat, oats and soy. Then we take more of the corn, wheat, oats and soy, shove it down the throats of pigs and chickens and turkeys. Stop filtering your nutrients through somebody else’s body. It’s illogical and irrational. Go to those sources directly, fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, grains, legumes. These things cannot harm you, cannot cause a disease and more importantly they harm no one else in the process! But when we consume what walks, what flies and what swims, that is abnormal. What does everybody think diseases come from? Broccoli? Asparagus? Kale, Collard greens, blueberries, raspberries, strawberries, peaches, nectarines, grapes, bananas, avocados, onions, tomatoes, cucumbers, spinach? And in case anyone is wondering about those pesky little E. coli, Salmonella contaminations a couple times a year with the vegetables… Lets keep in mind the ONE AND ONLY source of E. coli and Salmonella. Shit! Human shit or animal shit! Spinach doesn’t shit! Broccoli doesn’t shit! Peanuts don’t shit! Let’s stop blaming the plant products when there’s an E. coli, Salmonella contamination. That’s the fault of a meat eating society! Why? Well, meat eaters want billions of land animals to eat, so we have to mass produce billions of land animals. Keep in mind, this has nothing to do with God. Nothing to do with evolution anymore. This is a business! This is Smithfield, ConAgra, Perdue, Tyson, McDonalds, Burger King, Wendy’s, KFC. That’s why we have animal agriculture classes in college. So when we mass produce billions of land animals, they have trillions of tons of manure. That stuff gets in the waterways, and there’s run off onto the crops, or they’re putting feces contaminated water directly onto the crops. But all of our main diseases, heart diseases, heart attacks and strokes, most of the cancers, prostate cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, kidney disease, diabetes, osteoporosis, high blood pressure, obesity, asthma, 4 main factors that cause them. Now I know about other factors, I’m not saying that you can’t get sick elsewhere, of course you can. Smoking, drinking, stress, chemicals of the environment, high fructose corn syrup, Twinkies….. I know about the other things that can lead to an ailment, But the 4 main factors are found inside of meat, cheese, milk and eggs. Cholesterol. Saturated fat. Trans fatty acids. Animal protein. And I’ll repeat that last one, that nobody wants to hear about – animal protein. But when you go vegan, did you know that you eliminate cholesterol entirely from your diet. You can only get cholesterol from meat, cheese, milk and eggs. And your body makes cholesterol on its own, that’s the only such thing as good cholesterol. If you bring it in from an outside source, it’s automatically bad cholesterol. You can take out around 95% of saturated fat, when you go vegan. And you can take out all the naturally occurring trans fatty acids too. Keep this in mind: between 2 to 9% of all meat, and all dairy is naturally comprised of trans fatty acids. And you can obviously take out all of animal protein. Now animal protein is way too acidic for the human body. We don’t process it properly. It is the main reason why 1 in 3 meat eaters continually get cancer. And it’s one of the main causes of osteoporosis. Are you aware that when animal protein enters the human body, it makes our blood acidic, instantaneously? But our blood can’t stay acidic for long or else we die. So our body has to figure out instantly how to neutralize the acidity. I have some good news and some bad news. Let’s start with the good. Our bodies have figured out how to neutralize the acidity. The bad news: there’s only one way to make it happen at this point… With phosphate. There’s only one source of phosphate in the human body, bones! Just so you know, our bones are comprised of two things, calcium, phosphate and they’re bonded together. So our body leeches calcium, phosphate out of the bones, takes the phosphate to neutralize the acidity, and then we pee out the calcium. This is why every single epidemiological study, those little ones done on the human populations. Every single one(!), shows that societies that consume the most amount of animal protein have the worst rates of osteoporosis, bone fractures and cancers. While societies that consume little to no animal protein, the vegan and vegetarian ones, Hindus, Buddhists, Jains, Rastafarians, Seven Day Adventists have little to no rates of osteoporosis, bone fractures and cancers. And so we don’t get into a debate during Q&A about different medical studies that are out there. A lot a times when people know I’m coming to class in advance… Well, they’ll spend a few hours online, looking up studies, print it out, wait for Q&A, go “hey Yourofsky, I got a study here that contradicted everything you told us today.” “What’s up with that?” Well, here’s what’s up with that….. You don’t need a medical study to show me what people are dying of, but for the record… Every study you can produce showing that humans need meat, cheese, milk and eggs, I’ll produce two. 2 to 1 ratio, showing that meat, cheese, milk and eggs are responsible for every major disease. But, we all know medical studies can be manipulated either way. So even though I got a heavy 2 to 1 edge on this, I say toss them all out. Because you don’t need them. All you have to do, is pay attention to this meat, cheese, milk, egg eating society that we all live in. So how many of your family members and your friends’ family members have a disease already, or have died already from a disease? Because I can’t be the only one affected by this. My grandfather died of from a heart attack, my grandma died from a stroke. My Uncle Jack died from a heart attack. And last October on the 15th, I got a call around midnight, that my father had just died from a heart attack. My mom, she’s got asthma. My step-dad’s got heart disease so badly he takes 7 pills for breakfast. My best friend Daren, four of his aunts and uncles have died from diabetes. His ex-girlfriend Rita has breast cancer at 40 and she’s dying. Just found out a few months ago that his current girlfriend Dione has ovarian cancer. And yesterday my girlfriend, just found out that her father has prostate cancer. What’s the one thing we all have in common with each other besides the air we breathe and the water we drink? Meat, cheese, milk and eggs. Animal products all day long. And I know you can blame some of the cancers on environmental pollution, there’s no doubt about that. But how you gonna blame heart attacks and strokes on environmental pollution? And diabetes, osteoporosis, obesity? Here, I’m going to break this down for you in a couple different ways today, I’ll show you what’s killing people, And I’m going to show you who’s lying to you, too. Flat out, bald faced lies. Let’s come to an agreement on the dairy industry… And let me know if I’m being unfair with this, I want to know. According to the dairy industry itself, the main reason they exist, is so you can get calcium. Fair, is that not their entire claim? “Eat some cheese.” “Drink some cows milk.” “Strong bones, strong body.” “Milk does a body good.” “Got milk?” Check it out with the USDA: In America, we consume the most amount of dairy on the planet. Right here. You can’t even get a sandwich anymore, without cheese. We put cheese in every nook and every cranny of every single food item, we put it inside the pizza crust now! We put cheese on top of salads, too. You can’t even get a salad anymore without cheese. And if your lucky to find salad minus the cheese, what’s the first thing people say to the waiter? “Hey uh, can I get some ranch, or some thousand island?” “Can you pour some dairy on these vegetables for me?” So in this society, where everybody is hooked on cheese. I mean HOOKED! Like it’s been laced with weed, crack, ecstasy, morphine, and the antidote. Most people can’t even fathom one meal, let alone one day, or a lifetime without cheese. In fact, if you wanna know why vegetarians never go vegan… Cheese! Cheese on a baked potato, cheese on the broccoli, cheese on everything in sight. Even lactose intolerant people eat cheese. And I don’t care what anybody says about this, they might avoid straight up cows milk. But slap a double cheese pepperoni pizza down in front of a lactose intolerant person, no hesitation, right down the hatch. So, we got all these animal products going into our diet. Did you ever wonder why there are no less than three TV commercials being run for calcium supplements. Actonel, Boniva, Citracal. You got to be kidding me! Calcium supplements in America?! How come there’s osteoporosis at all? How come at the vitamin stores, I say plural, stores, cause when I travel the country, boy meat eaters pull me aside all the time and say: “Hey Gary, we eat meat cause you get everything you need from meat. All the vitamins, all the minerals all the nutrients.” Well how come in this meat, cheese, milk, egg eating society that we all live in, every city has not only 1, but 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 vitamin stores? How come Rite-Aid, CVS and Walgreens now have complete vitamin sections too? With a whole shelf devoted to calcium supplements. I thought everybody was getting calcium from the animal products. That’s what the meat and dairy people say. Newsflash! You don’t. Animal protein won’t allow it. Animal protein makes your blood acidic, so your body takes calcium phosphate out of the bones. Phosphate to neutralize, calcium gets excreted through the urine. There are 4 commercials for fiber, Metamucil, Fibercon, Fibersure, and Benefiber. If people ate a frickin’ apple or a pear once in awhile, nobody would need help taking a shit. Now pay attention, and look around and see what’s going on. Now with all this being said, we’ve established the four reasons why people eat meat, cheese, milk and eggs. No debating, no discussing it. Habit Tradition Convenience Tasty Yeah, I know why people do it, I did it for 25 years myself. We don’t do this to be ethical and stay healthy. That’s obvious. And we don’t do this to help the environment out either. Two quick things on the environment, and by the way go to my website, click on ‘all about veganism’, click on the environment section, world hunger and environmental pollution. Root cause of world hunger – meat eating societies. 65% of the worlds grains are set aside every year to feed 53 billion land animals that are killed every year on this planet. And tens of billions of marine animals. We got fish farms nowadays. Instead of using those crops for six and a half billion people. Do the math on this, you don’t have to be Einstein to figure this equation out. And again, environmental pollution, air pollution, water pollution, deforestation, greenhouse gas emissions… The number one cause is animal agriculture. Now, I want to get back to ‘tastes good’, though, because I think meat tastes great. And it might shock you to hear me say that, but if you’re doing some kind of extra credit essay on my speech, and you want to quote me, quote me right now: I LOVE THE WAY MEAT TASTES. LOVE IT! Cheese… LOVE IT! Cows milk and eggs… LOVE IT! Guilty as charged. I did not stop eating this stuff because of a ‘taste’ issue. I stopped for ethics. Morality. Decency. Compassion to the animals that I share this planet with. But here’s the coolest thing about being vegan in this day in age: It’s never been easier! You can have the same smell, taste and texture of meat, cheese and milk, without it! Nobody has to suffer and die for your dinner anymore, including you! They make all the products you like to eat, in a vegan version. They make it from soy and wheat and rice and hemp, I want to show you some of the products that are out there, and I am not receiving compensation from these companies. These are my selections, the best tasting mock meats. I’m going to put them up on the screen, so we can all see it clearly. Do you guys like bacon? Lightlife Smart Bacon, bacon made from soy. This company, Lightlife, also makes smoky tempeh bacon. Now, tempeh is a fermented version of soy, so it tastes a little different than the other stuff, but keep in mind, I would not recommend products to you if they didn’t taste fantastic. I am trying to win you over, so you go veg. I’m not showing you every product we have, some of our products suck! I’m showing you the best of the best. And when I say some of our products suck, don’t act like there aren’t shitty Chinese restaurants, nasty pizza places, and disgusting hamburger joints, okay? It works both ways. If it’s made great, no matter what it is, it tastes great, if not, it’s going to stink. Lightlife also has soy chicken strips and steak strips, as well. They also have a full line of deli meats: turkey, baloney and ham. You can not tell the difference by sight, taste or texture. A small company called Melissa’s has Soyrizo, vegan chorizo. Energy bars! Like Cliff Bars, Luna bars, and a new bar, that just came out called Pro Bar, you might not have seen that one, yet. They’re all vegan! And many other companies have a vegan energy bar, as well. Now, remember, when you go veg, you don’t give up anything. You’ve got the vegan version of stuff, or eat things that are truly natural, like fruits and vegetables or beans and lentils. You like turkey? We’ve got you covered… My favorite product? Tofurky! Tofu turkey! Stuffing on the inside! Looks, smells and tastes like turkey, you’ve got to slice it with a knife, but guess what? No turkey had to suffer and die for this! Tofurky also has Tofurky slices, six different flavors of Tofurky slices. Tofurky also has Tempe strips. Remember I talked about the faking bacon, the Lightlife Tempeh? They have some tempeh products, too. Tofurky also has Italian sausage, beer brats, and… there seems to be an addiction in our society for beef jerky? I don’t know what the hell is going on with everybody’s taste buds, everybody has lost their minds… But, we’ve got you covered…Tofurky jerky! Anything you’re looking for, we’ve got that stuff veganized. And many other companies have a vegan jerky, as well. The absolute best company on the market right now, is It’s All Good Gardein Protein. That is one of their chicken dishes. That is two of their chicken dishes! Three chicken dishes! They have more chicken dishes, they have steak dishes, and they just came out a few months ago with Buffalo wings, as well. Trader Joe’s, that grocery chain, they want to compete now in the soy meat industry. They made their own brand of soy chicken and soy steak strips. There’s a company called Vegetarian Plus, and they have vegan, citrus spareribs. And Gardenburger has had Riblets, mock ribs, for over ten years… I can’t tell you how many of my meat eating friends and family members I’ve flat out fooled with this stuff! And this company also has shrimp, kung pao chicken, orange chicken and tuna rolls, as well. Now I mentioned wheat meat earlier, I don’t think people really understand what it is, there’s actually a name for it, it’s called seitan. Not satan, SAY’tan. And you want to give this stuff a try, too. And they now have flavored seitan on the market too, by Upton’s: Ground beef style, chorizo style, they also have an Italian sausage flavor, as well. Another favorite company… Nate’s Meatless Meatballs! Now, I know you guys have seen veggie burgers before, probably Boca. But, if you don’t like Boca… Good news: there’s Amy’s, Morningstar Farms, Dr. Praeger’s, Sunshine burgers and Gardenburger, all the different tastes and textures. And if you’re looking for no soy, a different kind of mock meat in you diet, A new company called Bahama… Rice burgers, burgers from rice. We also have sausage and meat balls made out of rice, as well. Another company with a no soy, a different kind of mock meat taste, a small company from Cincinnati, called Five Star Foodies has artichoke burgers, my new favorite kind of veggie burger by far, burgers from artichokes! They also have a harvest roast! It says ‘vegetarian’ but it is vegan. It’s a fake turkey with fake skin around it, too. Now, Amy’s is on the market, and I know you’ve seen her stuff. She’s got a ton of stuff, but keep in mind, most of her stuff is only vegetarian. It still has eggs and cheese, and other animal by-products in there. But, one of her vegan stuff, tofu scramblers… A fake egg! A hot pocket, that actually tastes good and is good for you too! And Amy’s also has rice macaroni with Daiya cheese! A brand new vegan cheese on the market, Daiya cheese, which you can find at Whole Foods, right now. It comes in two different flavors. A lot of people are going crazy for the Daiya cheese… I still like Follow Your Heart, which has four different flavors of vegan cheese, comes in a big block and it melts. Now, sometimes you’ve got to be creative with this stuff… Lightlife also has vegan pepperoni which is ready to eat directly out of the bag. If you get some of this vegan pepperoni, buy yourself a Tofutti Pan Pizza with Tofutti soy cheese on it – Tofutti also has cream cheese, sour cream and ice cream as well – before it goes in the oven or after it comes out of the oven, slaps some pepperoni on there and you got yourself a pizza. Remember there is soy milk and rice milk, almond milk, hemp milk, coconut milk, oat milk, hazelnuts milk. Seven vegan milks on the market. There is soy ice cream, rice ice cream, almond ice cream and coconut milk ice cream, an ice cream bars by So Delicious. And let me just say this, you have never in your life had ice cream till you had the coconut milk ice cream by So Delicious. If you go to my website and click on ‘Veg Shopping Guide’, I have taste-tested everything for you in advance. Check out the brand names I recommend. I can assure you I eat nothing nasty. And what about Ethnic food, Indian food, Middle-eastern food, Mexican food? Plenty of veggie options there… Italian food… pasta and spaghetti… And a real pasta, a real spaghetti, just like bread, never requires animal products. Now unfortunately, we defiled these products – so you always have to ask or check out the ingredient list. But every Italian joint has at least one, if not two or three of the genuine noodles, which are always vegan. And when it comes to best bread around – Whole Foods or Panera Bread, Breugger’s Bagels, Einstein Bagels – 90% of those breads and bagels are always vegan. Our Asian food, Japanese food, Chinese food, Thai food, Korean food, Vietnamese food, all you have to do is substitute tofu for the meat in any of their dishes, tell them to make it without fish sauce and you have a vegan meal. And soul food can be veganized as well. In fact, you guys are pretty lucky to be in Atlanta. You have two soul food restaurants owned by the same company – Soul Vegetarian – 10 minutes from campus. Vegan Mac ‘n Cheese, collard greens, yams. They have something called a “Kale Bone” sandwich, which is a fake roast beef sandwich with cheese dripping off of it, too. You got to check out Soul Vegetarian. And don’t think I don’t watch your faces when I’m up here. How come, when I talk about mock meat, you always catch a handful of people in every crowd, and we have a big crowd today so I stopped counting at about 8 or 9. How come there is always a handful of people that wrinkle up their noses, make big wide eyes, and start glancing at the people next to them or across the aisle like “Soy chicken, is this guy crazy? Soy bacon? He must be out of his mind!” How come this stuff, that is made of soy, wheat, vegetables, grains and spices – no chemicals(!), contrary to the lies being spread about these products by the meat and dairy industries. How come this stuff is considered gross to most people… but meat? Meat’s got five components, let me break it down for you: blood, flesh, veins, muscles and tendons – the cut up corpse of a dismembered body. How does meat not qualify as gross and disgusting to everybody? How in the world is a beverage, a liquid that oozes out of the utters of cows, a secretion that drips from the mammary glands of another being, that’s loaded with pus by the way. Oh yeah, let me tell you, pop a puss in your cow milk – it’d be my pleasure. When you hook machines up to the udders of cows three times a day to suck them dry, those machines cause massive amounts of infections on the inside and outside of the udder. Now let’s add all the bovine growth hormone they put in cows to make sure they provide huge quantities of milk, which always leads to another infection. The machine doesn’t know what not to suck out! Pus, mucus and infections right in with your milk, and yeah milk is pasteurized… But when did pasteurization become a removal process? It’s a sanitation process! You’re only sanitizing pus, and you want to look this up online. Well you don’t think the dairy industry would ever use the word ‘pus’ when they write about this problem in their own trade journals, yeah their gonna deceive you again with this… Look up the scientific term for pus: “Somatic Cell Count”. And by the way, our government, the USDA, they allow the dairy industry to have a maximum amount of one eye dropper full of pus in every glass of milk. Drink up… Oh! And by the way, when your looking up that lie from the dairy industry and all the other ones… You might wanna look up ‘Casomorphins’, I got it up on both sides of the board. Remember that part of the speech earlier when I talked about people being hooked on cheese like it was laced with weed, Crack and Morphine? Mother cows, before birth, produce a substance in their milk to make sure that the calf stays close. And actually human women do this too – it’s not Morphine but in cows it is, a version of Morphine – Casomorphins. That’s why people are so hooked on cheese, gotta have their daily fix of Morphine. Does anybody know what an egg actually is from a hen? And don’t say embryo or aborted fetus – not even close, it’s unfertilized so it can’t be either. Hen is a female, though, unfertilized egg through a female system?  It’s part of her menstruation cycle, it’s a hen’s period! People scramble up hen periods in the morning and all the sudden I’m weird because I don’t make omelets anymore? And what about vomit? Oh, we’re going to take those blinders off today. C’mon you guys love vomit, you adore it all over your food. Better give this one a pretty name, though. Nobody’s going to buy and eat vomit. Unless we call it honey instead. Honey comes directly from a bee stomach, it is regurgitated right through a bee’s mouth – look it up with any wildlife biologist. But nobody wants to eat Bee-Vomit Nut Cheerios, we want Honey Nut Cheerios – so we lie to ourselves to play euphemism games. The standard diet of a meat eater is blood, flesh, veins, muscles, tendons, cow secretions, hen periods and bee vomit?!?! Now we’re not done yet… I am not going to let you off that easy, not while I’ve got you here today. You know where we top this all off in my opinion? Because every November, during the certain holiday people love so much, people take a dead turkey, open up the dead turkey’s ass, or carve out a really big hole in their ass, take some stuffing and shove it inside their dead empty ass, and use the little dead ass as an oven to bake some bread. Somebody else’s dead empty bacteria-laden ass to make bread?!?! Ass bread?! And people think vegans are weird?!?! Cause we eat tofu? And rice, and beans, and lentils? I tell people one of my favorite meals nowadays: yams. Boy, dish me up a plate of yams for dinner and I’m a happy guy. I know how most people are, though, I tell them that and they’re like “Wait, you just eat yams for dinner?! I don’t know man, that’s kinda weird…” Okay But somebody else’s ribcage sitting on your plate isn’t weird? Doesn’t make you think twice? Severed legs, sliced up thighs, and mutilated breasts sitting on your plate doesn’t make you think twice… And you wanna know why? Those blinders are on nice and tightly aren’t they? And I bet most of you were perturbed at me when the speech began and I accused everybody of having blinders on. I’m not here to be your enemy. I’m here to call you out, though. You might have had a pretty good excuse before I got here of being uninformed and misinformed. Okay, that’s fair. Honestly – I was the same for a long time. I’m kinda curious, though, what’s the excuse now? You got a choice today, when you leave this room, you can choose to be radically kind – never to intentionally harm another animal for breakfast, lunch or dinner ever again. These creatures have never harmed you, violated you or taken advantage of you in any shape of form, the least you can do is return the favor. Or you can stay radically cruel – keep the status quo as is, make sure animals have no freedom, make sure they never experience one drop of human kindness, make sure their babies are stolen from them, make sure their beaks are sliced off, their horns cut off and their testicles are ripped off. Make sure there is a knife in their throat every second of every day for eternity. I really hope you make the right choice. I wanna rap this speech up, so we can do our Q&A session. Give me about 6 more minutes to say something on the dairy industry, as it pertains directly to cows. We talked about the pus in cow milk, which is gross. We talked about the unhealthiness of consuming dairy products, but we have yet to focus on what the cows are going through. Keep in mind, veganism isn’t about your health – that will be selfish. I’m trying to get people to be unselfish, for a change. To be altruistic, do something kind for somebody else and when you do that, don’t expect something in return. But when it comes to cruelty, I think there is more cruelty in a glass of milk than a steak. I wanna make my case visually and verbally. You will only be the 11th class to see what I’m about to show. cause this just went down a few months ago in plain city, Ohio, at a ma n’ pa dairy farm. Warning: Disturbing Content. Viewer Discretion is Advised. Ohio Dairy Farm Brutality Gary Conklin, Farm Owner Holy shit, did you just break a tail? Oh yeah. Stand the fuck still, fucker. I get going. It’s just like “oh this feels good.” I wanna keep fucking hitting ’em. We beat the fuck out of this cow. We stabbed her, broke her tail in three places, kept stabbin’ her ass, beat her. Next day Gary says “We’re gonna send her to beef” cuz she had Mastitis and all. Couldn’t get her in the parlor. We beat the fuck out… I mean I drugged that cow, I beat that fucker till her face was like this big around. Alright, you made me mad calf. I gave you a chance. Turn your head. Turn your head, fucker! Turn your ass, turn your ass, C’mon! Fuckin’ tired of this calf. Oh, I gotta bad. Ah, my blood pressure’s up. If I don’t think they’re feeling any pain, I just keep going until the cows like [moaning noise] and I’m like “yeah that’s done.” Ditch cruelty. Ditch dairy. This is not an isolated incident! Don’t for one minute think that this is an isolated incident! This is how slaves are treated! You don’t really think that slaves get treated nicely, do you? You really think white people were nice when they shipped black people over hear on ships? You don’t think Nazis were nice when they walked Jews and Gypsies into the gas chambers, do you? And this happens because you wanna buy those products. Yeah, that guy is a scumbag for doing that, but he’s doing that because YOU wanna eat what comes out of her body. And enough already!! You’re not a caveman and you’re not a cavewoman anymore. Stop acting like Neanderthals! This is 2010! Give it up!! It’s not cute and it’s not funny! Cause animals are being abused. It is not your right! It is not your freedom to do this to them! You don’t get to have freedom when somebody else doesn’t. That’s a violation. And if you wonder why vegans get so upset sometimes, like I am right now, you just saw some of it. Every time we show up at a farm, somebody is punching, kicking and stabbing somebody. And something else that I’m curious about, how come when I show videos like this, of people punching and kicking animals, people are more upset with that than when they shove a knife in their throat? So, even if you find a farm where they not punching and kicking, when they shove a knife in their throat and put a bullet between their eyes, how is that not cruelty??? Did you know that 90% of hamburger meat in America comes from the dairy industry? When cows no longer give huge amounts of milk after 3 to 7years – slaughterhouse, no exceptions. If ever given a change, cows can live to be 18 to 25. And cows are like all female mammals… I’m not trying to talk down to you, when I speak about animal issues. It’s just that people don’t think that animals go through the same things, the same emotions, that you go through, that we all go through. In order for a female mammal to give milk, she has to be pregnant. Every year, every cow on every dairy farm is raped! A long steel device, shoved into their vaginas to inject them with bull semen, or sometimes they use a bare hand. This forces the milk flow. And after she gives birth, babies are stolen. And let me tell you something, the worse scream I have ever heard, and I’ve heard them all first hand. When I started finding out about this stuff, a little over 15 years ago, I was like everybody else. I didn’t believe it was that bad, I thought that everybody was exaggerating. But unlike everybody else who just blows it aside, brushes it off, I actually went to see what was going on. I spent 6 weeks at Thorn Apple Valley pigs slaughterhouse in Detroit in 1993. I broke into animal research laboratories. I broke into fur farms. I went behind the scenes of every circus and every rodeo that ever came through Michigan. Worse scream I have ever heard! A mother cow on a dairy farm, as she screams and bawls her lungs out day after day for her stolen baby, to be given back to her. And I can only imagine, the same scream every woman in this room would make, if somebody held you down after birth and stole your newborn baby from you. And why do they take babies away from their mom? Well, the dairy industry can’t have little babies sucking up all that milk that was meant for them, when they rather sell it to you instead. Every time you have a glass of cow milk, some calf is not. And mother cows make milk for one reason anyways. During Q&A we are about to have, you can ask me whatever you want. I’m no politician, bring up anything. If you went online before I got here and saw my radical assays, that got me kicked out of countries, bring ’em up! There is one question I will not entertain, though: You CANNOT ask me why cows make milk! “Thus, if it’s good for us…” “Shouldn’t we be feeding it to our kids, Gary?” “Shouldn’t we be having it?” Nature took care of this one at the beginning of time: cows make milk for their babies and for their babies alone. Case is closed! Forever! Permanently! No debate. No discussion. They don’t make milk for baby elephants… baby orangutans, baby hedgehogs, baby rabbits, baby rats, baby humans, adolescence humans or adult humans. This body of ours has absolutely no need for cow milk, like it has absolutely no need for giraffe milk. And zebra milk and rhinoceros milk, hippopotamus milk, camel milk, deer milk, antelope milk, horse milk, pig milk, dog milk and cat milk. The only milk that we ever need is our own mother breast milk when we’re born. And that’s it! And when we’re done weaning, we never need one drop of milk ever again. No species on this planet needs milk after they’re done weaning. But if you want to include some kind of milk in your diet like I do, let me reiterate the good news: soy milk, rice milk, almond milk, hemp milk, coconut milk, oat milk, hazelnuts milk. I promise you’ll like one of those seven vegan milks. Remember, when you go veg, you don’t give up anything! You got the vegan version of stuff, or eat things that are truly natural like fruits and vegetables, beans and lentils, and seeds. I wanna thank everybody for listening with an open mind, I do appreciate that.

The Future of War, and How It Affects YOU (Multi-Domain Operations) – Smarter Every Day 211


– Hey it me, Destin. This is hard to explain. So lemme just start here. Everyone has a unique world view, and that world view is shaped
by different perspectives. Perspectives are shaped by how you choose to spend your time. For the past 15 years, I
have been a federal employee, specifically something called a Department of Defense civil servant and as part of that, I took an oath to defend the Constitution against all threats foreign and domestic and I’ve been using math
and science to do just that. I’ve been doing that in the role of something called a Missile
Flight Test Engineer for the Army Test Evaluation Command. We, the men and women of the
Army Test Evaluation Command have been tasked with a
job of protecting soldiers by testing their equipment
to make sure that if someone’s gonna use an
offensive system against them, they can defend themselves and in order to do that, you
must first become an expert on the offensive systems. Does that make sense? This is the part that’s
hard to explain but, for the last however long, I’ve been learning how
to use these systems. For example, this is me,
operating a mortar and I have to learn everything
about this thing. This is me operating a mini gun. Now, it looks like
you’re just shooting but that’s not what’s happening here. This is me learning failure modes, how to operate it, the capabilities and
limitations of the system. This is me learning
common jams that happen, how to clear those jams. There’s a lot of stuff going on here. It’s not just shooting
out of a helicopter. (machine gun firing) This is me in a Bradley
infantry Fighting Vehicle, firing the M242 25 millimeter cannon. That’s something I spent
a lot of time doing. The thing that I spent
the most time on was missles and rockets. This is me participating in a test of a javelin missile system. – [Soldier] Windows open. 3-2-1 FIRE! (missile hissing) (missile exploding) (missile exploding) – Footage like this goes on forever and it’s hard to believe that I was blessed enough to do this job. I took it very seriously and my teammates who are still doing it are some of the most amazing
people I’ve ever worked with. The men and women there are brilliant. Now you know me. The world is interesting and amazing and one of my favorite things to do is to be handed a complex question and work with a team of
competent individuals to arrive at a solution to that and then afterwards, I love sharing that path of discovery with others. I was talking about perspective
earlier and this is why. Over 15 years you can kind of understand major trends and shifts
that are happening. For example, in 2003 the main
issues were terrorism, okay? Slowly, that started to shift and I noticed that over time, here in the last couple years especially, the US is mostly concerned
about major state actors. You can imagine how difficult it’s been, going into work everyday, working on huge problems that matter and that have huge implications and then not being able to
talk about it with anyone. Well, this video changes that. I’m going back to school, right? On my way out the door, I get this call from a
four-star general and he said, Destin, would you like to
film your last mission and after your mission come to
my office and interview me, a four-star general, and
we’ll just talk about what you’ve been doing all this time and how your little piece of the puzzle fits into the overall bigger picture? And then he told me that we can make that a publicly releasable video. So yes, I’m excited about this. Let’s go to Hawaii and
let me share with you my last mission. For my last mission, I was told I’d be filming
a mission in the Pacific, off the coast of Kauai
as a part of RIMPAC. RIMPAC is the Rim of the Pacific exercise. It is the largest naval
exercise in the world and it happens every two years in Hawaii and involves countries
from all over the world. Often with RIMPAC, they’ll
do what they call a sink ex. It’s an exercise which involves
actually sinking a ship. In this case, the USS Racine. My job was to fly out in a helicopter, over the Pacific, dozens
of miles away from shore, as they’re hitting this thing
with missles and rockets and bombs and torpedoes
and all that stuff. I’m gonna be in the helicopter up top and my job is to get footage of impact. So, that’s why I had to
go through dunker training with the Marines because that helicopter, if it goes down in the ocean,
there’s nowhere to land, so you have to be able to figure out how to get out and survive. It took us about an hour
to get out to the ship. We flew out over the water,
which felt like forever and we finally got there and we realized that we have some challenges. Number one, we had to
loiter at 10,000 feet, which meant we were like
looking through a soda straw ’cause we had our lenses zoomed all the in and with the rocking of the helicopter, that made it really hard
to focus on the ship. So I was really concerned that my shot would be out of focus. Another issue is we didn’t know exactly when the impact was going to take place. We knew that there was
this window of time, which meant that me, on
the high speed camera, and the Barking Sands
Missile Range guy to my left, who was operating a stabilized camera, we had to just focus on
the ship the entire time, but we couldn’t look at
it with our naked eyes. So we didn’t know when
impact was gonna happen. We had to rely on the pilot to cry out, impact, impact, impact,
whenever he saw smoke. So thankfully, he was very attentive, he did his job well, we did our job well and we were able to capture the images and get the engineers
data that they needed. They wanted to know what
the warhead effects were, they were trying to do a specific thing with this specific
Norwegian strike missile. It’s a Norwegian missile that
was operated by the US Army, which in itself, is a fascinating thing, using targeting data from other systems. So this is really a big
interoperability test. It was fascinating. That was the first thing that happened and then over the course of the day, the Racine just got walloped. It was monitored by a US Army Gray Eagle. The Australians hit it with a Harpoon. The USS Olympia, a submarine,
they hit it with a Harpoon and then the Japanese Defense Forces, they hit it with a
surface to ship missile, so I had another opportunity to film that in slow motion as well and that was hard because again, we had the same problems. We didn’t know exactly
when it was gonna hit because it was so far from shore. I almost missed it. We got it right as it
approached the ship but I was very thankful we got
the data that we needed. I wish I had triggered it just not even a hundred milliseconds earlier, but thankfully, we did get the bare-bones data requirement that we needed. The USS Racine had a really bad day. After we hit it with all
these missiles and stuff, some Apaches came all
the way out from shore and they did some work
on the deck with rockets and 30 mike-mike and then
after that the grand finale, a Mark 48 torpedo fired from a US sub and this is something I will never forget. In a helicopter, over the USS Racine, was can get down closer
because there’s not a huge safety fan issue like there was with missiles flying at you. You can be right there on it. I chose to get the 4k camera
and just get right on that ship and just hold it as best I could and boom. You can see it happen. The cool thing to me is you can see that big air bubble form under the ship and then it just breaks the keel. It’s like breaking the spine of the ship and that thing is done. Later it was finished off
buy some aerial stuff, but the USS Racine is no more. I’m gonna level with you here. I speak rocket, I speak missile, and I’m not intimidated by those things. This was an intimidating
exercise for me personally, because I don’t understand how to coordinate battlefield maneuvers. Now I understand that
people in the military do know these things. I don’t. I asked my friend Captain Mackenzie Harp to help me get smarter on the topic. So she took me to speak with someone from the Asymmetric Warfare Group, which is a part of TRADOC. Alright this is Lieutenant
Colonel Davis with TRADOC, Training and Doctrine Command, right? – That’s correct. – How does the battlefield
work these days? – So right now, when you think
about the modern battlefield, what you’re thinking about is your thinking about chess
pieces moving on a map. Could we create new version of that, that is three dimensional? Some of us grew up on Star Wars, even my kids grew up on Star Wars. There’s a famous scene
that keeps getting repeated where they are playing chess with these little creatures on a map and they’re in three dimensions and they’re playing this
three dimensional chess. Well when I was a kid,
I always wanted to play three dimensional chess. That’s what we’re trying to
do now with this battle space. So there are five
acknowledged domains right now and arguably there’s sixth but the five domains and just go from lowest to highest ’cause it’s typically easiest that way. There’s sea, there’s the land, there’s the air, which are
our traditional domains which is why we have
Navy for the sea domain, the Army for the land domain and then the Air Force for the air domain. And what we’ve realized in
the last couple of years is that there’s also the space domain and then we also have the cyber domain. Because as we all know, the internet has changed the
connectivity of our planet and it’s also changed not only the way we exchange information, but the way that we are going to interact with our environment. – [Destin] So you’re saying
the battlefield is not land, with Abrams tanks or sea with a ship or something like that or an airplane flying overhead. You’re saying it’s more than than now. – Yes. – [Destin] The battlefield is different? – The operational space has changed, just like the world has changed. – Like a futuristic commander, he could be fighting a cyber
war or cyber battle to his left and he can have a naval
battle to his right and he’s also thinking
about the air battle. So he could be fighting multiple battles at once in the same conflict. – Absolutely. – [Destin] And that’s called what? – Multi-domain operations and then you would be doing cross-domain maneuver, within that multi-domain operation. – [Destin] Explain a
cross-domain maneuver. – We in the military
would define a maneuver as the ability to shoot and move, and often we add communicate to that because you can’t do
one without the other. The ability to shoot, move and communicate within multiple domains. Air, land, sea battles,
our traditional way of thinking of warfare, is a cross-domain maneuver when we are shooting from the sea
through the air to the land. That is a cross-domain maneuver. Now we have soldiers
who have the ability to see through the cyber domain, by using the space
domain, i.e. a satellite, in order to conduct a ground movement inside of a city. – You are working with how people interact with each of these domains. I need to find the person who is basically playing the chess game. And who would that be? – So, this is Four Star
General Robert Brown, which is a really big deal, Sir, thank you. – Well I don’t know about that but, yeah. – For even considering talking to me. What I’ve noticed, when
I started 15 years ago, we were fighting insurgencies, – Right. – Terrorism, things like that. – Right. – It’s changing. – Yeah, sure. – [Destin] So from your perspective, what I’ve learned about
talking to all these other folks that work for you is something called multi-domain – Operations. – [Destin] Operations. – Yeah. – [Destin] And can you explain that to me? – So multi-domain operations,
I will tell you it’s a, I am positive, one thing I am positive, it’s the way of the future and in warfare and we’re either going
to do like we are now, innovate and move towards
multi-domain operations, to either win a conflict
in the future or prevent it because nobody’d be stupid
enough to fight against us, or we’re gonna be forced to do it because we lose someday pretty badly and we’re going to have to do it and I hope that’s not the case. – [Destin] You’re trying
to get ahead of the curve. – Get ahead of the curve,
not fight last fight but fight the future fight and in fact, maybe not have to fight because we’re so darn
good nobody can match us. So this is an evolutionary thing. You go back to the Civil
War, the Battle of Vicksburg, the Army had to work with the
Navy in a river in that case, to win at Vicksburg. – [Destin] Grant actually
diverted the river. – There you go. Exactly. – [Destin] Grant’s Canal. – And so you got domains in play there, a little bit of maritime and land. However, things have changed
as you know as well as anybody. The world’s gotten so complex and now there’re these other domain out there. Cyber, space, I would also
count the human domain as well, I think is the most important. – [Destin] What do you mean by that? – What I mean by the human domain is that when you look at conflict, it’s a contest of wills
and people are involved. It’s about people. I mean, there maybe machines
going against each other some people say, oh it’ll
all be autonomous, AI and all machines in the future. I certainly don’t believe that. There’ll be autonomous
vehicles, there’ll be a lot that’s done but people are
always gonna have to be involved, that’s the nature of conflict and so it’s influence over those people. What we’re seeing today is, you can influence someone before you’re even at conflict with them and you can influence them in the cyber domain and you can influence
them in the space domain and you can influence and
there are no boundaries in these domains. – Forgive me Sir. You’re four-star General, – Yeah. – You’re a very important individual (General laughing) but I’m a simple man and so
I need it broken down for me. – Okay. – For example, I’ve been
keeping up with the news and I know that there’s
huge social media campaigns that occur before an actual
battle ever occurs now. – Right. – Is that true? – Well they call it the gray zone effect. You look at what some nations are doing. Russia’s pretty darn good at it. China as well where, in what we used to call
Phase Zero, pre-conflict. I don’t like that term at all. There’s always gonna be competition and we’re in a
hyper-competition now, always. You’re exactly right. They will be working
to shape and influence people’s perceptions before
a conflict even occurs. What happens is, it’s a fait accompli, that before we even fire a
bullet they’ve already won. If you look at Russia and Ukraine. Little bit of that. We call them little green men. They took off their patches, claimed they weren’t Russians, just to put just enough
doubt, cyber stuff happening, events happening and it wasn’t quite, just staying right below the
threshold of conflict but yet – [Destin] And then as soon as
it was time to turn conflict, it was already over. – Already over. They already had the territory, they already had what they wanted, now they hold onto it. So this is new. There are other aspects that are new. I would tell you that the the speed of human velocity,
of human interaction, is that a rate never before seen. You can put out a video
and millions look at it. When I was your age, there was no way I could get millions of
people look at anything. I have a private that does something in, I have 106,000 people in
the US Army in the Pacific. I have a private that does
something that’s on CNN tonight, worldwide impact, influence. Good or bad. That’s changed. The speed of perception. I was talking this one time
and someone confronted me and said, well things moved
fast in the Civil War, by telegraph, things moved fast. They might have moved fast, they didn’t diffuse rapidly. Now you can diffuse. Send a tweet and halfway around the world, billions of people are paying
attention to it, right? So this has an impact in conflict, it has an impact in
everything in our society. Business, sports, military conflict, it’s a huge impact. So you’ve got all the domains,
air, land, sea, space, and I think around the all of them is this human domain,
that is the most complex, the most important. Let’s get back to multi-domain operations, we’re going all over the place. I wanna try and simplify
it best I can for you. It’s an evolutionary process. Over time we’ve had
air land, air land sea. We’re evolving but it’s
a revolutionary impact, where you’re maneuvering in all domains to a position of relative advantage. So what we were just talking about was maneuvering in cyber to a position of relative advantage pre-conflict, maneuvering in space to a
position of relative advantage and to take advantage of
multi-domain operations, if you truly work together,
one of our strengths, we’re more joint than
any force in the world, the US Military. We’re still not joint enpugh. We’ve got to work where
it’s not the exception where we’re working really well together, not a joint integration, I’m sorry joint interdependence, but joint integration. – Lemme ask you this. So yesterday I was over the water, watching an engagement
by a foreign nation, engaging a target with information from US satellites provided on a different type of communication network. I just see the engagement. I’m a missile tester. I test the missile but I don’t get to see the chess games. I’m a little too close to the board, I’m the pawn. – So think about in the past if the services are in stove pipes and you can do things in
your service pretty well but if you have a menu of options of all the service capabilities, like you saw yesterday. There was a missile that
launched from the land, can destroy a ship at sea and it was controlled by an Army element, but using Navy, Air Force,
Marine and as you mentioned, some national satellite means things never before
used to pull it together and enable it to talk and work together, that gives you more options
against an adversary. Anybody would want more options. It allows you to present multiple dilemmas to an adversary instead of a linear, here comes the land force, here’s the maritime forces, here’s the air, we’re working together, it’s very linear and predictable, It’s very unpredictable,
multi-domain operations. – [Destin] So that’s the
goal, is to be unpredictable. – Unpredictable, present multiple dilemmas to you adversary that
they have to deal with and then multiple options
to your leadership and that’s what you saw a
little taste of yesterday, now picture if that ship is trying to skirt into
the littorals to avoid our strength at sea that our Navy, the best in the world has, so they’re trying to skirt around it. Well the Army can engage
that ship now and destroy it so now it has to go back out
to sea and be right in our engagement area, where
we’re going to destroy them. So you’re your pairing
up together, all domains, maneuvering to a position
of relative advantage and each domain working together to create those windows of opportunity where you can dominate your adversary. The other good thing is, and the reason I talk
about the human dimension, the human domain in all this, you can’t do this if you
can’t empower people. – [Destin] What do you mean? – If you’ve got someone
that you tell them a task and that’s all they can
do, this would never work. You have to have the ability to empower, what we call in the Army mission command, but the other services
have similar versions, where I can give someone
an outcome I want. They figure out how to get there, they’ll amaze you with what they do. Talented young leaders, our
people, are our advantage. The best non-commissioned
officers in the world. The best leaders that are taught to thrive in ambiguity and chaos. – Multi-domain battle,
we have multiple layers are playing 4-D chess, but you’re saying it’s like the chess pieces are alive themselves. – Yeah. – and they can think on their own. – Good analogy. – [Destin] What move is best. – Yeah it’s not you. There’s no longer the central
figure moving that piece, it moves too rapidly. Those pieces are empowered
and can move themselves but work together and know how to work so they’re integrated because they practice
together all the time, just like we were doing yesterday and just like you saw,
historically for the first time, doing that on a regular basis. You really develop a web of options that you can use to keep an adversary completely off guard and you’re completely unpredictable on that. So you’re using all
domains, all angles you can, to present those multiple dilemmas and that requires incredible
joint integration. That’s not natural ’cause we
all grow up in stove pipes, 37 years I’ve been Army,
trained in Army schools. I did joint time, I was on
the Joint Staff and stuff but I think of an Army solution first. So you gotta get out of those stove pipes. Maybe there’s a better air solution. Maybe a better cyber solution. Maybe a better maritime solution. – I think I see what’s
happening right here Sir. This is US Army Pacific. – Right. – You’re the guy in charge
of the 4D chess board – Yeah. Well, portions of it maybe. – Portions of it. If multi-domain operations,
we’ve got land, sea, space, air, cyber. Is this video a weapon? – Absolutely. – What? So I just made a weapon? – Yeah pretty much. Well, if it can help folks
understand number one, if it can deter those
that would do us harm, it’s a hell of a weapon and if it can help those
who are working this understand it a little better,
support it a little better, then it’s a heck of a weapon. Yeah I guess you could almost say that, that’s why you’re doing this. Pretty clever with these
analogies here, yeah. – I don’t know what to do
with this information now. That’s pretty amazing. So war is changing. – Yeah, there’s no question,
we’re at an inflection point and some of the things,
the reasons we go to war, maybe not changing, but
the character of war, with technology, I mean, significantly changing. – I’ll be honest, when I was growing up, a soldier, the stereotype
of an American soldier, was a tough person with big
muscles that could run far and pick up big things. – Yeah. – Now it’s a hyper-intelligent individual? – I wouldn’t go away, physical prowess is key for a soldier, ’cause it’s still tough work and I would say in all the services, being physically fit is still key. In fact, we just developed a new Army combat physical fitness
test that’s excellent. It help you prepare you for
what you will face in combat. So you still have to be physically fit, you gotta be more of a holistic person, but you got to learn and I wouldn’t say it’s
hyper-intelligence, I’d say it’s the ability
to solve a complex problem in a timely manner with
a creative solution, the ability to thrive
in ambiguity and chaos, that’s not necessarily hyper-intelligence. That’s the ability to
make the right decision, know when you have enough information, know when you don’t
have enough information. It’s common sense, it is intelligence, but it’s training education
that we have to do and we’re doing different
than we did in the past. We might have told somebody in the past, here’s your task, here are the exact steps you need to take to accomplish it. Shouldn’t do that anymore. Here’s the outcome I want, you figure out how to get there. That’s the difference. – War is changing. Thank you very much for your time. – [ General] Absolutely. – I feel like you’re the
game master or something. – I don’t know about that. – There’s a huge, not a
game, war is not a game. – One thing I am positive though, is if we do this right, if we truly come together and
integrate in a joint manner, as the United States along
with our International, our allies are so key
that’s why as you saw, we had a Japanese ground
self-defense force involved and our great allies around
the world are critical. We’re not gonna do anything alone. But if we come together and we truly get multi-domain operations right, it’ll be an absolute key
to peace and stability in the future, ’cause no
one would be foolish enough, and some of these nations
we’ve been talking about, many out there, they don’t have the people, the ability to empower people, the way we do and it’s that American Spirit, that is a huge advantage. It has been for a long time. We can’t handcuff those folks. We gotta empower them and that’s what multi-domain operations is all about and I sure wouldn’t want to go against us when we do it right. Nobody wants to fight. The best thing would be
again, the deterrence where we never have to fight, because nobody’d be foolish
enough to go against us. So that’s the best thing. I thank you for interested in this, flying around in a helicopter, above a missile being fired, several missles being fired. – [Destin] It was awesome. – Pretty gutsy and coming out and seeing
some of these things, just a small taste of it, got a lot to connect, a lot of work to do, pull all the pieces together
but if anybody can do it, the United States military can. I feel very confident and I’m
very proud United States Army leading the way with
multi-domain operations. – The General mentioned that
this video could be a weapon and I hope it is. I hope it’s a countermeasure. The one thing I want you to
take away from this video is that multi-domain operations
are the future of warfare. I find it fascinating that General Brown, a four-star General, a person who wields incredible military might, is concerned about the cyber domain. You heard him say it, right? Several times. The cyber domain and the human element affected by the cyber domain. Let’s think about what’s
different about the cyber domain. If you roll up into a bay in a a ship and you start shooting stuff, people are gonna notice, right? But how do maneuvers take
place in the cyber domain? They’re more subversive than that, right? People don’t wear
uniforms on the internet. Surfninja385 is not declaring his intent to be hostile before he does something. Maneuvers and actions in the cyber domain don’t make loud noises. This type of conflict
is based on deception and the most important deception is to convince you that
you’re not at conflict. Heck, even a couple days ago, I was tweeting something
asking about this stuff and I was accused pretty
quickly of tinfoil hattery. I think the reason that is, is because we like to think
about this place that we gather, the internet place here, as just a fun, consequence-free place where we can like and up vote and comment and subscribe and all that kind of stuff, but come on. We can all feel it, we just
don’t know how to say it. I feel this us versus them thing and I’ve seen really smart
friends fall into it and I’m guilty myself. Something’s happening. I just had a four-star
General tell me that the cyber domain and specifically,
the human elements, us, affected within that cyber domain, is one of the five most
important components to modern warfare. There’s an old saying
from when I was a kid. Knowing is half the battle
and it totally applies here. Think about it. Just knowing that the cyber
domain is a battle space and I’m in it, is huge. So what about the other
half of the battle? Straight-up. I believe the biggest threat right now is division. They’re gonna find the
division within our society and they’re gonna try to amplify it. I would like to submit
for your consideration, a countermeasure. A way to get through
this modern bombardment, in this new battle space that
we haven’t experienced before. If they’re trying to divide us, I think the way to get
around this is proactive, intentional unity. We can all do this. We all need to be more
conscious of what types of content we’re consuming online. What are we liking? What are we sharing? How is that affecting our minds? Is it affecting the way we treat people, both online and offline? If we extend patience and political grace, not just to those people we like, but also to those with whom we disagree, these maneuvers in the cyber
domain meant to divide us, simply will not work. Political grace. Basically the art of disagreeing well. This is the ultimate countermeasure to this kind of attack. Thanks for watching this video.

Geography Now! India


So we have finally encroached upon the giant: India. Some of you’ve been waiting a LOOOOONG time for this episode. I’m just gonna say straight up: You all know India is incredibly complex and diverse. Even Indians have trouble understanding their own country. Obviously, I won’t be able to scratch even the surface in this episode. But I’ll try my best. A lot of you Indian geograpeeps have helped me along the way. So thank you, and without further ado, let’s begin! ♫♫♫ ♫ It’s time to learn Geography! NOW!!! ♫ Hey everybody. I’m your host Barby. This place doesn’t even need much of an introduction. Everybody has heard of India. It’s big. It’s loud. It’s colorful, and most importantly it has a plethora of confusing territorial anomalies that I just can’t wait to cover. Here we go!! ♫ Political Geography ♫ There’s an old saying: India is a place where everyone is in a hurry, but no one is ever on time. First of all, India is located in South Asia right on the Indian and Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. Bordered by six other countries. So close to seven but that land bridge between Sri Lanka got wiped away like 600 years ago by a cyclone. India is divided into 29 states and 7 union territories with the capital New Delhi which acts as its own administrative unit located in the capital territory Keep in mind that New Delhi is actually just the name of one of the districts in the capital territory made up of 11. The largest city however, is actually Mumbai, with New Delhi, Bangalore (or Bengaluru) and Hyderabad following after. However the four busiest airports are Delhi (Indira Gandhi International), Mumbai (Chhatrapati Shivaji International) Bengaluru’s Kempegowda International and Chennai International in the south. Ah, you know why I’m smiling This is my favorite part of any episode we ever make: territorial anomaly time!! India is loaded with strange borders and deliciously complex demarcation lines. First of all what exactly is a union territory? In the simplest way I can put this union territories are places that are two distinct to be incorporated into a state but too small to have their own local governments. The first one of course is the Delhi National capital territory where the capital lies. Chandigarh is a post-independent city constructed to replace Lahore as the capital of the Punjab area after it was split up between India and Pakistan. Then you have the Island territories the smallest one Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The Andaman Islands being home to one of the last uncontacted people groups on the planet: the Sentinelese tried who have been hostile to visitors and are therefore left alone. As well as the Nicobar Islands which actually used to be a short-lived colony of Denmark. Finally the three remaining territories are former European Colony towns and ports: Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu which are separated by 200 kilometers across the Gulf of Khambhat. And the most confusing Union Territory: the French-speaking Puducherry Which is actually split between four district cities across India: Karaikal, Mahe, Yanam and Pondicherry. Pondicherry is strange because it has 11 enclaves within the Tamil Nadu state or in this area you can also find the experimental hippie-ish commune with a little bit of controversy (look it up). Here the Eastern States (also known as the Seven Sisters) are connected by this incredibly narrow 27-kilometer wide pathway known as the Siliguri Corridor. This pathway is like a crucial artery that completes the India puzzle. Or so you would think? Now let’s discuss the juicy stuff. Now in the China episode I already talked about the disputed areas with India such as Aksai Chin and Arunachal Pradesh. The latter pretty much just belonging to India as it’s almost completely inhabited and operated by Indians. So let’s move to the other disputes. Now as of 2015 the Bangladesh episode is already outdated as India and Bangladesh have finally come to an agreement over the frighteningly complex former enclave/exclave dispute. In the end India only lost about 40 square kilometers of land to Bangladesh. And now only a few enclaves and exclaves exist. Now let’s head North. Now when you try to draw the shape of India you might want to be careful which depiction you use. Some might use this picture. Some might use this. Some might use this and those that don’t really study very well might use this.[hehehe] The point is the whole area is like the most heavily militarized diplomatically stressed out region on the planet. It’s already had like four wars in the past half century. Basically, India, Pakistan (and to some extent China) all want the entire area for themselves although it’s more of like a Pakistan-India thing. In the China episode we already discussed the Chinese disputes with India so I won’t cover those in this episode if you want to learn more just watch the China episode. But anyway! This entire area was a former domain known as the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir that was under Royal Maharaja rulers all the way up until independence. Currently this place is split up by this fenced off militarized line known as the Line of Control (LoC) between India and Pakistan. Why is this? Well in the quickest way I can put this: Pakistan: Okay the British are out. We get to take your land. J&K: No, we want to be an independent princely state. Pakistan: Er..we’re supposed to take your land and majority of your people are Muslim. Just like us. Even though your ruler is Hindu as well. Soon after… J&K: Hey India. If you help me, I’ll let you secede my territory to your land with autonomy. India: Deal. *India beats Pakistan.* J&K: Ha! your problem now. I love how Mike played India. He totally represents India. Oh, and keep in mind Pakistan’s capital Islamabad is less than 80 kilometers away from all that drama. The Line of control meanders through the mountains until it stops at a point called NJ-9842. This is where things get really crazy because from there you hit the Siachin glacier (the second longest nonpolar glacier) in the world and this is pretty much the dead man’s zone. After point NJ-9842 you hit the actual ground position line: a series of military outposts that extend all the way to the Chinese border. That means everything in this area is ground zero for the Indo-Pak tension. You know the crazy thing is there’s actually literally small towns of normal regular civilians living in these areas high up in the mountains. Many of which just go about daily life going to work and raising their families. Otherwise they have a river dispute with Nepal and various River Islands disputed with Bangladesh. Outside of all the dispute stuff though India not only has the world’s second largest road network and three of the world’s top ten mega cities and their own space program but they also have a copious abundance of landmarks and notable sites way too many to list. But some of the ones that you guys the Indian Geograpeeps have told me to mention include places like the abandoned Dhanuskhodi Ghost City Golconda Fort the four Pillars of Charminar The Ajanta Buddhist art Caves The Elora Monolithic ruins Mandu Fortress The Golden Temple (which feeds over a hundred thousand people a day; for free!) The Gol Gumbaz mausoleum The Kalavantin Durg Post The ruins of Hampi The Hill Forts of Rajasthan Shatrunjaya hill (which is basically like a Mecca for Jains) The temple of the Bodhi tree Jal Mahal Bhangarh Fort (the most haunted place in India) Mohabbat Maqbara and keep in mind. Just like in China you can find a great wall of India in Rajsamand. There’s also the Paritala Anjaneya Temple (with the largest statue in India depicting Hanuman) and over 150 acres the Sri Ranganathaswami Temple the largest Hindu Temple in the world And there’s also that building with the stuff and that thing and whatever. We could go on for centuries talking about India’s rich constructed domicile But what it lies on top of is even more fascinating? ♫ Physical Geography ♫ Now don’t make this mistake. I’m going to India. All I need are my sandals and sunscreen. Welcome to Kargil! (freezing) Oh crap! Now as the seventh largest country in land area, India has a wide range of landscapes, climates and elevations that all contrast from one corner to the other. First of all, let’s talk about the North. India sits on the Indian tectonic plate that essentially smashed into the Eurasian plate which in return created the largest Mountain range in the world: the Himalayas. The force is so strong that it’s estimated that the Himalayas grow about 2.4 inches or 6.1 centimeters every year. It’s also here we can find Kanchenjunga: the tallest mountain in India or the third in the world, right on the border of Nepal. Keep your eye on these mountains. These are pretty much the source of most of India’s major rivers that give life to the whole country. That’s why India takes these mountains so seriously. You can also find the largest natural lake Wular, up in the Jammu & Kashmir area. Below the Himalayas you reach the North Indian River plains, sometimes referred to as the Indus-Ganga. This is the most fertile part of India where the most important Rivers like the Ganges and its tributaries flow. Heading a little south you Reach the Satpura and Vindhya ranges that pretty much divide North India from South India. On each side you get the Western and Eastern Ghat mountains which in return creates this massive triangle thing called the Deccan plateau. This place is moderately forced especially in the east and the Chota Nagpur plateau where you get a section of the swampy Sunderbans that they share with Bangladesh (check out the Bangladesh episode). Head a little West and you get the dry Thar desert along the border with Pakistan. As well as the Runn of Kutch (known as the salt desert) And finally the only active volcanic area would be the Andaman and Nicobar Islands with Barren Island having actual conical eruptions and Baratang having tame mud Volcanoes Now here’s the thing: although India has a relatively high population density they do relatively well with maintaining their ecological footing In fact in 2016 they beat a world record by planting (disputably) 50 million trees in one day. They’ve also agreed to reforest about 12 percent of the country by 2030. The most heavily forested area being the Seven Sister states in East India. Now one of the factors that contributes to this would be the fact that India has the lowest meat consumption in the world with the highest population percentage of vegetarians at around 40% (most of whom are lacto-vegetarian that consume milk products) By the way in India when buying groceries this label means Vegetarian and this one means Non-vegetarian. Nonetheless, the remainder of the population does typically eat some kind of animal protein (mostly in the form of seafood or chicken). But almost never beef or pork (unless a fewer part of the muslim or Christian minorities scattered throughout the west and east areas). Now let’s talk about the role of Cattle, shall we? India has more cattle and livestock than anywhere else in the world at around 330 million And it’s interesting because since they have prevalent Hindu traditions, the killing of cows is illegal in many of the states except for a few, and each state has varying degrees of punishment for committing intentional cow slaughter. Keyword: Intentional.
Cows accidentally get hit by cars all the time. Once the cows too old to produce milk it typically is released into the open to die naturally in the wild. “Ideally”. Nonetheless male cattle get it much worse as they are deemed as kind of “useless”. Some places use them as draft animals for labour. Some religious sects use them as sacrifices, but otherwise They’re typically sold to the underground market for beef or hides. To this day, there are about six times as many female cows as male cattle in India so that means: yeah something’s happening to the males. Nonetheless, India does have the third highest carbon emission rate after China and the US. Fourth if you consider the EU. However emission per capita they rank pretty low at only about two kilotons per person. Contrast that with Qatar at about 40. There are 94 national Parks, 501 Animal Sanctuaries across the country where you can find some of the national animals like the Peacock, the Ganges River Dolphin, the King Cobra, the Indian elephant, and the highest population of Bengal tigers in the world which are all highly protected. India also has the most irrigated land in the world which allows them to become the number one producer of multiple products like Millet Bananas Lemons (limes?), Mangos, Ginger, Chickpeas, milk, butter, Fennel, Jute, and about 75% of the world’s Spices alone come from India. Speaking of which: food. Typically you can find the staples: Roti, chapati and Naan in the North. Idli and Dosa in the south and everybody eats rice. More commonly commercialized Indian foods that we in the west grew up knowing like: Samosas, Tikka Masala Tandoori and my favorite Indian dish: Palak Paneer. These usually come to the Northern regions of India. Mmm seriously India, you took spinach and made it fat. I love you guys. Otherwise the West is Mostly known for their chutneys, and pickled foods as well as beef since there’s a high number of Muslims and Christians The south uses a lot more coconut and has Some of the best curries like Poriyal, Sambar, Rasam and Tooto. And the east is known for having the best desserts like Peda, Mishti doi, Rasgulla or Sandesh. Speaking of which India is so diverse and complex that sometimes even Indian people need translators when going to different states. It’s about to get 10 times more confusing in about 3, ,2 1… ♫ Demographics ♫ Shashi Tharoor once said, “In India we celebrate the commonality of major differences; we are a land of belonging rather than of blood”. First of all India has a population of about 1.3 Billion people and is the second most populous country in the world after China with about 18% of the world’s population. About 72% of the country is indo-Aryan and a quarter are dravidian and the majority of the remainder are Mongoloid Asian and other people groups. They also use the Indian rupee as their currency. They use the type C, D and M plug outlet and they drive on the left side of the road. By the way, technically it’s illegal for these banknotes to leave the country. But you guys have sent me a lot of them for fan mail for fan Friday videos. So I don’t want to go to jail…again. (what) Now, keep in mind those statistics that I just mentioned are incredibly generalized. Of the Indo-Aryan and Dravidian communities there are about two thousand different ethno-linguistic people groups in India with about 645 District indigenous tribes (52 major ones). So obviously we can’t cover them all. But what we do know is that the North is very different from the South. For one, the North mostly speaks in languages that are all related to the Indo-Aryan branch with languages like Hindi, Bengali Punjabi and Gujarati. Whereas the South speaks a completely unintelligible Dravidian branch with languages like Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam and Kannada. Otherwise there’s also pockets of Sino-Tibetan in austroasiatic languages spoken in the Far north and East So how do they communicate with each other? Great question! Although India does not have an official language there are 22 recognized national languages and of these two are the most prevalent taught in schools and used by government officials: Hindi and English. And very often these two are like mixed mid-sentence. It’s weird. Don’t be surprised if you hear someone speaking Hindi and then suddenly finishing off in English. It’s like: *random gibberish in Hinglish* Now of course let’s discuss the one thing that goes hand in hand with India: Hinduism. About 80% of India claims to be Hindu or at least part of the hindu practicing community. Now we don’t have time to explain everything about the tenants and multi-layered philosophies and practices of Hinduism. You want to know? Just talk to a Hindu person. But basically one thing you do need to know is that Hindu-driven ideologies pretty much dominate most of life in India. Everything from family to business. You will see colorful mesmerizing shrines, temples, statues and rituals being performed everywhere, even in public. And the Bharat Mata (the mother of India) statues are everywhere. She’s like this symbol of India. The largest Hindu pilgrimage: the Kumbh Mela happens every three years rotating between four cities in which the adherents bathe in the Ganges river and enjoy a massive festival with tens of millions of people. Like seriously, you can practically see it happening from space. Now a controversial topic in relation to Hinduism would be the caste system. Which is basically a belief that people are born into a socio-economic life that they are destined to serve into. Today however, the system is more fluid and loose from what it used to be from a long time ago. And thanks to economic reforms anybody with enough drive can kind of move up the social ladder regardless of birth. Nonetheless, India is home to every major religion in the world. Even a few jews including the Bnei Menashe, an indigenous group that claim to be one of the lost tribes of Israel. In fact Judaism and Christianity actually had a head start in India way before it even kicked off in Europe. As tradition holds Cochin or Malabar Jews migrated around 1000 BC to trade during the times of King Solomon. And in 53 AD Thomas the Apostle of Jesus arrived in what is now the state of Kerala to establish the first church in India. Today, most Christians are found in the Southwest and far East Seven Sisters regions. India also holds the highest population of Sikhs, Jains and Zoroastrians, mostly found in the North, and the second largest Muslim population in the world after Indonesia. Most muslims are populated around the Northwest areas by Pakistan or in the east by Bangladesh. Oh, and don’t forget the Buddhists. in fact Buddhism actually started in India. Today the Dalai Lama even takes refuge in kiss port in the state of Assam. Oh that was a lot of information. Ahhhh!!!
Okay, so by now you can probably get a grasp of how incredibly mixed and diversified India’s population is. But what exactly holds the country together? Well for one, you kind of have to understand Indian history which will take way too long to explain but in the quickest way I can put it: Indus Valley; Maurya and Gupta Empires; Southern Empires; Golden age; Middle Kingdoms; A ton of new religions come flocking in; the North fell to the Delhi sultanate; the South Became the Vijayanagara Empire Mughal Empire starts; British East India Company; Direct British Rule; Nationalist Movements; Independent Republic; Economic liberalization in 1991; And here, we are today. Vijaya Essentially India used to be made up of around 500 smaller royal Princely states, and when the British came in they kind of exploited them to manage such a huge population. Along India is a democratic federal republic (and the largest democracy in the world) the old royal families still exist today and although they have no political power they hold high positions of influence in their communities across India So today, technically you could meet someone that would be considered an Indian prince or princess. Nonetheless, the biggest thing that really united Indians in the past two centuries would probably be their hatred of British rule. It was kind of like: Well, this is not cool.
Yep. What do you say you and I work together enough and uh, end this thing? *friendship noises* Especially one good thing you could say that came out of imperialism was that it kind of stopped all the internal squabbling and unified the groups towards one common goal to get rid of imperialism. Today Indians are just proud to be Indians. I mean a Tamil soccer player can get cheered on by a Rajasthani and Punjabi pop Star can sell out tickets in Orissa. Speaking of which all Indians love movies and music. India has the second largest film industry in terms of volume pumping out nearly 2,000 films per year surprisingly Nigeria pumps out more. However the box office revenues grossed out at only about two billion dollars annually compared to Hollywood at over 10 billion. But still it’s impressive and keep in mind that it’s not just Bollywood but it’s also Tollywood, Gollywood, Kollywood, Pollywood and so on. There’s like 20 different woods in India. And like every movie in India has at least one scene where everybody breaks out in song and there’s almost always a happy ending. Unfortunately mainstream media has also put an aesthetic strain on many of the people as it’s almost become an obsession to be light or fair-skinned causing people to go so far as to buy skin bleaching products. Some other controversies include things like illiteracy being an issue in many parts of the country (especially in the rural areas). But I mean come on when your country has literally hundreds of different writing systems. Go figure. I mean give them a break. Also, many of you guys (the Indian geograpeeps) have asked me to bring awareness to the fact that India does unfortunately have some of the highest rates of human trafficking and child slavery. The government is trying to crack down and culture is slowly being reformed but for now, it’s a sad reality that still does exist. Hey here at GN, we talk about the good and the bad. I’m just saying. Otherwise sports do definitely tie everyone together as well. Especially cricket: the most popular sport (even though they also used to do really well in field hockey). India also has a lot of their own indigenous sports like: Dopkhel in Assam, Bull racing in Kerala in South, Insuknawr rod pushing in Mizoram; and Malakhamba the strange pole Yoga gymnastics thing in the South. Otherwise some notable people from India or of Indian descent might include people like: Siddhartha gautama or the Buddha; Mahavira; Ashoka the great; Prithviraj Chauhan; Aurangzeb; Shivaji of the Maratha Empire; Mahatma Gandhi; Indira Gandhi; Subhash Chandra Bose; Jawaharlal Nehru; Rabindranath Tagore (first Nobel laureate of Asia); CV Raman (first Indian scientist to win Nobel); Satyendra Nath Bose; Bhagat singh; Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam; Shah Rukh Khan; Amitabh Bachchan; Aamir Khan; Salman Khan; Priyanka Chopra; Ben Kingsley; Sundar Pichai (current CEO of Google); Satya Narayana Nadela (current CEO of Microsoft); AR Rehman; Sachin Tendulkar and Mahendra singh Dhoni; There’s also literally millions of other famous people I missed out on if you want to mention them please there’s a comment section below. Use it. In the meantime we got to finish this info marathon. Shall we? ♫ Friendzone ♫ Now, no surprised India is huge and therefore has a huge international outreach when it comes to diplomacy to almost everyone except their immediate neighbors. First of all countries with large population percentages of Hindus and Indians like Fiji, Guyana, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Mauritius and
Malaysia typically stay close to India’s roster of go-to friends. They enjoy cordial relations with trade. Now the UK may have left on a sour note but they still have a lot of ties to their former colonizer in terms of business and tourism. India still part of the commonwealth (NOT Commonwealth realm there’s a difference). And the UK has over 1.5 million citizens of Indian descent. As mentioned in the China episode, China is kind of like India’s “I’m only here to do business with you and nothing else” friend as drama still hasn’t been subsided in regards to the territory complex. Now when it comes to the US things started kind of sour back in the 70s during the Indo-Pak war of 1971 when the US sided with Pakistan, their arch-nemesis. Today relations have cooled off mostly the US supports India’s move towards democracy and as a key ally in the military conflicts in the Middle East. When it comes to their best friends however, most of the Indians I talked to have said Russia and Bhutan. Russia because during the Indo-Pak Wars Russia came in and supported them and ever since then especially has global superpowers. Bhutan and India signed a treaty of friendship -each country has held a high position of respect for the other- almost immediately after independence The two countries have shared interests and a currency pegged system as well. Bhutan even supported the annexation of their cousins in the Sikkim state into India as it gave a nice buffer of lands from China’s stick to their claim. In conclusion, you will not find anywhere else on Earth like India. Thousands and millions of people inhabiting a colourful majestic green slightly greedy at times slab of Earth blessed and cursed in so many ways yet wonderfully harmonized mostly in a unity unlike anywhere else. In the end, that’s In-di-ah!! AAHHH!!! Stay tuned, Indonesia is coming up next. ♫♫♫

* The EU’s ‘SECRET’ Brexit Negotiation EXPOSED 🙄


Hello, I stumbled upon the EU’s secret negotiation plan in the form of this slide presented by the chief EU negotiator at the European Council. This slide is amazing and I want to talk to you about it. So, since the Brexit breakup the EU and the UK have been trying unsuccessfully to broker a deal, and this slide makes it painfully clear why that has made such little progress over such a long time. It started with brexit where the UK voted to leave the European Union; now, what that means isn’t exactly clear because the EU has a core center but it also has many orbits of relationships. So, the EU and the UK needed to figure out where they were as a couple and the UK has a list of deal-breakers that, at least at time of recording, are non-negotiable- and that’s fine! Everyone has relationship deal-breakers. It would be unhealthy not to. Anyway, core no more the EU’s next closest relationships are with Norway Iceland and Liechtenstein as part of the European Economic Area. This is a kind of “EU Light” They’re part of the unified EU economy with the EU’s four freedoms: Free movement of goods, free movement of services, free movement of capital, and free movement of people So, as an Irish citizen, since Ireland is “Core EU”, I could go live in a cabin in Norway, even though they’re not Core EU because of the free movement of people and vice versa Now for the UK free movement to people is a huge deal Shut it down – deal-breaker This makes an EEA style relationship. Just impossible So the next relationship orbital out is Switzerland who has a unique relationship with the EU She’s not EU core, she’s also not in the EEA, and she is completely landlocked by EU core members (I mean except for Liechtenstein) So perhaps inevitably despite not being part of the EU in any way she has over a hundred bilateral treaties with the EU integrating their economies which means that Switzerland has given up complete regulatory autonomy on goods and services to facilitate trade This is also a deal breaker. Switzerland’s treaties grant freedom of movement– deal-breaker –and Switzerland makes significant financial contributions to the EU– deal breaker. These two things are also part of the EEA So while Switzerland isn’t an EU member, in fact, she is basically in practice, but also, like the EEA members, lacks representation in the Parliament of EU Core So, Switzerland’s relationship with the EU is also not one that the UK wants to emulate this now moves us to the outermost orbitals and we get into the really deep asterisks of European Union foreign relationships This is stuff like the European Eastern Partnership and the deep and comprehensive trade agreements Which sounds like political dirty talk or the European neighbourhood policy. a lot of the aims of these things is to bring neighbours more in line with Europe either with what the EU politely calls “The Promotion of Human Rights” or trade integration but both of these bring up the final deal breakers for the UK taking Ukraine as an example, while not remotely in EU member or even close, she has agreed to let the European Court of Justice have some jurisdictional power in her borders This is required by the EU for Ukrainian participation in Interpol A kind of FBI for the EU that works on cross-border crime. Nonetheless European Court of Justice jurisdiction does mean giving up some sovereignty on some issues and that’s a deal breaker or take Turkey who can participate in trade negotiations under the aegis of the EU Presumably to benefit from the trading power a large bloc has but this means Turkey doesn’t have complete independence in matters of trade policy Deal-breaker and so now we’ve passed the outermost orbital. Where a relationship even means anything and so end up in an inevitable no deal with the EU and UK’s relationship being just regular countries to each other in the World Trade Organization Membership of which is basically every country on Earth So the progress from EU core out to No Deal is what this slide is showing: why the EU thinks that path is the only path but the UK has been saying very loudly she wants to deal while also saying brexit means brexit She wants independence but also wants a relationship that’s deeper and more comprehensive with the EU than just the cold WTO rules, but for the EU it’s impossible to see how to satisfy those desires contradictory without triggering the UK safeword Which is probably why this EU negotiation strategy slide wasn’t a secret but was published back in December of 2017 by the lead negotiator in front of the heads of state because this isn’t a secret strategy It’s a clear illustration of the mechanistic results of all of the UK’s deal-breakers I really do think this is a pretty amazing infographic in terms of clarity for a horrifically complicated topic which is why I just had to make this footnote to share it with you because I could not bear to let it fade away into my notes as just part of the background reading anyway that is why the brexit timeline has been so long with so little happening the UK has mutually exclusive wants as also discussed in the main video in a different area and It’s really all down to the UK She could stick with the deal-breakers and go it alone Or she can drop some and settle in an orbital relationship with the EU, but she can’t have both I guess We’ll see what happens soon maybe

Chance The Rapper Questions Chicago Politicians


WHY THE CHICAGO MAYOR RAHM
EMANUEL WALK OUT ON CHANCE WHO ATTENDED A CITY COUNCIL MEETING? I’M NOT SURE. LET’S BREAK THIS DOWN FOR YOU. YOU MAY NOTE CHANCE IS A GRAMMY
AWARD-WINNING ARTIST, BUT ALSO A CIVIC LEE ENGAGED CHICAGOEAN. YEARS EVEN GIVEN HIS OWN MONEY
INTO PUBLIC EDUCATION. WHEN HE ATTENDED A CITY COUNCIL
MEETING HE WAS THERE TO OPPOSE RAHM EMANUEL’S EFFORTS TO ñ>>I GUESS THE MAYOR HAD TO STEP
OUT WHEN I CAME UP. THAT MEANS I GET TO TALK TO YOU
HAS NOW. I THINK YOU GUYS ARE FAMILIAR
WITH THE WORK I’VE BEEN DOING. THANK YOU GUYS. THIS IS RIGHT DOWN THE STREET
FROM WHERE THE PROPOSED POLICE ACADEMY WILL BE OUT. WITH JUST $100,000 IN THREE
YEARS IS ABOUT TO MAKE SOMETHING TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGES. IT WOULD BE AWESOME THOUGH IF WE
COULD GET THEM COMPUTERS AT THEIR SCHOOL OR A LIBRARY, OR A
MUSEUM, OR ANY OF THE THINGS THAT WE HAVE PROPOSED IN THE
BUDGET FOR THIS $95 MILLION COP ACADEMY. IT IS A VERY SIMPLE THING YOU
GUYS HAVE TO DO. WE SHOULD UNDERSTAND THAT
FINANCIALLY THIS PROPOSED PLAN DOESN’T MAKE SENSE, WILL
HAVE $95 MILLION. WE ARE JUST ASKING YOU FOR $10
MILLION TODAY TO PURCHASE LAND, BUT WE DON’T HAVE THE REST OF
THE MONEY SO WHY LET THEM GO AHEAD WITH THIS RIGHT NOW? THERE’S A LOT OF DIFFERENT SERVICES THAT NEED HELP ñ MENTAL
HEALTH SERVICES, OBVIOUSLY SCHOOLS IS MY BIG THING. BUT THERE
IS A LOT OF WAYS TO TRANSFORM THE CITY THAT HAVE NOTHING TO DO WITH POLICE
TRAINING.>>TO PROVIDE MORE CONTEXT TO
WHAT CHANCE IS REFERRING TO ñ BUT A LOT OF PEOPLE ARE SAYING
THAT FINANCIALLY THE PLAN DOESN’T MAKE SENSE. THAT IS WHAT CHANCE WAS THERE TO
PROTEST. THERE’S A LOT GOING ON HERE. I’M JUST CURIOUS AS TO WHY THE
MAYOR STEPPED OUT WHEN PERHAPS HIS MOST CIVIC LEE AND PUBLICLY
ENGAGED CITIZEN TOOK THE MIC. WHAT YOU THINK WAS HAPPENING?>>FULL DISCLOSURE THIS IS WHAT
I AM TALKING ABOUT TODAY ON BREAKDOWN. IT IS A VERY INTERESTING STORY,
KIND OF LIKE A MICROCOSM OF WHAT IS GOING ON IN COMMUNITIES OF
COLOR AND HOW THEY ARE UNDERFUNDED CONSISTENTLY ACROSS
THE COUNTRY. AND HOW WE DEAL WITH CERTAIN
PROBLEMS THAT ARISE IN THOSE COMMUNITIES. LET’S START FROM THE TOP. FIRST OF ALL, RAHM EMANUEL ñ
CHANCE THE RAPPER’S DAD WAS RAHM EMANUEL’S TOP AIDE
UNTIL RECENTLY. SO THEIR CONNECTION RUNS DEEP,
BUT ASIDE FROM THAT THEY HAVE HAD AN ONGOING CONVERSATION AND
I THINK BECAUSE CHANCES SUCH A GOOD GUY AND HAS DONE SO MUCH
FOR CHICAGO PUBLIC SCHOOLS ñ HE HAS RAISED $2.2 MILLION IN THE
PAST YEAR ALONE FOR THE ARTS PROGRAMS. IT IS VERY DIFFICULT FOR RAHM TO
GENUINELY FAITH HIM AND SAY WE NEED MORE POLICING IN THIS
NEIGHBORHOOD. ESPECIALLY AS A DEMOCRATIC
MAYOR. LET ME GIVE YOU GUYS SOME FACTS. $95 MILLION IS THE COST OF THIS FIRE
AND POLICE TRAINING ACADEMY. CHICAGO CURRENTLY HAS A
MASSIVE PROBLEM ñ THERE ARE A LOT OF POLICE THAT
ARE LEAVING THE FORCE, SOME ARE RETIRED OTHERS THAT ARE
BEING FIRED. THEY NEED TO MAKE IT AS SEXY AS
POSSIBLE TO BECOME A POLICE OFFICER. THEY ARE STARTING THIS IN THE
WEST SIDE, WHICH IS A PROBLEMATIC NEIGHBORHOOD. THEY SOLD ñ I WANT TO GIVE
YOU THE EXACT DETAIL ñ THEY SOLD THE RIVER SITE TO
PRIVATE INDUSTRY TO ACCUMULATE FUNDS, BUT THEY DON’T HAVE 95
MILLION, THEY ONLY HAVE 20. 10 OF WHICH WAS ALLOCATED TO THE
LAND TO PUT THIS FIRE AND POLICE ACADEMY ON. CHANCE WAS ARGUING THAT WITH
HUNDRED THOUSAND DOLLARS ACROSS THE STREET WE MAY TRANSFORMATIVE
CHANGES IN THE SCHOOL ALONE. BECAUSE CERTAIN SOCIAL BUDGETS
ARE SO UNDERFUNDED HOW ARE YOU GOING TO JUSTIFY A $95 MILLION
POLICE ACADEMY WHEN WE DON’T HAVE THE REST OF THE MONEY TO
EVEN BUILD THE POLICE ACADEMY? WHY DO WE TAKE THESE FUNDS AND
REDISTRIBUTE THEM BACK INTO SOCIAL PROGRAMS THAT DESPERATELY
NEED THEM? CHICAGO ACTUALLY HAD TO BORROW $275 MILLION RECENTLY
BECAUSE THEY HAVE A MASSIVE PENSION PROBLEM, THEY CAN’T PAY
PENSIONS OFFER TEACHERS AND THEN ON TOP OF THAT STILL HAVE ñ BE ABLE TO FUND THEIR SCHOOLS
PROPERLY. THERE IS CURRENTLY A CASE WHERE
CHICAGO PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEMS ARE ONLY GETTING 15% OF THE
STATE BUDGET. BUT THEY ACTUALLY HOST 20% OF
THE SCHOOL ELIGIBLE YOUTH. THEY BELIEVE IT IS OBVIOUSLY A
LITTLE BIT RACIST BECAUSE 90% OF THE CPS IS STUDENTS OF COLOR.>>MARK, WHAT IS YOUR RESPONSE?>>THIS IS INTERESTING STUFF
BECAUSE I DIDN’T KNOW THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CHANCE, HIS
FATHER AND THE MAYOR. THE COPS AND HELPING AND FUND
THEM, THAT IS GOOD POLITICS FOR RAHM EMANUEL, AND THAT’S THE
REASON I SUSPECT HE GRAVITATED TOWARDS THAT
SOLUTION. CLEARLY CHANCE IS RIGHT, THAT IS
WHERE THE MONEY SHOULD GO INTO SOCIAL PROGRAMS AND ALL THESE
PROGRAMS, PARTICULARLY IF THEY DON’T HAVE THE MONEY TO
ACTUALLY STEP OUT WITH THE REST OF THE PLAN. I DID NOT KNOW CHANCE THE
RAPPER HAD CONTRIBUTED SO MUCH OF HIS OWN MONEY TO THESE
MANY PROGRAMS IN CHICAGO. THIS ACTUALLY HAPPENED, UNLIKE
TRUMP WHERE HE SAYS HE WROTE THE CHECK. I THINK THE CHICAGO MAYOR PULLED
AWAY BECAUSE HE PROBABLY COULDN’T FACE THE MUSIC AND HE
POLITICALLY MADE A DECISION THAT IS ALL ABOUT POLITICS AND
LESS ABOUT HELPING HIS CITY.>>THEY STILL VOTED
OVERWHELMINGLY IN FAVOR. 48 TO 1 WAS THE FINAL COUNT AND
THEY ARE STILL GOING FORWARD WITH THIS PROGRAM. BY THE WAY RAHM EMANUEL’S
REACTION WAS THAT HE HAD TO STEP OUT TO CALL HIS MOTHER AND
CONGRATULATE HER FOR HER 85TH BIRTHDAY. SO WHEN THEY FURTHER ASKED WHY
THEY ARE STILL GOING ON WITH THE FUNDING OF THE POLICE ACADEMY HE
SAID IT WILL HELP THE ECONOMY OF THE WESTSIDE BECAUSE OF THE
OVERWHELMING AMOUNT OF CANDIDATES AND POLICE THAT
ARE GOING TO BE IN THAT NEIGHBORHOOD AND WILL SUPPLY THE
LOCAL ECONOMY IN WAYS THAT WE CAN FORESEE YET, AND ALSO IT
WILL PROVIDE A SENSE OF SAFETY. COMMUNITY POLICING IS INCREDIBLY
IMPORTANT AND THERE ARE PLENTY OF STUDIES THAT BACK THIS UP. OVERALL I DON’T THINK IT IS AS
NEFARIOUS. THIS IS NOT AN AWFUL IDEA VERSUS
WHAT CHANCE IS SAYING IS A MUCH BETTER IDEA. I THINK TRAINING IS INCREDIBLY
NECESSARY AND VITAL IN MOST INSTANCES. ESPECIALLY IF THEY ARE ABLE TO
BRING SOME OF THESE YOUTH FROM CERTAIN NEIGHBORHOODS TO GO AND
POLICE THOSE NEIGHBORHOODS. IN THE END IF YOU HAVE ACTUAL
BLACK AND BROWN COPS POLICING THEIR OWN NEIGHBORHOODS, THAT IS
A STEP IN THE RIGHT DIRECTION?>>I WOULD SAY THAT IS TRUE, PROBABLY
A LOT OF WHAT THE CHICAGO MAYOR SAYS IS ACCURATE AND IT
WILL HELP THE AREA ECONOMICALLY. IS ALSO TRUE THAT THEY HAVE A
REAL PROBLEM WITH CHICAGO COPS AND THESE INCIDENTS THAT
SEEM TO BE RACIALLY MOTIVATED. YOU CAN’T JUST PRETEND THAT IT’S
NOTHING. YOU DO NEED TO RETRAIN COPS. IS NOT EXACTLY A SITUATION WHICH
IS CLEAR-CUT. HAVING SAID THAT, IT DOES APPEAR
THAT ñ I WAS UNAWARE OF ALL THE STUFF THAT CHANCE THE
RAPPERKNOWS ABOUT THIS COMMUNITY AND I SUGGEST HIS
RECOMMENDATIONS ARE SOUND.>>IT IS FRUSTRATING AS A PUBLIC
SERVANT TO WALK OUT BECAUSE YOU KNOW IT WILL PUT YOU IN A
TRICKY SPOT. I AM DISAPPOINTED IN THAT. EVEN IF YOU DISAGREE, YOU ARE A
PUBLIC SERVANT, ENGAGE WITH YOUR CITIZENS, THAT IS THE LEAST
YOU CAN DO?>>ONE CHARITY I THINK IS AMAZING
SPECIFICALLY RELATED TO THIS ñ OBVIOUSLY CHANCE HAS HIS OWN
CHARITY WHICH IS GREAT. YOU CAN GOOGLE IT. BUT THE ONE I WANT TO TALK ABOUT
IS ON THE BLOCK OR, MOTHERS AGAINST SENSELESS KILLING MASS. IT IS MOTHERS SITTING ON THE
BLOCK WITH YOUTHS AND TRYING TO UPLIFT THEIR
COMMUNITIES. THEY HAVE SOIR…ES. GO DONATE SOME MONEY, CHECK THEM
OUT. I REMEMBER LISTENING TO THE
FOUNDER AND IT WAS SO IMPACTFUL THAT IT STUCK WITH ME. MOTHERS AGAINST SENSELESS
KILLING ñ ONTHEBLOCK.ORG.

Which Countries Are Still Truly Communist?


This episode is brought to you by Skillshare. The first 1,000 people to sign up using the
link in the description will get their first 2 months free. Communism is an economic and social system
in which most property and resources are collectively owned by a classless society and not by individual
citizens. It was founded by two German political philosophers,
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, who met in the second half of the 19th century. They discovered that they had similar principles
and in 1848, wrote and published The Communist Manifesto, which became the foundation for
Communism… Communism became the dominant political philosophy
for many countries across Asia, Eastern Europe, Africa, and South America, and in the late
19th century, it also began to develop in the old Soviet Union. But in 1991, when the Soviet Union disbanded,
Russia constituted itself as a semi-presidential republic. Communism still exists in a number of countries,
but in many cases it’s a legacy of the past and has lost much of the doctrine it originally
came with. So where is communism still being practiced? And is it the communism that Marx and Engels
proposed? That’s what we’ll find out, in this episode
of the Infographics Show: Which Countries Are Really Truly Still Communist? Communism envisaged common ownership of all
land and capital, and the dissolving of the coercive power of the state. In such a society, social relations were to
be regulated on the fairest of all principles: from each according to his ability, to each
according to his needs. Differences between manual and intellectual
labor and between rural and urban life were to disappear, opening up the way for unlimited
development of human potential. The rise of capitalism in the 20th century
disrupted communist principles, and so many countries either turned to alternative political
frameworks or allowed the philosophy to blend with a new cultural climate. So how many countries are still officially
communist? When we started to research this subject,
we first discovered that there are several countries with multiple political parties,
and some have had leaders who are affiliated with their nation’s communist party. These countries are not considered truly communist
because of the presence of other political parties, nor is the communist party empowered
by the constitution. These countries are Nepal, Guyana, and Moldova,
who have all had ruling communist parties in recent years. In terms of true communist states left today,
there are five that most experts consider communist, and those are: Vietnam, Laos, North
Korea, China, and Cuba. These countries adhere to different levels
of commitment when it comes to living by communist principles. Let’s take a look at them one by one. Socialist Republic of Vietnam – Following
the First Indochina War, Vietnam was split up at a conference in 1954. North Vietnam established itself as a communist
state, supported by the Soviet Union, while South Vietnam was democratic and backed by
America. Then followed two decades of the war we know
as the Vietnam War, which is also the Second Indochina War, and in 1976, Vietnam was unified
to become a communist country. Technically Vietnam is still a communist country,
with one-party rule, the Communist Party of Vietnam, under Marxist-Leninist governance,
but like many other communist countries, Vietnam has in recent decades moved toward a market
economy that has seen some of its socialist values disrupted by capitalism. In fact Vietnam is now one of the world’s
fastest growing economies, and is on track to becoming a modern, industrialized nation
by 2020. Despite these economic reforms and adoption
of capitalist values, human rights and freedom of speech are still limited in the country. All news media are under control of the government,
and there are heavy penalties for criticizing the government or broaching politically sensitive
topics. Vietnam continues to shift in both policy
and culture, and it’s not unimaginable that it will veer fully away from communism sometime
in the next couple of decades. Lao People’s Democratic Republic – Laos,
officially the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, became a communist country in 1975, following
a revolution supported by Vietnam and the Soviet Union. The government in Lao is largely run by military
generals who support a one-party system that is grounded in Marxist ideals. Media outlet, The economist, published an
article in 2016, stating that “Laos has what may be the world’s most closed political
system after North Korea, and that for the few visiting media, the communist official
appointed as spokesman for the occasion responded to most questions by blinking.” But Lao is changing and has been heavily influenced
by democratic ideology, both via tourism and trade. Many aspects of business and culture have
changed in the country over the last three decades. Is Lao truly a communist state, when there
is a stock exchange and a Private Sector that is fast expanding to be the most productive
part of Laos’s economy? Though Lao is ruled by a communist party,
as far back as 1988 the country began allowing some forms of private ownership, as well as
joining the World Trade Organization in 2013. And in 2009, the Obama administration declared
that Laos had “ceased to be a Marxist-Leninist country.” So Lao is on the list, but the verdict is
still out there and things seem to be rapidly changing for this South East Asian Country. Democratic People’s Republic of North Korea
– Korea was occupied by the Japanese in World War II and divided after the war into a Russian-dominated
north and an American-occupied south. North Korea did not become a communist country
until 1948 when South Korea declared its independence, leaving the north to declare its own sovereignty
soon after, when Korean communist leader Kim Il-Sung was installed as leader. Getting clear information on North Korea is
not easy as the state has full control of all media. Though most of the world sees North Korea
as a communist state, the country itself does not, and the ruling Kim family has always
promoted their own doctrine based on the concept of ‘juche’, which means self-reliance. Juche was first introduced in the mid 1950’s
bringing with it Korean nationalism as a core value within the countries leadership strategy. Juche became official state policy in the
1970’s. So is North Korea really a communist country
or is this a western misinterpretation of the way this secretive country is governed? In 2009, North Korea’s constitution was
changed to remove all mention of the Marxist and Leninist ideals, the foundations of communism,
and the word communism was also removed from the text. What we do know is that North Korea has a
very questionable human rights record and many strict controls…According to the South
Korean government estimates and Human Rights Watch, between 150,000 and 200,000 North Koreans
live in prison camps; only government and military officials are able to own motor vehicles;
all televisions are tuned to state-controlled domestic programming, and there is no Internet
other than a closed domestic network. It’s not easy to get a clear picture of
North Korea, but one person who may know more is ex basketball player Dennis Rodman, who
is a frequent visitor to the country and has met with President Kim Jong-Un on a number
of occasions. The People’s Republic of China – In 1949
Mao Zedong took control of China and declared the nation as the People’s Republic of China,
a communist country. China has remained communist since that date,
although economic reforms have been in place for several years and there is debate over
how long China can continue to declare itself communist. The Chinese Communist Party or CCP has revolutionized
many things for the country in recent years. Most notably, it has made China the world’s
second largest economy. It has also strengthened China, especially
in the South China Sea, where it has challenged America’s hold. And China’s presence in the Indian Ocean
has expanded by re-building the ports of Sri Lanka, and by developing the China Pakistan
Economic Corridor. The underpinning of all of these activities
has been the expansion of a capitalist economy that continues to grow year after year. Some of the communist principles have clearly
been eroded, and in 2004 the country’s constitution was changed to recognize private property. So what makes China truly communist? The Chinese government still controls major
aspects of society and the economy. Nearly all Chinese banks are state-owned,
which means the government decides which businesses and individuals are lent money. Chinese media companies are entirely state-owned
and virtually all of the land in the country still belongs to the government. So though communism is at the core of the
Chinese political system, the CCP is not really a communist party in the conventional sense,
as it’s now motivated by the same market drivers as the majority of democracies in
capitalist states. Republic of Cuba – Cuba is perhaps best
known for the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis, a 13-day confrontation between the United States
and the Soviet Union concerning American ballistic missile deployment in Italy and Turkey. It was a nerve wracking time that could have
led to full-scale nuclear war. Cuba became a fully communist country in 1961,
following a revolution that led to a government takeover by Fidel Castro and his associates. Cuba continues as a one-party communist state
under President Miguel Diaz-Canel, who very recently took over for Raúl Castro, who succeeded
his brother in 2008. The government has a monopoly on the majority
of economic activity within centralized state enterprises. And there are restrictions to the freedoms
of the press, assembly, and speech. In 2016, the Cuban Committee for Human Rights
and National Reconciliation reported 9,125 arbitrary detentions in the first 10 months
of the year, and there was a crack down on digital media, and the emerging private sector,
by temporarily halting the issuance of business licenses, for new private restaurants in Havana. There have been changes in Cuba in more recent
times including increased engagement with the United States under President Barack Obama. This resulted in relations between the two
nations becoming more relaxed and travel restrictions loosened during Obama’s second term. However in June 2017, President Donald Trump
tightened travel restrictions on Cuba. From our research we found that most of the
experts agree, these five countries are still communist. However, there is clearly divided opinion
on this subject and even within these five countries, there is a lot of deviation from
the original communist economic and social systems that Marx and Engels initially proposed. We often get asked how we make our videos. The short answer is, we use Adobe After Effects
and Adobe Illustrator. But if you want to know how to use this software,
skillshare offers over 20,000 classes, and more than 700 of them are in Animation. You can learn the basics of animating in After
Effects from the friendly folks over at Kurzgesagt. They cover topics such as setting up your
project, positioning, animating, and creating shapes from vector layers. Skillshare is an online learning community
offering classes in leadership, photography, productivity, and more. Premium Membership will give you unlimited
access to topics that will improve your skills, and in the process, your life! The first 1,000 people to use the promo code
infographics16 or to visit the the link in the description will receive 2 months of Skillshare
absolutely free! Join skillshare and start learning today! Will these countries continue operating under
communist ideology or will things change as new ways of living and systems of governance
are adopted? Let us know your thoughts in the comments! Also, be sure to check out our other video
called Top 10 Weakest Militaries in the World! Thanks for watching, and, as always, don’t
forget to like, share, and subscribe. See you next time!

Existentialism: Crash Course Philosophy #16


Crash Course Philosophy is brought to you
by Squarespace. Squarespace: share your passion with the world. What gives your life meaning?
God? Love? Money? Work? Fanfiction? Football? Shopping? Sherlock? You might have your own personal sense of
purpose in your life, or maybe you’re hoping this course will
help you find one. Or you might believe that you were created with a certain essence as a human being, with a purpose given to you by God. Whatever the case is, no one would fault you
for wanting your life to have meaning. A sense of meaning is something that we all
crave – maybe even need. And as we move out of our unit on the philosophy
of religion, we should spend some time talking about how
we understand our lives as being meaningful. Because when you think about it, a lot of us devote a ton of energy to the task of finding meaning in our lives. Maybe you find it through religion, or by
fighting for social justice, or educating others, or seeking beauty in artistic expression. No matter how you do it, there’s a group
of philosophers, the existentialists, who say that any, or all, of these things
can give your life meaning. But at the same time, they say: None of them
can. [Theme Music] As you know by now, philosophy is about the dialectic: Someone puts forth an idea, and then someone else responds to it. Sometimes, the response comes right away.
In other cases, it takes thousands of years. Way back in ancient Greece, Plato and Aristotle
took it as given that everything has an essence – a certain set of core properties that are necessary,
or essential – for a thing to be what it is. If those properties were missing, then that
thing would be a different thing. For instance, a knife could have a wooden
handle or a metal handle – it really doesn’t matter. But if it didn’t have a blade, it wouldn’t
really be a knife anymore. The blade is the essential property of the knife, because it gives the knife its defining function. Now, Plato and Aristotle thought that everything
has an essence – including us. And they believed that our essences exist
in us before we’re even born. So by this thinking, part of what it means
to be a good human is to adhere to your essence. Now, you may or may not know what your essence
is, and you might be great at living up to your
essence, or you may be awful at it. But the important thing is that your essence
gives you a purpose. Because you were born to be a certain thing. This belief, known as essentialism, was the standard view of the universe all the way up until the late 19th century, and it’s still accepted by many people today. But in the late 1800s, some thinkers started to challenge the idea that we are imbued with any essence or purpose. German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, for
example, embraced nihilism, the belief in the ultimate
meaningless of life. But by the mid-20th century, the path had
been paved for French thinker Jean-Paul Sartre to return
to the question of essence and ask: What if we exist first? What if we’re born without any hard-wired purpose? And then it’s up to us to find our own essences? Well this became the framework for what we
now know as existentialism. And its mantra is the claim that “existence
precedes essence.” In other words, our existence – our birth
– happens first. Then, it’s up to each of us to determine
who we are. We have to write our own essence, through
the way we choose to live. But we have no actual, predetermined purpose
– there’s no set path that we’re supposed to follow. It’s hard to express how radical this idea
was at the time. Because, for thousands of years, you didn’t
have to choose a path, or find your purpose. God did it for you. But it’s important to note that existentialism
is not synonymous with atheism. Plenty of existentialists are atheists, but
some are theists, like Kierkegaard. What theistic existentialists deny is any
sort of teleology – that is, they refute the notion that God made the universe, or our world, or us, with any particular purpose in mind. So, God may exist – but instilling you,
or your life, or the cosmos, with meaning – that’s just not in his job description. As a result, we are each born into a universe
in which we, and our world, and our actions, lack any real,
inherent importance. This is a fundamental component of existentialism. And its adherents refer to it as “the absurd.” You and I think of absurdity as something
that’s just silly, or preposterous. But for existentialists, absurdity is a technical
term. It’s how they describe the search for answers
in an answerless world. We are creatures who need meaning, but we’re
abandoned in a universe full of meaninglessness. So we cry into the wilderness, and get no
response. But we keep crying anyway. That, for an existentialist, is the definition
of absurd. Since there’s no teleology, the world wasn’t created for a reason, and it doesn’t exist for a reason. And if there’s no reason for any of this,
then there’s also no absolutes to abide by: There’s no cosmic justice, no fairness,
no order, no rules. Now, existentialism has its roots in late-19th-century
thinkers like Kierkegaard and Nietzsche. But it really came into its own during and
after World War II, as the horrors of the Holocaust led many people
to abandon any belief in an ordered world. And who could blame them? When Nazis became possible, meaning became
much harder to find. But Sartre faced meaninglessness head-on, and explored one of the most agonizing aspects of existentialism. Not the world’s lack of meaning.
But its terrifying abundance of freedom. To most of us, freedom sounds pretty great. But Sartre thought that we are painfully, shockingly free. After all, if there are no guidelines for
our actions, then each of us is forced to design our own
moral code, to invent a morality to live by. Sartre took this to mean that we are “condemned
to be free,” a fate that he found to be quite awful. You might think that there’s some authority
you could look to for answers, Sartre said, but all of the authorities you can think of
are fake. You can do what your parents say, or your
church, or your government, but Sartre said those authorities are really
just people like you, people who don’t have any answers, people who had to figure out for themselves how to live. So the best thing you can really do, he determined,
is to live authentically. Sartre used this to mean that you have to accept the full weight of your freedom in light of the absurd. You have to recognize that any meaning your
life has, is given to it by you. And if you decide to just phone it in, and
follow a path that someone else has set – whether it’s your teachers, your government,
or your religion – then you have what he called bad faith, a
refusal to accept the absurd. If you live by bad faith, you’re burying
your head in the sand and pretending that something out there has
meaning – meaning that you didn’t give it. Which brings us to this week’s Flash Philosophy.
Let’s go to the Thought Bubble. Sartre explained these ideas through an anecdote about one of his students, who faced a difficult decision. This young man was at a crossroads in his
life. He could join the military during wartime, and go off to fight for a cause that he believed in. And he wanted to do this.
He thought it was right. But he also had an elderly mother who was
all alone, except for him. If he went to war, he’d leave her behind.
And that seemed wrong. So he could stay with her, and let others
fight for justice. Or he could go off to war, and leave his mother to herself, and likely
never see her again. The young man felt a sense of duty to both his cause and to his mother, but he could only serve one. Moreover, if he went to war, he’d be just
a very small part of a really big cause. His contribution probably wouldn’t be great, but he would be contributing to something
that would affect millions of people. But if he stayed behind, he’d make an enormous
difference in just one person’s life. Thanks Thought Bubble. So, what’s the answer? Sartre said that the whole point of this young man’s decision was that no one could give him an answer. In fact, there was no answer, until the man
chose one for himself. No moral theory could help him decide, because no one else’s advice could lead
him to a decision that was truly authentic. So his choice – no matter what it was – was the only true choice, provided that he made it authentically, because it was determined by the values he
chose to accept. A lot of people think existentialism paints
a pretty bleak picture of the world. In fact, the French philosopher and novelist
Albert Camus went so far as to say that the literal meaning of life is whatever you’re
doing that prevents you from killing yourself. But most existentialists would remind you
that the world, and your life, can have meaning, but only if you choose to assign it. If the world is inherently devoid of purpose, you can choose to imbue it with whatever purpose you want. So, no one can tell you if your life isn’t
worth anything if you, say, don’t have children, or don’t follow a lucrative career path, or achieve whatever standards your parents hold you to. And this works not just on an individual scale,
but on a global one too. If the world is going to have any of the things
most of us value – like justice and order –
we’re going to have to put it there ourselves. Because, otherwise, those things wouldn’t
exist. So, a worldview that looks bleak to some,
may to others seem almost exhilarating. Today I hope you enjoyed as much as I did learning about essentialism and its response: existentialism. We talked about Jean-Paul Sartre and his ideas about how to find meaning in a meaningless world. This episode is brought to you by Squarespace. Squarespace helps to create websites, blogs
or online stores for you and your ideas. Websites look professionally designed regardless
of skill level, no coding required. Try Squarespace at squarespace.com/crashcourse
for a special offer. Squarespace: share your passion with the world. Crash Course Philosophy is produced in association
with PBS Digital Studios. You can head over to their channel to check
out amazing shows like The Chatterbox, PBS SpaceTime and PBS Idea
Channel This episode of Crash Course was filmed in
the Doctor Cheryl C. Kinney Crash Course Studio with the help of these awesome people and our equally fantastic graphics team is Thought Cafe.

Why the IPCC Report is so Scary


this episode is made possible by simple contacts visit the link below to save 20 bucks on your first order for the last few decades the threat of human-caused climate change has been heavily studied and reported the scientific consensus is now clear and we’ve seen a shift away from why is this happening – when will the worst happen and finally now – how exactly will this happen we know massive potentially catastrophic changes are just around the corner and the scientific community has shifted its attention from whether humans are exacerbating climate change – exactly what kinds of disasters to expect in this episode we’re going to take a look at the recent IPCC climate report and breakdown what changes we can expect to see in the near future and beyond before we go any further we need to establish a baseline for understanding there will be climate change deniers in the comments there always are but these people are a very vocal minority there is no longer any doubt that human activity has drastically affected the rate of climate change and we have mountains of peer-reviewed evidence to prove it if you’re one of the people who believes climate change is a hoax just consider who would benefit from you believing that lie fossil fuel advocates special interest groups and members of the current US and foreign governments who are heavily dependent on the fossil fuel industry for donations they are selling your future and your children’s future for a quick buck look at the evidence do your research this shouldn’t be controversial every single person on earth regardless of political leaning or beliefs would benefit from the actions recommended by the IPCC report with that out of the way let’s look at the report in question first of all what is the IPCC the IPCC is the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change founded in 1988 the IPCC is an intergovernmental body of the United Nations tasked with providing the world with an objective scientific view of climate change and its various impacts one thing to understand about the IPCC is that it doesn’t conduct climate studies itself rather it assesses published works from thousands of individuals and groups worldwide these thousands of scientists contribute to the body of data on a voluntary basis meaning none of them receive payments from any outside special interest group when the IPCC is ready to issue a report which includes a summary for global policymakers the document is subject to align byline approval by delegates from each participating government usually including the governments of more than a hundred and twenty countries the IPCC is the internationally accepted authority on climate change and its reports have the agreement of leading climate scientists and each participating government so in short when the IPCC issues a report the world knows it’s the real deal that brings us to the 2018 report you can find a link to the full document in the description below it’s full title is really long so for the sake of brevity we’ll refer to it as SR 15 or the report the document itself is massive the technical summary alone is 25 pages long the entire thing cites 6,000 scientific reports the summary for policymakers is much more palatable at just over 30 pages long in it we get what’s essentially a sparknotes version of perhaps the diarist warning the world has ever received in short we have 12 years to drastically change the course of our future we’ve already passed the point of no return to keep global temperatures below around 1 degrees Celsius warmer than pre-industrial levels the race now is to keep it from exceeding 1.5 even half a degrees difference could make for catastrophic changes around the world this is the part where people usually get confused what difference does one and a half degrees make I get it I live in Texas where it can be 40 degrees in the morning and 85 by noon but consider places where the temperature is more or less stable take the Arctic or Greenland for example Greenland is covered by a massive ice sheet that’s kilometers thick in some places in the summer much of this ice is just barely staying frozen and some places have even started melting now crank up the temperature a couple degrees Celsius if that’s enough to start a runaway melt and the entire ice sheet melted the sea level on average would rise by seven meters imagine your favorite beach underwater coastal property destroyed entire islands and huge amounts of coastline submerged and the millions of inhabitants forced to move elsewhere you think your country has an immigrant problem now just wait until entire island nations are destroyed by the rising seas and don’t think the United States is exempt from these effects Florida is particularly susceptible to even a small increase in sea level besides a third of the state potentially going under all of its barrier islands would be well below sea level with them goes any protection from hurricanes and already hard-hit state would become ground zero of increasingly powerful hurricanes but this is all speculation right no one knows for sure just how many Floridians will be going for a dip in the near future well SR 15 has some hard numbers for us the disparity and negative impacts between 1.5 degrees of warming and 2 degrees is truly shocking at 1.5 degrees 6% of insects 8% of plants and 4% of vertebrates will lose over half of their natural Geographic range at 2 degrees those numbers increase to 18% of insects 16% of plants and 8% of vertebrates 1.5 degrees is projected to destroy 90% of what remains of the world’s coral reefs 2 degrees is expected to wipe them out entirely completely destroying one of the oceans richest ecosystems at 1.5 degrees of warming we can expect to see a completely ice-free Arctic summer once every century at 2 degrees once every decade global annual catch rate for marine fisheries will drop by 1.5 million tonnes at 1.5 degrees and by 3 million tons at 2 degrees these figures go on and on and each one could potentially trigger an avalanche of other negative effects and we haven’t even looked at the consequences for human life it shouldn’t be a surprise that the populations that will suffer the most will be the poorer and less developed countries and those in fragile ecosystems such as an agricultural or coastal areas if we could limit the maximum global temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius it would drastically reduce the number of people thrust into poverty and heightened risk of climatic events by up to several hundred million by 2050 the fallout of an increase of two degrees for Humanity sounds truly biblical a massive increase in vector borne illnesses like malaria along with an expansion of their geographical range ozone depletion a drastic increase in heat related mortality huge reductions in crop yields including maize rice wheat and other cereal crops as well as a reduction in nutritional quality drought and famine flooding and extreme weather and a stagnation of economic growth to name a few this is all very scary stuff and it should be we’ve managed to ignore the science for decades and now it’s time to pay the price thankfully humans are very good at adapting and solving problems especially if they’re problems we created our cell we will have to deal with the long-term effects of the temperature increase we’ve already locked in but we can and should do something to mitigate any further risk the report lists a number of adaptation options for the regions who should expect serious challenges the soonest including coastal defences sustainable aquaculture and ecosystem restoration but the truth of the matter is that we’re largely at the mercy of world governments sure we can stop eating meat drive electric cars and use less water at home but even if every single individual did their part it’s still only a tiny step in the right direction just 100 companies are responsible for 71 percent of the entire world’s carbon emissions and just 25 of those 100 are responsible for half as long as those companies are allowed to keep doing what they’re doing we’re screwed end of story we could be optimistic and say well now that we have this report world governments will obviously implement the necessary restrictions maybe in some countries but if we’ve learned anything from the u.s. in the last two years it’s that enough people in positions of power either don’t believe in science or don’t care about the future of their nation in the world that we’ve gone in the opposite direction legislation designed to protect the environment has been rolled back or repealed entirely and individuals in the pocket of the fossil fuel industry are at the reins of the very groups that could enact positive change and stop this downward spiral but say by some miracle the world comes to an agreement that we’re going to meet the challenge to keep temperature rise below two degrees Celsius what would that require in short the single most monumental shift in energy public policy personal lifestyle and consumption habits in history we would need to transition to 100 percent renewable energy stop using fossil fuels for transportation that means stopping production of traditional gasoline-powered cars ships trains and airplanes stop cutting down trees and start planting them by the thousands stop factory farming and at least drastically reduced the world’s meat intake and hopefully transition entirely to lab-grown meat or other alternatives if this sounds impossible and unlikely well that’s because we’ve never done anything of this scale before but it has to be done any of these steps on its own is a good thing but it won’t be enough this is not something to be put off for another decade or even another year we as citizens of the world need to start putting real pressure on our governments now to get the ball rolling if we don’t speak up they likely won’t act against their corporate overlords we all have to do our part by voting for candidates who support green energy goals and sustainability and acknowledge the threat climate change poses to all of us we have to educate friends and family who might not understand what’s at stake if we all work hard and do the right thing we can make the world a safe place for future generations it’s easy to see that climate change is a real challenge but if you’re like me it’s hard to see anything without your contacts if you wear contacts and find yourself dreading that annual appointment to renew your prescription then you’re going to love simple contacts it’s a great new company that makes this annoying process simple simple contacts lets you renew your expired contact lens prescription and reorder your brand of lenses from your phone or computer in minutes simple contacts brings the doctor’s office to you whenever you need it you can take their vision test online in five minutes a real doctor reviews it and if your vision hasn’t changed renews your prescription you 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Every State in the US


This is “Every State in the US” by Wendover
Productions and made possible by The Great Courses Plus. We’ll start with Alabama, the first state
alphabetically. Magnolia Springs, Alabama is the only town
in America to have their mail delivered by boat, although the longest mail delivery route
in America is in rural Oklahoma where delivery drivers have to drive 187.6 miles each day
to delivery the mail to around 200 houses. Oklahoma’s state vegetable is the watermelon,
which happens to be a fruit, and Oklahoma is also home to Kansas, the town. The real Kansas, or more specifically this
point, is the geographic center of the contiguous United States. What Kansas is not home to is Kansas City
which counterintuitively is in Missouri where the population center of the US is—the average
location of every American. Missouri borders eight states, and is therefore
tied with Tennessee as the state that borders the most other states. Tennessee was a southern state that seceded
from the United States and joined the confederacy in the lead up to the Civil War except for
Scott County which seceded from Tennessee and formed an unrecognized independent state. Scott County didn’t actually officially
rejoin Tennessee until 1986. Tennessee’s western border was originally
defined by the course of the Mississippi River which has since changed course which has led
to all these enclaves and exclaves of the two states on the two sides of the river. The Arkansas River, a major tributary of the
Mississippi, begins all the way in Colorado, where nobody’s entirely sure which mountain
is the tallest, Mount Elbert or Mount Massive, since their heights are within 10 feet of
each other and people keep building piles of rocks on the summits to make one mountain
taller than the other. Colorado is also home to the America’s longest
continuous street —Colfax Avenue in Denver at 26 miles long, but the shortest individually
named street in America is reportedly McKinley street in Bellefontiane Ohio at a mere 28
feet long. Ohio’s northernmost point is actually south
of Canada’s southernmost point—Pelee island. Pelee island, Canada, in fact, is farther
south than parts of 27 states including California which as a state has a higher population than
the entire country of Canada. Los Angeles, California, despite being on
the Pacific ocean, is east of six state capitals including Reno, Nevada. Nevada has the point in the entire United
States where you’re farthest from a McDonalds—only 116 miles—although Nevada is not the state
with the fewest McDonalds. That title goes to the state with 29 McDonalds,
North Dakota, which according to some legal experts wasn’t technically a state until
2012 since their constitution was missing this sentence which meant it didn’t fulfill
the federal requirements for statehood. Despite having the fewest McDonalds, North
Dakota is not America’s least populated state. That’s Wyoming which has two sets of escalators
in the entire state. Wyoming is well known for hosting Yellowstone
National Park, although a bit of it spills over into Idaho, though in this section you
can get away with murder. You see, with the sixth amendment, if you’re
placed on trial its required that you are judged by a jury of your peers which means
individuals from the same state and federal district as where the crime was committed. Yellowstone is its own Federal district meaning
you’d need residents from Yellowstone to be on the jury although if you were in the
Idaho part you’d need Yellowstone residents from Idaho to be on the Jury… except this
50 square mile section is entirely uninhabited, so they wouldn’t be able to form a jury
which means you’d walk free. There’s also one single road connecting
the entire southern section of Idaho to the northern section. Idaho, with its fairly low population, has
one single telephone area code for the whole state, just like neighboring Montana. Montana is home to the least busy commercial
airport in the US—Dawson Community Airport—at 4,000 passengers per year or about 11 per
day. Missoula Montana is also home to the warehouse
of DFTBA where you can buy one of these—a Wendover Productions t-shirt—for only $20. The link is in the description. The busiest airport in America is Atlanta’s
at 49 million passengers per year or 135,000 per day. Peachtree, a suburb of Atlanta, is a community
that has 90 miles of golf-cart specific roads adjacent to its normal roads since 9,000 families
here have golf carts as their second cars. Kids are even encouraged to drive to school
from the age of 12 in their golf carts. Georgia, or more specifically Springer Mountain,
Georgia is the start of the 2,200 mile long Appalachian Trail which is a hiking trail
that terminates way up at Mount Katahdin, Maine. Maine is the only state in the United States
to only border one other state and its also the closest state to Africa—seriously, its
closer than Florida. The second closest state to Africa is Massachusetts
or more specifically Cape Cod, Massachusetts which is technically an island since a man-made
canal separates it from the mainland. Massachusetts is actually farther from Miami
than Panama City is, and Miami is closer to the country capitals of Nassau Bahamas and
Havana Cuba than to its own state capital—Tallahassee. Florida has the lowest highest point of any
state—312 feet—23 times lower than South Dakota’s highest point. South Dakota is home to the geographic center
of the entire United States including Alaska and Hawaii and it was made a state a mere
nine days before Washington, which was called Columbia before it became a state. Its name was changed as to not confuse it
with the District of Columbia but obviously that didn’t work out since DC’s city ended
up also being called Washington. Washington Place is the official residence
of Hawaii’s governor and Hawaii was given its own unique currency during WWII that was
its only legal tender so that, in case the Japanese successfully invaded Hawaii, the
federal government could declare all of Hawaii’s currency worthless to prevent the Japanese
from using it. The closest state to Hawaii is Alaska whose
capital, Juneau, has no roads connecting it with the rest of Alaska or North America meaning
you can’t drive in or out. Alaska is also one of the four states that
completely bans outdoor billboards along with Hawaii, Maine, and Vermont whose tallest building
is only 11 stories tall. That’s the shortest tallest building of
any state. The tallest building in the states is Freedom
Tower in New York. New York is home to Ellis Island, or at least
this part of it. Their territory is completely surrounded by
New Jersey, similar to Liberty Island—home to the Statue of Liberty—which is completely
surrounded by New Jersey Waters which means you need to travel through New Jersey to get
from New York to New York. Clinton Road in West Milford, New Jersey has
America’s longest red light—a full five minute wait. New Jersey actually goes surprisingly far
south[(still view of Kentucky’s —farther south than Kentucky’s northernmost point.] In its south-west corner, Kentucky has a rather
large piece of territory thats not actually connected to the rest of Kentucky. Kentucky was the birthplace of Lincoln who
was later elected to the Illinois House of Representatives and in Illinois is the original
burger king, but its not the burger king you’re thinking of. This burger king existed before this burger
king and therefore sued burger king when they came to Illinois for trademark infringement
and won, so now no burger king is allowed to operate within a 20 mile radius of this
original burger king. Chicago, Illinois, America’s 3rd largest
city, is just a tad larger than the forth largest city—Houston, Texas and Texas is
so enormous that El Paso, Texas is closer to Los Angeles than it is to Houston, Texas. Texas’ northernmost point is also closer
to Michigan than it is to its southernmost point. From Detroit, Michigan, you actually end up
in Canada if you travel due south and Michigan is also the only state to be made of two entirely
separated sections. Michigan’s Highway 185 is actually a bike
path making it the only official highway in America where cars are banned. Michigan’s upper peninsula is only connected
by land to Wisconsin which is home to the Green Bay Packers—a team so popular that
the waiting list for season tickets is 30 years long. It’s so long that its common for parents
to put their kids name on the list as soon as they’re born. In Watertown, Wisconsin is Utah street, but
the real Utah has the longest section of Interstate in the US with no gas stations—106 miles
on I-70. I-70 ends over 2,000 miles away in Baltimore,
Maryland and the entire state of Maryland has zero natural lakes. It also has this panhandle that reaches a
minimum width of 1.8 miles before expanding back out to 30 miles width out near West Virginia
which is definitively a southern state but also has a panhandle that reaches as far north
as New York City and Nebraska. Monowi, Nebraska is the only incorporated
municipality in the United States that have a population of one. The one resident, Elsie Eiler, is mayor and
runs the library and tavern which is granted a liquor license each year by Elsie herself. Tortilla Flat, Arizona is six times larger
than Monowi since it has six residents and Arizona also has 1/4 of the four corners monument—the
only point where four states meet in the US—Arizona, Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico which as a
state, by law, still recognizes Pluto as a planet. New Mexico is typically the last state to
vote in presidential primaries whereas Iowa is usually the first. Iowa is the only state in the US whose eastern
and western borders are both water—in this case rivers. The eastern border is the Mississippi river,
which happens to be the namesake for Mississippi. The Mississippi river also flowed backwards
for a full 24 hours in 2012 during Hurricane Isaac but the Mississippi doesn’t actually
reach the ocean in Mississippi. It does so in Louisiana—home to the longest
bridge over water in the world at 24 miles. That’s so long that for eight of those miles,
you can’t even see land on either side. One of the other longest bridges in the US
is in North Carolina—the the Virginia Dare Memorial Bridge which carries cars out to
Kitty Hawk where the Wright Brothers successfully flew a heavier than air aircraft for the first
time in history. It was a 12 second, 120 foot flight—thats
shorter than the wingspan of a Boeing 747. North Carolina’s southern neighbor is South
Carolina although South Carolina isn’t all that south since more than half of it is north
of North Carolina’s southernmost point and South Carolina also has a town called North
making it North, South Carolina. South Carolina was the site of the first civil
war battle and the civil war ended up having a total of one battle over in Indiana where
the Indy 500 speedway is which is so enormous that you could comfortably fit the entire
country of the vatican inside it. It can also fit 400,000 people which is the
highest capacity of any sports arena in the world. Indiana’s state beverage is water, while
Oregon’s is milk. Portland, Oregon is home to the world’s
smallest park according to the Guinness world records book—mill end park. Oregon is also one of the few states to not
have a sales tax along with New Hampshire—the only state to have no law requiring adults
to wear seat belts. Connecticut Lake, in New Hampshire, is the
source of the Connecticut River which is what Connecticut the state is named after. Hartford, Connecticut’s airport, at less than
3 million passengers per year, is the smallest airport in the US to have a direct flight
to Europe. Delaware, on the other hand, certainly doesn’t
have a direct flight to Europe since its the only state that you can’t fly to. There’s not one commercial flight in or
out of this tiny state. It’s the second smallest state behind Rhode
Island which is so small that the entire state grows by 3% during low tide. Rhode Island’s second largest city, Warwick,
shares its name with Warwick Pennsylvania and in Pennsylvania is Centralia where the
ground has been on fire since 1962 due to a coal mine fire and its expected to burn
for over 200 years. Pennsylvania borders Minnesota, well not really,
but Pennsylvania Avenue does intersect Minnesota Avenue in DC, and Minnesota is home to the
northernmost point in the lower 48. You see, most of the US-Canada border is defined
by the 49th parallel but a surveying error led to this. The couple hundred residents of this area,
called the Northwest angle, are completely cut off from the US and need to pass into
Canada then back into the United states to go to school. Also in northern Minnesota is Virginia, the
town, but Virginia, the state is massive. So massive that Ewing, Virigina, is closer
to eight other state capitals than it is to its own state capital, Richmond. Alexandria, Virginia is actually closer to
Toronto, Canada than it is to Ewing, Virginia. Virginia also happens to go farther west than
west Virginia. Virginia is also home to this place, the headquarters
of the Teaching Company who run the Great Courses Plus. And with that super smooth transition I do
have to thank the Great Courses Plus for sponsoring this video. The Great Courses Plus is a subscription video
on-demand learning service where you can watch top-notch lectures from experts from Ivy League
Universities, National Geographic, the Smithsonian, the Culinary Institute of America and more
well-known institutions. They have a library of over 7,000 lectures
about pretty much anything and everything—you can learn how to cook, how to play chess,
become a better photographer—pretty much anything you want to learn, they have a lecture
on it. I personally really enjoyed a course by National
Geographic called National Geographic Polar Explorations which teaches all about the science,
history, and culture of the polar regions. If you want to learn about this or any of
the hundreds of other topics they have, you can do so for free for a month by signing
up at theGreatCoursesPlus.com/Wendover. A clickable link is also in the description. After that completely free first month, plans
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