Why Doesn’t the U.S. Have a Multi-Party Political System? | Sean Wilentz


The two party system is inevitable in America. The framers designed a constitution that they
thought would be without political parties. They didn’t like political parties. They thought political parties were divisive. They thought political parties would ruin
the commonwealth as they saw it. They didn’t like them, and yet they designed
a system in which parties very quickly arose and we’re never going to go away. And the reason is simple that in a country
as large, as diverse with so many clashing interests as the United States it’s going
to become necessary to find a focus, to find a focus for your political actions. Parties have become that focus. They very quickly became that focus. Now, the question is why don’t we have a multiparty
system? Why aren’t we more like Italy say or even
France or a European parliamentary system? Well that’s the answer is that we’re not a
parliamentary system. Because we have a system that we do and because
it’s based on the idea of first past the post, in other words the person who gets the most
amount of votes will win the election, they’re not going to have proportional representation. If you get ten percent of the votes you’re
not going to get ten percent of the power you’re going to get nothing. On that account then the pressure is very,
very strong for there to be eventually a two party system. Third parties can come in and they can have
a tremendous amount of influence in shaping the major parties, but as a great historian
once said third parties are like bees, they sting and then they die. So they make their sting, but because a third-party
will always almost inevitably help the party they’re most unlike, as you saw with say the
Nader campaign in 2000 who got elected, they have their effect but then they very quickly
disappear. So I think the two parties, it’s not so much
that I have some metaphysical or ontological love for two parties as a thing, it’s rather
that’s the way the American constitutional system works. Now, if you change the constitutional system,
of course, that would change as well, but it’s embedded in the way that our government
was set up in 1787/’88 and it continues that way to this day.

Hillary Clinton: Between Two Ferns With Zach Galifianakis


[ theme music ] Where is he?
Wh-Where’s Zach? [ZACH] I was just
trying to scare her. I was just– Like in the…
Halloween spirit of it all. Not a good idea around
the Secret Service. – Are you okay?
– I’m fine. I’m fine.
Let’s start. Hi, welcome to another
edition of Between Two Ferns. I’m your– your host Zach Galifianakis,
and my guest today is Hillary… Clinton. Thank you very much
Mrs. Clinton for being here. Critics have questioned
some of your decision making recently, and by you doing this show
I hope it finally lays that to rest. Oh, I think it–
it absolutely proves their case.
Don’t you? Are you excited to be
the first girl President? Well, I mean being President
would be such an extraordinary honor, and responsibility,
but being the first women elected President and what that
would mean for our country, and particularly what
that would mean for, you know, not just little girls,
little boys too. – That’s pretty special.
– Mmhmm. Not to take away from the historic
significance of you perhaps becoming the first female President,
but for a younger, younger generation, you will also become their
first white President, and that’s pretty neat too. As Secretary, how many words
per minute could you type? And how does
President Obama like his coffee? Like himself? Weak? You know Zach, those are
really out of date questions. I… You need to
get out more. What happens if you
become pregnant? Are we going to be stuck
with Tim Kaine for 9 months? How does this work? I could send you some pamphlets
that might help you understand– First you supported Obama’s
Trans Pacific Partnership deal,
and then you were against it. I think that people deserve to know,
are you down with TPP? Uh… I’m not
down with TPP. No, you’re supposed to say,
“Yeah, you know me.” – Like the hip-hop group–
– Don’t tell me what to say. Fine, lose.
[softly] The country goes to shit. – Let’s talk about Trump, um–
– Oh, let’s. When you see how well it works for
Donald Trump, do you ever think to yourself, “Oh, maybe I should
be more racist?” When he’s elected President,
and Kid Rock becomes
Secretary of State, are you going to move to
Canada or one of the Arctics? I would stay in
the United States. – And what would you try to–
– I would try to prevent him destroying the
United States. So you’re going to
lead the Civil War? No. I wouldn’t–
I wouldn’t take up arms. I-I think that might
be a little extreme. Oh right, because you were saying
before we were rolling that you wanted to take away
everyone’s guns. Very cool.
Cool, cool, cool. I really regret
doing this. Any regrets over losing
the Scott Baio vote? Not a one. – So it wasn’t heartbreaking that–
– No. Yeah, but Chachi.
I mean who’s going to be next? Max Headroom? I’d love to meet the person
who makes your pants suits. Oh really. Yeah, because for Halloween,
I wanted to go as a librarian
from outer space. I think that would be
a good look on you. Have you thought about what you’re
going to be wearing at the debates? You know, there’s this thing called
the double standard, and so, I think about, well, what should the first woman nominee
of one of our two major parties wear to the debate,
and I have no idea, so if you’ve got suggestions
I’m open to them. Do you wonder what your
opponent might be wearing?
I mean– I-I assume he’ll wear, you know,
that red power tie. Or maybe like a
white power tie. That’s even more
appropriate. When you went to Donald Trump’s wedding,
did he write his own vows? And did Michelle Obama
write Melania’s? Um, I… really couldn’t see or hear very well.
So I’m not quite sure what his vows were, but I’m sure they were great
and huge and wonderful. Like his bowels. [ she chuckles ] Chelsea, your daughter, and Ivanka Trump,
Trump’s daughter, are friends– does Ivanka ever call Chelsea,
you know, to talk about boys that
might have crushers on her, like her dad? I don’t think so. What’s going to be the number
one focus of your Presidency? Oh Zach, it has to be the economy.
We need more good jobs
with rising incomes. We gotta make the economy
work for everybody, – not just those at the top–
– We need to take a… We need to take a break. We just need to have a
word from our sponsor. Okay. Washington is broken. The truth is too many politicians
are totally controlled by special
interests and lobbyist. We’re going to make
America great again. [DONALD in voiceover]
I’m Donald Trump,
and I approve this message. He approves the message. Wh-Why would you
play a commercial from my opponent in the
middle of our interview? He paid me in steaks. I would be afraid to
eat them if I were you. It’s a good cut of meat.
I think it’s part of the [bleep] hole. Well, this has been a lot
of fun Mrs. Clinton. We should stay in touch.
What’s the best way to reach you? Email? [voice from device]
You got mail! [ theme music ]

Ted Cruz rips Democratic debate: ‘The clown car is broken’


SAD KICKOFF RALLY IS ANY INDICATION, VOTERS ARE NOT EXCITED. I DON’T SEE EXCITEMENT FOR ANY OF THESE CANDIDATES. JOINING IS NOW, SENATOR TED CRUZ FROM THE GREAT STATE OF TEXAS. SENATOR, HOW ARE YOU?>>BE WITH YOU.>>Sean: I WATCH AND I WATCH CLOSELY AND I PLAY VERY CLOSE ATTENTION, IT’S NOT EVERY SECOND, MINUTE, HOUR OF EVERY DAY HATING DONALD TRUMP, THEN IS THE NEW GREENDALE, THEN IT’S SOCIALISM AT A LEVEL WE HAVE NEVER SEEN BEFORE WITH A PROTECTABLE RESULT, CORRECT?>>THE DEBATE LAST NIGHT –>>Sean: TAKE A SIP OF WATER. IT HAPPENS, DON’T WORRY ABOUT IT, SENATOR. IT’S OKAY. BUT THE DEMOCRATS SEEM TO HAVE A FEW AGENDA ITEMS, EATING DRUM, NEW GREENDALE.>>THE DEBATE LAST NIGHT, THE CLOWN CAR HAS BROKEN. THERE IS NO BREAK AND IT ONLY STEERS. IT WAS SCARY LAST NIGHT. IT WAS SCARY TO SEE THE DEMOCRATS FALLING ALL OVER EACH OTHER TO GET FURTHER AND FURTHER AND FURTHER LEFT. THE DEMOCRATS, YOU JUST WENT THROUGH THEIR MONOLOG POWERFULLY. YOU SAW THEM EMBRACE LATE-TERM ABORTIONS, HE SAW THEM EMBRACE 70% TAX RATE, SOCIALISM, THEY WANT TO TAKE AWAY EVERYONE’S HEALTH INSURANCE. AND YOU SAW THEM EMBRACE OPEN BORDERS. ONE OF THE MOST DISTURBING EXCHANGES WAS WHEN THE SOME OF THOSE CANDIDATES BEGAN SAYING THEY WANTED TO ELIMINATE THE PROVISION AND LAW THAT MAKES IT ILLEGAL TO CROSS THE BORDER. MAKES IT A CRIME TO CROSS THE BORDER ILLEGALLY. AS YOU KNOW, LAST MONTH, WE APPREHENDED 144,000 PEOPLE IN THE MONTH OF MAY CROSSING ILLEGALLY. THE DEMOCRATIC SOLUTION IS LET’S NOT MAKE IT A CRIME. THERE YOU GO, THE PROBLEM GOES AWAY. THAT IS OPEN BORDERS, IT IS A RESPONSIBLE, AND IT IS SADLY WHERE THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY IS TODAY.>>Sean: HOW DID WE GO FROM SUPPORTING OBAMA’S POSITION TO ITS IMMORAL, THE GUY YOU KNEW, ROBERT FRANCIS, BOZO, BETO, WHATEVER IT IS, HE IS SAYING TEAR DOWN THE WALLS, BUT 90% OF AMERICA’S HEROIN COMES ACROSS THE BORDER, WE ARE LOSING 300 PEOPLE A WEEK IN THE OPIOID CRISIS, THEN SENTINEL, ADD THAT TO THE MIX. I’VE INTERVIEWED THESE BORDER AGENTS WHO HAVE SPENT OVER A DECADE TALKING ABOUT CHILDREN, YOUNG GIRLS BEING TRAFFIC FOR PROSTITUTION.>>WE HAVE BOTH BEEN BACK TO THE BORDER TO REALLY TRY TO HIGHLIGHT THE CRISIS WE ARE HAVING THERE. WE SAW SOME POSITIVE DEVELOPMENT TODAY CONGRESS FINALLY PASSED WHAT THE PRESIDENT ASKED FOR, THAT INCLUDES OVER A BILLION DOLLARS FOR BORDER CONTROL, A TRILLION DOLLARS FOR I.C.E. THAT IS GOOD BUT HERE IS THE BAD NEWS, THE DEMOCRATS IN CONGRESS REFUSED TO CLOSE THE LOOPHOLES CAUSING THIS CRISIS. THEY REFUSED TO DO ANYTHING TO FIX THE CRISIS AND I WILL TELL YOU ONE OF THE MOST DISTURBING REPORTS I AM GETTING, I AM GETTING MORE AND MORE REPORTS FO GETTING MORE AND MORE REPORTS FM GETTING MORE AND MORE REPORTS FL GETTING MORE AND MORE REPORTS FW GETTING MORE AND MORE REPORTS FE GETTING MORE AND MORE REPORTS FF GETTING MORE AND MORE REPORTS FR GETTING MORE AND MORE REPORTS FE GETTING MORE AND MORE REPORTS FT GETTING MORE AND MORE REPORTS FO GETTING MORE AND MORE REPORTS FF CARTELS AND TRAFFICKERS RENTING CHILDREN. BECAUSE IDIOTIC POLICY THAT THE DEMOCRATS HAVE PUT IN PLACE IS THAT IF SOMEONE SHOWS UP WITH A CHILD, THAT THEY ARE ALLOWED TO STAY AND GO FREE, AND AS A RESULT, YOU ARE SEEING LITTLE CHILDREN WHO ARE SUDDENLY FINDING MORE AND MORE INSTANCES OF CHILDREN WITH ADULTS WHO ARE NOW THEIR FAMILY, THAT ARE STRANGERS TO THEM, BUT THE CHILD IS ESSENTIALLY THERE GET OUT OF JAIL FREE CARD. THAT IS CRUEL TO INCENTIVIZE KIDS BEING ABUSED LIKE THAT AND THE DEMOCRATS ON THAT STAGE, THE DEMOCRATS ON THE STAGE RIGHT NOW, NOT A SINGLE ONE OF THEM IS WILLING TO DO ANYTHING TO FIX I IT.>>Sean: OPEN BORDERS AND AMNESTY IS A BIG PART OF THEIR AGENDA, I DON’T EVEN THINK THERE ARE ANY RESTRICTIONS ON ABORTIONS. THEY MAKE IT INTO WHAT HAPPENED IN VIRGINIA AND ALL THESE OTHER STATES WHERE WE TALK ABOUT DURING THE FOURTH — IT’S NOT ABORTION, IT’S INFANTICIDE. POST BIRTH INFANTICIDE. THEN WE’VE GOT A 70% TOP MARGINAL TAX RATE FOR INDIVIDUALS. 90% FOR CORPORATIONS. HOW MANY PEOPLE’S TAXES IN TERMS OF GETTING POPULATION, IT WASN’T A CLOSE TO 400,000 IN THE LAST YEAR OR TWO?>>WE GET OVER 1,000 PEOPLE A DAY MOVE INTO THE STATE OF TEXAS. WHY QUESTION RIGHT BECAUSE THAT’S WHERE THE JOBS ARE. THEY ARE FLEEING STATES LIKE CALIFORNIA AND NEW YORK.>>Sean: WAIT A MINUTE, MIKE HUCKABEE SAT ON THE SHOW THE OTHER DAY, IF YOU ARE TAKING A U-HAUL FROM CALIFORNIA TO TEXAS IT’S ABOUT $1600. I HAVE NOT HEARD THIS. BUT IF YOU ARE RETURNING, YOU’RE BASICALLY DOING U-HAUL A FAVOR, IT’S $400 BUT IT IS PROBABLY NEGOTIABLE. THEY MIGHT GIVE IT TO YOU FOR $100. A SPIGOT THAT IS EXACTLY RIGHT, FOR A LONG TIME , THE PRICE DIFFERENTIAL, GOING TO CALIFORNIA VERSUS GOING TO TEXAS IS ABOUT 300% PRICE DIFFERENTIAL IN U-HAUL, THAT IS BEEN TRUE FOR YEARS BECAUSE EVERYONE IS FLEEING THE SINKING SHIP, AS YOU HAVE THE CRAZY LEFT JACKING UP TAXES, JACKING UP REGULATIONS. AND WELCOMING PEOPLE COMING ILLEGALLY. AND THE JOB PRODUCERS, THE SMALL BUSINESS OWNERS ARE FLEEING THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA, AND IN TEXAS — I’LL TELL YOU SOMETHING INTERESTING, THE STORY CAME AT A COUPLE MONTHS AGO. YOU KNOW WHAT THE NUMBER ONE CITY IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA FOR MILLENNIALS MOVING INTO HIS? MY HOMETOWN OF HOUSTON. THEY ARE MOVING TO THE MOST DIVERSITY IN AMERICA, WHY? BECAUSE OF THE JOBS. THERE ARE JOBS IN THE WAGES ARE GOING UP AND YOU HAVE OPPORTUNITY BECAUSE THE GOVERNMENT DOESN’T PUT THEIR BOOT ON THE BACK OF THE NECKS OF SMALL BUSINESSES.>>Sean: IT’S INTERESTING, BILL MAHER, I DON’T LIKE HIM BUT HE SOMETIMES MAKES SOME VERY HONEST STATEMENTS. HE SAID NOT A GOOD START BECAUSE THEY DIDN’T ANSWER THE FIRST QUESTION. 70% OF AMERICANS — WE NOW HAVE THE BEST EMPLOYMENT SITUATION IN AMERICA SINCE 1969. PRINCIPAL, BY THE WAY, THAT YOU HAVE SUPPORTED YOUR ENTIRE CAREER, CUTTING TAXES, WE ARE NOW ENERGY DEPENDENT FOR THE FIRST TIME IN 75 YEARS. AT THE NEW GREENDALE SAYS NO OIL, NO GAS IN TEN YEARS. BY THE WAY, MANY OF THEM ARE BUYING INTO THIS INSANITY, THE NEW GREENDALE. WHAT WAS THAT DUE TO ESTATE LIGHT TEXAS, WHAT WITH THAT DUE TO THE ECONOMY IN GENERAL IF YOU HAD A 70% AND 90% TAX RATE?>>IT WOULD DESTROY OPPORTUNITY ALL ACROSS THE COUNTRY. THAT WAY FROM BELMAR, I RETWEETED TODAY BILL MAHER BECAUSE HIS TWEET WAS EXACTLY RIGHT, HE SAID THE FIRST QUESTION IN THE DEBATE –>>Sean: TED CRUZ RETREATING BELMAR, I LIKE THAT. SPEAK UP BUT HE RIGHTLY POINTED OUT, HE SAID 70% OF AMERICANS SAY THE ECONOMY IS DOING WELL. WHY DO YOU GUYS THINK WE SHOULD CHANGE IT? AND NOT ONE OF THE DEMOCRATS HAD AN ANSWER. WE’VE GOT — YOU AND YOUR VIEWERS KNOW THIS, WE HAVE GOT THE LOWEST UNEMPLOYMENT AND 50 YEARS, LOWEST AFRICAN-AMERICAN UNEMPLOYMENT EVER RECORDED, LOWEST HISPANIC UNEMPLOYMENT EVER RECORDED. WHAT THEY ARE PROPOSING, THE GREEN NEW DEAL WOULD COST WILL COST $93 MILLION. IT’S HARD TO UNDERSTAND 1 MILLION, A TRILLION, A BILLION, BUT LET ME PUT THAT IN PERSPECTIVE. $93 TRILLION IS MORE MONEY THAN THE ENTERAL GOVERNMENT HAS SPENT IN THE ENTIRE HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA GOING BACK TO GEORGE WASHINGTON. IT WOULD MEAN ABOUT $65,000 PER FAMILY IN AMERICA PER YEAR. THAT IS WHERE THE DEMOCRATS ARE. THEY ARE JUST — DONALD TRUMP HASN’T BROKEN THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY, THEY HATE HIM SO MUCH THEY ARE EMBRACING POLICIES THAT WOULD DESTROY POLICY AND OPEN UP OUR BORDERS. IT’S WRONG.>>Sean: OBAMA BIDEN EIGHT YEARS, 30 MILLION NEW AMERICANS ON FOOD STAMPS, A MILLION IN POVERTY. NOW 6 MILLION OFF OF FOOD STAMPS

News Now Stream Part 1 (FNN) 08/12/19


About a forty minute police chase through some of those streets and roadways of Oklahoma city’s a we’ve been monitoring this for you on fox ten phoenix.com but boy. December no which is going to come up on our fees right here on facts an extra thank you so much foroinings hereoday everybya live loo athe marts rig w. W havtown to two hundd and sixtyine poin ere in the r anoth a down yooking to ape up wel see ast gee p at noosymbol Checkith the. Rit here ofox tenxtra evybod buthanko much for inin u a ttleit wll te o to a s said ewsonfence thehiteouse tha wraed up.rlieodt gethosoo oen hado de thmmigtion will play that Fauria. In its entirety right here on news now everyone might pay share long sat around noon. Taken in this Monday and- over the weekend makes story is when you woke up. Saturday morning seeing that up steam Jeffrey apps the- dies in prison. This was a big one ty got a lot of dia atteion. Soou know b. Alaccountst is auicide. 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And mang positiveontribions toy and wexpect thao contue itheh faithf ecutionf our tion’song staing laws chargin admsibity rule beer insurerhat iigrant e able tsuccesully pporthemselves as they se portuny heren Amica Througut ouro their otstra tpurse dots theidreamsnd the opportunity of ts grt nation. Asp t upho theule ofawThis adminiratisr ared hisryndncouraging the core e thAmericream aeality d wi that m happto tak me queions. As y know. imary fus of is psident thughout hisresidency has ben ilgal iigrati the focusf what is outlinein this ppl imgratio S. whyhe chae in focus this le gs all e way bkr effo. I you te a look at th fly pried item it’ it’llt’llae ve thoroh in thfirst attet to t into operaonal fact as at Coness itsel has sd ‘re supposed to consider whe deca admiibilit I wou als own as the hd of the agency perment resideyor mang ople. Lasyear we sren more Aricae s year expec tsee silar numberagain so we’ not at alaid ofof ihe tru ministtion pcessin prerly lal immration I thinkhat e deard mor discuion of ilgal iigrati but wve been pssini nine six tt is n beeineen ven. Aeaningfu o facthe neteeninety ne som idanceas putn pce wh foll the re neve follod.prumptid rule wch as said forhe firs timeeally puts aningfeat on e bone o e nineen ninety six l ssed oa bipartan basis is doenot sutitute. Do congssiona aion i other areas foI meionedhe sit leasere not cover l ylum is a majubject of fos fors in oun my ency. And wh t crisiof the bordee n m e sames thebama happen. So i this. Nrow ar of ou respoibilit we direion and wves I said t meatn the nesere ink toy y Sir tnk you think uaves rson ts morng iyou uld that ge us an update . Wt’s haening with tha rk permi. Foasylum seekerof peoe whoscase ve beeadjudicateyet. Th’re beg procsed ithe dinary crse of buness so a reguto otrhings thin the ageyn righ now e p todasorry. there wer ras ando on the firstion peon frohis fit firs mmutatn. Who s arrest afteis binn l imgrants we arreed. D at dision to grant. Perso connoty y t does those one perso at aime I thin wt you w used to th wee in enfoing the law meetg ful w seven Misssippi. On ocoursetef vestatio still ooing criminal iestition growg ouf thai prevus yea tirnforment forts a u And I thi you ca expec tsee moref that as parts o enrce thlaw yeSir I so jourlists going to beorrn financiar ample ia man has citiz. Daught we g nefitse migh bafraid t ply f those befits s daughter hio s an exclent qstionith the ceip by citize in the householdf puicenefit will not affec the coideration f a partilar ienss a geral matteso the cizens. Agai iheir receipt of conserationf an alieas a thisule y’ll see wetartedt out by. That a notovered ande no and forev more a clear haveni stingfhe two so anye o hasny queionbout paicular befit. Wou be nsiderntoonsidetion for gree card will bebleo easilyr websit and it is ptf the ssagee’reroadcaingt’s y I talk to yond lisd so many.f . e at as we. Idea I’m sorry. I’m net fotwo qutions d- buI facthat is long the plic arteras beein efft nce thlate ehteen longhe wor of th base as e stat of libert degre gi us yo tired you poor. Yourmplemeing a telharger rule forhe fst te is that sentimd . wordcome dn. Come doe statue o libty. We haveared the st welme. Additns in thorld. On a l of sis where the you be ming he to joinr imgratin yrselfhis ru fourundr thousd peop ye. Ts applitionso become legalee sident Will ilude. A theye likyo become athe puic crge or noI do n ink byny meaReadyo libey yes ‘amEvery ltleanythingf isow mucthis i costi U this taxpayso s s thers milonsf Amerans who aept ps r healcare otheir n f ampleo why i tha diffent f someoneho’s in th cntry legally w’s stgglio a yoknow he rtain nee but he as well. So t bs long tm befitf sking to ense than firs. Yo cantandn theizens n two et who wl not be relian onm pecially in thage of e modernelfs so expsive. An pensiv suffiency thahas bn a the vue set for s lon is criticar part o theotivatn forule li thi is forhe befit th gs allhe w bac a rules I said elier simply puts meat on t bon of that consie nefi f taxpars i for visitihe- ii the cost is count so let n lk at tha ithe be l andnd all stheecidin ftor which is why we ctinueo use e totatyf circstance thisuestio of a chilngto efct youalkbouthe question of whz h partular cas tha somebod use lot of a familhat are havet yet gten thr gen cards theo e dical serces wther tt them tkeep them you know fsingep the stets parate A they are gogof usg the rviceso whic to dermine O two tee nay years out ft apy. r a grn cardou th’re liky lately ur or wheer ah not to get a greecard if th e the rvices of e fears at the will be aave o ople aoss thcountr Who ll decide not to geot to use the afrmativy ttheirwn titl to. Outft t o youHow doou counter that. If in ft you wa tm to u the serv’ entledr is i Or this ally a st of forto say. peop that shoun’t be. Well. is f Thiss and lk backt that tuatio causeemember we substaially sr ce e exceptn o this tha wou ve qualifi underhe neteen ninetnine gdanc which fan th sk what wre trying to undethe ciumstansouen descbe if you’re tking abt anpplicant w hhe thei way o of that sittionecesso that’sase they make to th reer case workeill immiation svice offer. e b w do wto avoi lookin tthe fue e e thosublic benits we’ tryingo avoi thasituatn benets arehere is a idge right kc benets are digne f peop to ben them for er therere whether u’re aimmigrant. To he folFor a me so. So are yosayiu remeer grant yourdvice to benets because thi This is goa count agnst you. No I wa ung yr example whe they nd thy finaially I took ur descption ay thathentire leg immiationystem is digned. Congrs f the befit of America ag foherere peoe whore going tlive r y d on their o two ft with th me sor of reiremenhat ‘vead ithe pa for wl over centu n t benefits be wghted differently tee difrent ates don’t use Medaid that benets no buthe use of thefielgn benets ovethe elve mon riod inhirty x months wod be a avily native faor tir of tir negative negati factors the positeactorhd factors n exple t other se if u ve private hlth inrance that ia d positi facto S those a the tality of rcumstcesn d obviouslye cl the mor heilyeighte factors more than the oers b they we her outspok crics of the ministtion’s Graon policies borem . theiconcernow yorewing CathicFamiliia thCatholic bisho he the say on thsubject a ty ceainly a close forsnd I ulday as Catholicne of this Ia e st suppoers o pple i thisount befee had a th cnging and I don see y cflict th enforcinghe law as i. w targed t el Pahootin bn u of t ratesIn theity t it’sust. For issues illelly nowhis obously why ouldn’t th campti well fir ofll. Tss as dealg wh theost recen eratnft buthis is n new ts whe sam questn mighhave beeaskedor my Immigrt ancesrs were comgg. in andd e e wee simply makg effecti reonor any parcularo oup. Tfeel le this rgetinhemhe Seo fly ross t worldillpply t re tn eigeen asn any otherikely more Latis wl ife hads coersaon aundredears ago they woulve applio mo Italis orou knowe save time. Wl I thinkhat th diviseness maye o me rhetoralu alin you roleealth ce at with some ohow yo rert it s Sir m into into reYeah that’right. Thank. Orge tI.ormer ce esidenJoe Biden sai tt the Unitey take anoth twoillion regees these kinof commes onhe camign trl the tru administraon. have to how my more immrants d out ere at a the oynumr ings wh form nbersr thannualefugeeumber thataier qst haens ery yearfourse wee tingn I wa to sa arnd a milon plu aear righ now ay youruestioall right ste estiones mam. Toof the charts rolempact fute applicatiod finciall. Suort thfamin mber but in e fami basin. So what you uld normall he in ths u to he an fidavi of necearily fallnto theuppor S tht cagoryf bei addreed by ifhey he anffidavfse suppor wch ibn scrunizedy USC officer. d i is believed that spsored can in fact suprt those.r 12 of t feder poverty guideles whi is the andard the that wld be the it relates to that sortfs applicat huge piece of legal immigration in this country thank you all very much Evernehankso mh for joir st Me pages or we always try to bng you this top orie and heainesrom ross the cntry a’m going to go out. To Ne Yk tyight now whe we ar ttin a new confence he in from This is t New Yk immiation coation h they are tkii actis thathey dot feel. Ou gat fro t trump adnistrati let’s lten to thisigh. is regation ‘ll golive. AnI justant toee how thhisegulatns gting sted inhe wakf all of e attasnd the sotings at have rgeted immrant mmunies ana mome where are a reall. Let meust th rule goi to do. An I ink it’s pecial tubli venhat’s hpene over e last cple e s alover ts countrbeing tan. Trac. Buthere’ n ubt in o mind. Tt this ruleilllms e liveof new Yorkers a well. Thul sa that for aone whis must fego shter and bacite d it. medicacae thathis rule forci migran to chse. And bacall it’goin to epen povert iso a d c arge rulatiowill d. forcinhesemt h toitizenipnd for growi these sics y sast forew York Ci and r New rk staAnd I nt to kno. Th i g immiant commuties that innse efftyhe truaeryf ministtion to ntinue to rget iigra communiti wi cruel and wh fear. And so we k g from ts is notake NeYork. Amera any rder as welt is simy gr ngriernd sicrBut I nt to te thathis fht is noover. ere’still an portunyo figh back i fothe xt six days. We are gog to dexactlthat. We are goi th l of ouallies and our champis we’ goingo figh ba in th halls o Congrs. re going tfight bk in weSo whave t New Yorkgo migration coation we will wo close with ny of r great liesy To mak sure at were channeng theoice ofll new Yoersmmigras a allie Thate willight bk wit ery ferf our bng. immiant counitieand Ne Yo depen on it. An soe will ecatw we cor theext sty day til Ocber fieenth.o fight ckSo Ie e some of r gre chaions a r alls to eak tay. First d foreso t Clk. She h been champn for immias leinghe way oissuuch T. P. S. a she was one of an prose as. Thaheeam inoduc earlier this year Coress somebodthat Cla.m ank u. This opportunity to thank Ste a theeam her athe Nework immrati coalitn and i nce. Ouworkmmobizin o beha of thw Yo Cit and ieedhe immiants othist y beenery attenve tthe. imat that bng cated der.he trump ainisation r immiants aoss this nation and p r so myarsoulnerae Clk of t ninthistrt of Cgres woe w York whi is centr Brooyn. I am. airpern othe immiation sk for. A I have bnushe lleagu acrs the aisle t ange the bavior to and clime of onslaht of uelty veoves andn humaty to imgran of crsehis. Unfounately t hou of is i recest t momt.nat en w allelie tha w ould be in ssion and ssin comnenseun law Thatarged iis commitie tt ha cruey an hunityhat of families. o inhe Utedt atesf Amera. Th just sueringhat ‘re eing in rommunieshisrobabl be stad bStev makos s moulnerable the is any our comnn ason und theun f such a dramic ml n counits whe falies are of mes sty t e n counits tt mas itess kely thataren wiltake hos the mls tse areo. invidus w are already contbutinga w unrtainty. A thaisat beuse ere. sire is tdo nothg more s to citenshAnd if the soety pers that. We mak the oicr ma ofs th meahat r miliill si deernto Yo immigrati coationewk inte to std k Washiton. Jo eve leg effort o tl s policiesf thtrum admistraon. Butt unt othat so canccou ou in r communities to and together wh thfait mmunit to what can On time. great distress and I thank you once ainNext woullike a champion. For immigrant communities here in New York why no it’s been working with their team religiously over the past couple months to be prepared. Please welcome our commissioner f in nna res r thcity oNew Yo. In uffy. od morng eveone . Rems tbe her today undethe ciumstans but I think e r leadershipnd parershipn this a ss th have. ally been extremel distr p those w are he andhe left ioffie counity rtnersho aren the grnd aA e onesupportg famiesn mang goo decisns and hopinghat wg f wealk aw with other meage tod ifhe pre. that y lea hereoday withss no hf thiss not yein the fac Hous will t te effec untiOctor ft t v d we inten to doo as t thisn cour. Anthat ise eryntention of rs to ensu that neveroes to effect. Tg ly appliedo every singl peon it esn’tPeop w areligiblor benits mt people arer benefits todayike U.. citize chig don’t aly to sorreasen’ itoesn’tpplyo cre viims isonfusi its docunts that requires peopledr e compcated aa.eeply ti law lp mak the rig decions emwer ourommunies pleas t them kw theyan cal ree onone th can s tion Nhinkin get brilant cmunity parers thinng ged make eowerecisns f famies wshouldot go food healthOt th neefor eir surval. If you s no are e keyessage that edut erywher todayn diffent langr counitie to noe will upting NYC dot glash infoation wh firedat anslat into fferen nguageor peoeo be able twidely dd Makeo miste what you’v commities is an aaultn an brothe ans n vaes.t is a attem to ma an Amican only wos for doest actuly car for tse in nee e survor foright bseekin chil who might nd they need cause of h is trantionin that not wt whoe are at wre aboutnd it wi ke eve sgle onef us stdingp and sayinghis is no who we ahis is not what we belie and we wi d everything o share information with our communities. Empower them and Fiu ank u coissi law eorcemeill benhe U. S. attnt anuncingederalharges ising outfhe shoong today the gernmento theas ‘s on ceili crges ainst a frnd of nnor bs f legedl lng. Oneder rearmsormo we’ll have at forou as soon as that gets going the inaytonhio hi evee welcome to ws now as we alwa bring you t sou cotry tnkou s muc f cross joining us here we ve one more full our fouyear right here. Onox ten actual awhile we do wai for thatews conferencend that’gonna be a bi o let’s go right now to the spking at an event tay any actuly start themoun king se. Anunceme. Jeffreapps tna . Thanyou to our c forour nd iroduionnd I’m oking rward worki wit u whenou. Take o adersh oa TF whin th partme of juice. And m. Jim it’ d anksor all you he done ov the dades f FO P.nd wanto say tt a ve atefulo the yor. For her bann outanding ldershi this greacity. At we’re because thaews conferen in hi in e Unit State now Attorn forhe n Dirict ofhio I am joid thisfternt assiant U S. attney V. Paul Pel m wier h t spealgent i arge of th FBIincinni divisi. Daf o n g who s arrestedridayvening d now standaccuse five feralrimina comaint. Of unlawflym contlled substance andf lyg on the formForty ur venty ree thfirear form inrder tacquirFirem spificalndicing that subsnces wn in ft he s. I’m gon tellou aittle b more about tse crgesut before doo thgs cle at thoutset. the instigation into theute is e shting thatook place o distctMisterolley doe not standccusedf the planningf that shootingPartn we he no evidce ofhat there’s nat Iust wanna me tha clear secoly wt tgive an dilaim tha I alws give scussi. Theederal iminalhargeshich ithat. Mier Coly like l cminal fendan is psumed innoct less and unte’s prove guty beyd a reonab evidce. In crtnd theith algationsf a feral crimin cplains at theare algations th e not idence. So wit that litt bit authat ta fidavi in supporof the crinalomplnt again Mister Colle y l agents witthe FBI and aF foth which way tt day.i morng a at thaime ofg at inial intervi Misr Colleyndich firemccessory for. Cnor ts thehooter whoad coittedhe shoing earli at day and durg t cours ofhat inh e Ketteng.gentsmelled marijuand on a long And alswhat. Appeared to ba micro Dro testll en laterhat wen Thursd AugtighthI agts re interewedister of work and Mister Coll indicad t me thate wa a concealed rry. He ld theduringhe seco inteh ne.uote on que hard drugs thonnor bs as ll as rijuan hdcid. Four ve times weekt urteeno twen fifte. And howftene userugs Kalli indicad thad d be doingo for aut ten yes. Agents oainedrom federa fir. ATormorty fr sevey ordeto purasehe micn Drac pisse allhat agents obrved upon inially date. In may ninetn twen the estionre younspon to unlawfser allOe toarijua or anyepresst stimult. r e thatoint t agent obined feder srch waant for clies pson and hiresidee. Whe the executhe searf Ca. Day the seah warnt of his peon he ain admitd t ing a regul use oillegal drug inclung maruana a pshedeli mhroomshich h id. He gw in his resence e daye admied thahe d rememb filli out t fm inditing falselyhat heas.y ur sd Was nos trutully he wod not vehe received d th she h purched for. Ye for bs bod armor As an A R. fteen wpon. And th one hdred rnds doue ultitely use five at’sn the Austi ur indtry. Alindicat that he purs kali resency in dero assistats is fr bat his pents. Ki admied to calling so mdleo endf may sitti aparent and aemblin The hiey are fteen esperat d the furth ishat uple wksfter. at whe e doubled drum. Mazine arrive thg ssessi of that drum asell Khal apamenthey revered th Dracoistol Tauru si automac pn s pipe and wt is mmonly ferredo as aomb as we as wha aeareto be murooms. Th’s wt it i m sorr colli w then ken to cusdy on Fday eveng that hmadl r urt Fray ening a today.i tse crges thate expose. m. Termf impronmentf upo caseill mo forwa nextfifteeyeara th a detenon hearin Wednesda wane The pnts arnumberne agany be clrIs NO idencend no allatiol colaint at Kal tentiolly. Dissated in Augu fourt shooting so thisases abouthe whthat is casis about Is inhe inveigatiointo t Auguscourse ofg disceredo haveny cminals cuabilityor anyct tha throh t invesgationr ntribud in a way tthe ents on Aust fouh. Is ing toe heldriminay responble an. Notnly i posseing corolled sstancesllegal fightecause I sn controed substaa a th i not sething tha deralgentsho are matt going tignorend that is wister Coly has bn charged if. e toy so I happyo answ y quesons at youay hav. Focalling so foaunday. I I can get io the spifics oexactl why that waalthou you’l see tt if support of thcriminin mplainn Augu fourt theas theBI agent and a TFgents spoke with Miste Coll befly at tt timend then r it cleafrom rding tsit’s affidat. D. Mie d Mr bs havenown eh other r a los on ierview magine vomeed right w w t a firearm if yore annlawfu ssesso. contr or us contrled substancThis is therocs at you catch All tse pele w woulde squafied byederal law fr psessin a firrm that firere ts pele to ll it out truthful underf feralrosecuon s we do theye notonest a there if prosuted a tt is a crime that ipe yes in feder pson an chard with here. Okay. All I cat spe to th I canay that ts ofl precute aoneho has falsifd aorm r senty the the st time u n also be soe hav routely incling aseceny as lasye- accdingo the fidavi suprt of e criminal colainthe affidit says that cole wasnvolve cause bats wante to hi t purcha o these this amnition are of this magine dy aornd A. E part fm his parentu keembers fm man andf tuatns by buying. Mayb yourlf. Ye but ithere e- therwas no any Thatats wld hidn self ha beenny mor or ss thesthingsan calng.disquafied ff What t likely e conditnal chges . At theederalevel wh anythi inforl and- special ant tned wh r him uld u careo speak to thaatl oning the’s aot tt has be don in then the pt we there still lot to rough lotf evidceTo reviewA lotn primy cell one tthee shoote was cm n Augu fourtyes. Wee stil throh thatellhone b itigh wa opene le lasteek th are n revieng the there ho Ian’t sak to gointo use the fearm f t we he notound a gointo conct thiattack. Anmore. Leme l me ta out onactual agt ichargeorker m was that ery last piecefeare evidens thod anI thinwhat y can. ke away safyo he fou to ha a crimil cour of th invesgationtsponbilin sevety othis iident thewill bpre invidual thawe heaAbout apogize r you do an ting. I’ notoing tspeak tonyircumstantia evidee beyond tt a the pceedin. I cnot speak to thW wsnhio Ian’t say that. I feel cog n t Ka C wasonfisced.t the te to secr h ansmitdor havg somef your s verys e crimal comaint o of them is a penty of zo to fiv arsn prin a the oer zo toen yea in prin. conceably zo to fteen ars inrison. u weren thatange ia. Th mighte deith th st Iefinity cnot sak to tha sortw a curredut I c say ain athis is gogo be a extrely thoroh and is a extrely trough investigion. Of y andll Augu fourt any kind ofon crimesny a that iestigaon will beof prosecutes e s you know thatheore. Th me crges a penales. not t faultf the st. It’s t sams rerdless. Well it’clear fr the aidavit isuppor knoweach oeror sevale years ite at o twty foueen Ielieve long but I don want . Get in specution aut precisy how ngI’ nto get to addional evence wh. Tt hrs bend the sco of th fidavihat is actuly do. Also in r sed othis andet theut we don’t ho yhat hfalsifiedormst is tim Ctainlyhe V. it is. athat Kali falfied eighti a a m user s that i a crime ande areomfortabharginthat agnst aolliet thisime. Usehe latt can g all wtappenelastou we and yKnow tt that inveigatioremainongoine I name. I can s that ethe purchaseshae equient that was used in Augustoo th accsory for t. R. a e doubldrumagazin was the equipmn e the moreerious chaes and speato anydditiol crges stat here wh is that. ‘sther ane a mponen o the. R. w. So it’justt diffent componts anpeople itan aemble em theelves acque using the fm for four seventy tee but then othe parts c be acired parate and p togethe separate andhat’s at haveappenein thicase.appen to yo Ju the t. Ofhe upp ceiverction areI can’t are tha I wanto be ear that thist is ongoi it’soing tbeh though. The. B. I. Dayn policeilg m of eve piece of idencef any crims disceredn t coursof capaef bein procute. It that. ah we ha one mef questi. Tha crime ank yo. A fortunely yes ye It’sood to se ys for l y have ne ovethe dedes foFO P. dI want toay thaa veryrateful e mayo. Foher. pport o And. Congssmancalise it’s go to see u lookg so wel is morning. really apprecte you ipiring remas eeciall for remiing u o the hoism of acti prented a mas swt sualtyttack. fore I begin d liko briey addrs news fm the M. rrectial cter or the weekend regaing Jeffy apps teThis ia sex affickg case. seryh persallyt was portant e e dedited. osecuts i e Souern Dtrict of New rk ao our FBI agents o investated wee preping itor tri st imptantlyThisase wa portanto the vtims w had t courad confnt theccusedn the courroom. was aplled. And indeed the wle deptment reize and frankly angTo learn. Oo . We are n leaing of rious irregulaties a this cility th are dply coerning. d demand a. o g justhat we ll geto the Bu let me sure y that thi se wil contie on ainst yone w was cplic. Wi stainAny co cspirats shouldot ret ctimseserveusticend they wl get e r this mning wch is renew a retionsh. Wi old friend. It’s e joinithhe Fpay I joyed a ver cse retionsh wh the F this pition and’m loong rward to even clor o is time and let me s thaI am pros adminiration. Andnder esiden tru.ho so rongly sport l forcemt. Tomooworning the is nmore nle professi tn sera police oicerYou p you nigh of threst ous. Sleep ineace youever kw wt e nextay wilbring. What threat you mht fac. Bu stillou gr love one and head out to ce whatr wa. Thalls f a speal kind obraveI l Wa wn our troo went t. I rememb r visionollingut of rt StewarGeorge backhey were ticr tapee pades. Celebrating eir theiprecins evermornin. The are norowds eeri. An when u comome at e end othe dl ne the are no cker te. Parade. Os th lawnforcent is fiting aiffere kind agait crimal pretors it r sociy. An well there batts won d lost eh day the’s ner a fil victy. A finavicv sight. It takes apecial ndf covege to ge this a coitmentA specialind of honofor meTo be vited heing toe amonyou. d have theppos Thhorror ofl Pa inute u. yton still wgh healyn victs of tse evilacks. oday we e are al pe wh rponded tthe ene an eventefurthebloodshe and was pticulay srring to wah the otage om Dton the soting arted. And e civilis fled y could sehe polichargin headng tards t t o may ickly utrali ery Amerin suld tnk god th we ill hav mennd women like td l thereside will t let.t Ac of ma shootgOr domest terrosmo unsweredHe has bee&-pcsultingids dicted m andBIirecto te to wo witour state and lol partrs. well with thprivatsectorDevelo stratees ino adess tsehreatsncluding delopingools. eyan poteial ms shoors befe propals. Legiativend ofhey siket eratiol itiativ in th you at our pposals. Wi statand lol partrs. The rent aocities ao remi of a bac trut. Huma begs are capab of grt evilAnd ev in a althygood. But e societ vios e what snds beeen cos asis rnage the o handAnd th cilized iranqui ciety all yrn forn the of l enforment. You ree the on mas daand night. Evenn the st of timr callghan serng as a beenYou kn the fmersrlice oicers Cannly exi ithe pelebelieve at . have theersd se rtraint to ntrol their owworst ssionsnd appetis. Ifeople vaesAnd th moral discipne to control themsees and governmen uld ireasiny he to u ternalorce tkeep oer anthe commity would grually se itsreedom. This iwhats taing abt whene saidWe have stat e abity of eac of us t vern oselves. But live inn age w when t stitutn’s. Th we he relin to culcatealues anself rtraint have been der cstant assau f fiftyears anas a rulte S. Caboutd g up whout fatherslienat d angryounman. Gang enged ithe mo bruta Incrsedental illss and suicide aa dr epidec ilictin casuales bond d n mesticiolenc. An increas expltationYou na it. 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America | Bernie Sanders


♪ hmm hmm hmm-hmm-hmm-hmm ♪ ♪ hmm hmm hmm hmm hmm-hmm ♪ ♪ Let us be lovers, we’ll marry
our fortunes together ♪ [ cheering ] ♪ I’ve got some real estate
here in my bag ♪ ♪ Counting the cars
on the New Jersey turnpike ♪ ♪ They’ve all come
to look for America ♪ [ cheers and applause ] ♪ All come
to look for America ♪ ♪ All come
to look for America ♪ ♪ All come
to look for America ♪ I’m Bernie Sanders,
and I approve this message.

Albania holds local elections amid political turmoil


Albanians were casting ballots on Sunday to elect mayors and city councils, or parliaments, amid a tense political conflict with the opposition boycotting the municipal elections While the Socialist-run government is insisting on holding the election, the opposition wants to stop it taking place The opposition, led by the center-right Democratic Party, blames a corrupt government linked to organized crime and is demanding fresh national elections Albania’s President Ilir Meta is sympathetic to the opposition and declared that the vote is canceled, but the government under Prime Minister Edi Rama has refused to abide by that decision Votes will be cast to pick authorities that will run 61 districts across the country for the next four years On late Saturday the Democratic Party’s leader Lulzim Basha called on Albanians to boycott the vote and said they would hold non-violent protests Police have said protests are not allowed the voting day. Rama cast his ballot in Surrel, a village near Tirana where he lives “This day confirms that no one can play with the people . and who dares take sovereignty from the people finds no other end but a failing and a shameful one,” he told journalists The opposition has been holding anti-government protests since mid-February when they also relinquished their seats in parliament They say the political crisis will be resolved when Rama resigns and vote-riggers are jailed Small groups of opposition supporters in Tirana and a nearby town rallied in front of some polling stations, shouting “Rama go!” The ruling Socialists are the only candidates in 35 out of 61 districts, with some smaller leftist and center-right parties running against them in the rest Thousands of police officers guarded the polling stations Sunday. The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe’s Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights said it was sending 174 election observers, who will give their preliminary findings on Monday Audrey Glover, head of the international monitoring mission, found the situation at a Tirana polling station “not conducive to observing ” Holding a free and fair election is considered key for the launch of EU membership talks for the tiny Western Balkan country, already a NATO member Voting ends 1700 GMT. Preliminary election results are not expected until Monday The Central Election Commission, the institution running the election, said turnout at 11 a m. (0900 GMT) was about 12%. ——— Follow Llazar Semini on Twitter: https://twitter com/lsemini

Why the UK Election Results are the Worst in History.


Hello Internet The UK had an election we need to talk about
because after the debates finished, the people voted and the ballots tallied the results
were this: But parliament ended up looking like this: Which isn’t, exactly, representative. And
by not exactly, I mean at all. Red earned 30% of the vote and 36% of the
seats, which is sort of close, but the rest is madness: Orange earned 8% of the vote but
got one eighth of that while Yellow’s 5% just about doubled, and purple earned 13% and got
squat. Meanwhile blue’s 37% of the people booted
to 51% of the seats in parliament. The blue boost is even bigger when you consider that
51% of the seats gives basically 100% the control. How’d this happen? In the UK — national elections aren’t really
national, they’re a bunch of local elections. The UK is divided into constituencies, each
of which elects one member of parliament (M.P.) to represent them. This local / national divide
is where the trouble begins. Imagine a parliament with just three constituencies,
and it’s easy to see how it wouldn’t always align with citizens. Some people think this
sort of result is fine — “it’s all *about* winning local elections,” they’ll say.
“Each M.P. represents their constituency.” And while the imbalance in this example is
extreme, but it’s the same problem in the real election and this same argument is given,
but there are two more problems with it in reality land. 1) Few citizens have any idea who their MP
is, they just know what party they voted for — what party they want to represent their
views on the national level. And pretending like it’s a local election is a bit disingenuous.
— in practice it’s an election for how the nation will run — not really for who is going
to represent a tiny part of it. and even if it were 2) The individual constituencies are worse
at representing their citizens than parliament. Indulge this spreadsheet-loving nerd for a
moment, will you? The difference between what a party earned
at the polls and what they got in parliament is the amount of misrepresentation error. If we calculate all the errors for all the
parties and add them up we can say the Parliament as a whole has 47% percentage points of misrepresentation
error. That sounds bad looks like a utopian rainbow of diversity compared to any local
election because the local elections have *one* winner. Out of the 650 constituencies
647 have a higher representation error than parliament. These are the only three that
don’t and they’re really unusual for having so many of a single kind of voter in one place. Most places look the The Wrekin which is dead
in the middle a mere one-hundred and one points off. Note that the winning candidate didn’t
reach a majority here. Which means more than half of constituencies elected their MP with
a minority of voters. The worst is Belfast South at the bottom of
the list. Hilariously unrepresentative. Less than a quarter of the voters get to speak
for the entire place in parliament. This is the the lowest percentage an M.P. has ever
been elected by. So when people argue that the UK election
is a bunch of local elections 1) people don’t act like it, and 2) It’s even more of an argument
that the elections are broken because they’re worse on this level. These local elections are unrepresentative
because of the terrible ‘First Past the Post’ voting system — which I have complained mightily
about and won’t repeat everything here — go watch the video — but TL;DR it only ‘works’
when citizens are limited to two choices. Voting for any party except the biggest makes
it more likely the biggest will win by a minority — which is exactly what happened. That citizens keep voting for smaller parties
despite knowing the result is against their strategic interests demonstrates the citizenry
wants diverse representation — but that successes is the very thing that’s made this the most
unrepresentative parliament in the history of the UK. People happy with the results argue the system
is working fine — of course they do. Their team won. But Government isn’t a sport where a singular
‘winner’ must be determined. It’s a system to make rules that everyone follows and so,
we need a system where everyone can agree the process is fair even if the results don’t
go in their favor. If you support a system that disenfranchises
people you don’t like and turbo-franchises people you do — then it doesn’t look like
you support representative democracy, it looks like you support a kind of dictatorship lite.
Where a small group of people (including you) makes the rules for everyone. But as it is now, on election day the more
people express what they want the worse the system looks which makes them disengaged at
best or angry at worst and GEE I CAN’T IMAGINE WHY. This is fixable, there are many, many better
ways the UK could vote — here are two that even keep local representatives. And fixing voting really matters, because
this is a kind of government illegitimacy score — and it’s been going up and may continue
to do so unless this fundamentally broken voting system is changed.

How to stop politics from controlling your emotions | Tim Snyder


History is actually the one thing I think
which allows you to get out ahead. It’s very ironic, because when people think
about history they think, “Well, history means that things are going on in the world
and a historian is off reading dusty books,” which, fair enough, I would love to be reading
lots of dusty books right now. I will concede the point. But when you’ve read all those dusty books,
what happens is that you have the ability to see certain patterns, you have a sense
of what fits together and what doesn’t fit together. Isaiah Berlin wrote an essay on the possibility
of the scientific history, in which he said that “history is not about knowing what
happens, it’s about knowing what can’t happen.” That is extremely useful. So a historian will never look at a problem
and say, “This is entirely new,” a historian will look at a problem and try to find the
familiar aspects of it. And that’s a very big advantage over other
forms of analysis, because if you look at something and say that it’s totally new,
that disables the mind right away, it also tends to disable, I think, political action. Because if something is totally new it’s
very easy to take the next step and say, “Well if it’s totally new then what can I do about
it?” Or you can say, “Since it’s totally new
all things are permitted,” which can also lead you in some really unproductive direction. So the first thing the historian will do is
we’ll say, “Whatever this problem is, it’s not entirely new.” When a historian is confronted by something
very surprising like the 2016 campaign in the United States, the historian is likely
to say, “Well, the things that this candidate is saying aren’t true, but the possibility
this kind of campaign could work is a real possibility.” So the historian is freed from, or should
be freed from the conviction of the day, and the historian automatically looks back to
other moments where similar things like this coalesced. So for example, we’re in a second globalization. There was a first globalization in the late
19th and early 20th century. The second globalization began, our globalization
began, with all kinds of promises that technology and export-lead growth would lead to enlightenment
and liberalism—the first globalization did too. The first globalization crashed. It crashed into the first World War, the Great
Depression, the second World War, Stalinism, the Holocaust. A historian looking at today won’t think
“Well that whole pattern is going to repeat itself,” but the historian looking at it
today can say, “Yeah, a politician who says that globalization is a problem not a solution,
a politician who says that globalization is a matter of particular people plotting against
us as opposed to objective threats to the country or objective problems, that kind of
politician has a chance. That can work. Things like that have worked before.” And once you see that it can come together
that way, it’s not that you’re sure, it’s not that you predict it (although I have made
some predictions that were right), but it’s more that you can see it coming together,
and then that allows you to get out ahead, and you can think, “Okay, well, if this
is going to come together this way then I can also steal from the past people’s correct
reactions to it or people’s wise reactions to it. I can use those things from the failure of
the first of globalization, I can just borrow them, I can now extract them and put them
in the 21st century,” which is what I did in On Tyranny. So rather than saying, “Okay I’m going
to wait” – because by the time the pattern actually coalesces it’s too late! You have to see that the pattern might be
coalescing and then start messing with the pattern, that the way that you see in coalescing
comes from history, and the tools that you use to start messing with it also come from
history. So in that way, ironically, history can allow
you to get out ahead of something, whereas the journalists naturally have to describe
that—that’s their job. The social scientists they’re going to wait
to categorize it, and they’re kind of trapped. I mean another irony is that historians are
comfortable with novelty, because we know things change all the time. When your perspective is a thousand years
or even a hundred years, you know stuff changes. You know there are turning points. And you know that the stuff which people thought
was unbelievable yesterday will not only be believable but will even seem normal today. Any historian can see that. So that gives us a certain edge I think. The second thing that a historian will do
is that a historian will be skeptical about sources. So if you say “the problem is X”, a historian
will instantly cock his or her head and think, “Okay well, this person says the problem
is X, but let’s cast our minds out immediately to try to think of what the other 15 relevant
perspectives on this problem are. Is it actually a problem? Maybe it’s something which is desirable
from certain points of view.” So that’s a methodological reflex that,
whatever your first person perspective is, that’s not the truth for me. The truth automatically has to come from comparing
your perspective to a whole bunch of other perspectives. And that’s useful also because it can preserve
the dynamism and the urgency of something while taking some of the subjective spin from
it. So ideally a historian or a historically-trained
person is less likely to be played by the presentation of a problem and more likely
to skeptically figure out what its contours are. And the third advantage that historians have,
and maybe this is the one which I find to be most relevant in the present, is that historians
see time as a flow or as something which is continuous. And this is incredibly important now, because
the way that the news cycle works or the way that what I call the “politics of eternity”
works is that you get your brain bludgeoned every day by the emotions of the moment as
transmitted by very skilled political actors through very efficient media, and the result
is that it’s so easy to either be elated or outraged every day and to experience the
day as a kind of complete unit—where you wake up, you’re shocked, you’re outraged,
and then by the end of the day you’re dissipated, you’re exhausted, and then you just begin
this cycle again. Historians don’t believe in cycles, or at
least good historians don’t believe in cycles. Historians think that there are long-term
patterns; however exciting or however exhausting or however terrifying the thing is today,
it’s part of some longer sweep. So to give an extreme example, even nuclear
war—so in the last few months the subject of nuclear war has come up from all kinds
of directions. Even nuclear war has a history. There’s only been one, and that was in 1945,
and there have been a lot of moments where it was likely or less likely (like Cuba). So even something which is dramatic and which
is, as it were, designed to shock you out of thinking in time, even that can be put
in some kind of context. In other words the weapons that are designed
to get you to stop thinking, like “Let’s be afraid of the foreigners” or “let’s
be afraid of nuclear war,” if you think about those threats over time as part as some
kind of larger flow you’re less likely to be disabled, and you’re more likely to distinguish
the rhetoric from what might actually be the risk.

Terrorism, War, and Bush 43: Crash Course US History #46


Hi, I’m John Green, this is CrashCourse
U.S. history and today we’ve done it! WE’VE FINALLY REACHED THE 21st CENTURY!
Today, we boldly go where no history course has gone before, because your teacher ran
out of time and never made it to the present. Also, if you’re preparing for the AP test
it’s unlikely that today’s video will be helpful to you because, you know, they
never get to this stuff. Mr. Green, Mr. Green? Awesome, free period.
Yeah, Me From the Past, there’s no such thing as a free period. There’s only time,
and how you choose to use it. Also, Me From the Past, we’re in your future,
hold on I’ve got to take this stuff off it’s hard to take me seriously with that.
We’re in the future for you which means that you are learning important things about
the you who does not yet exist. You know about Lady GaGa, Kanye and Kim, Bieber,
well you’re not going to find out about any of those things because this is a history
class, but it’s still going to be interesting. INTRO
So the presidency of George W. Bush may not end up on your AP exam, but it’s very important
when it comes to understanding the United States that we live in today
The controversy starts with the 2000 Election. Democratic presidential candidate Al “I
invented the Internet” Gore was sitting Vice President, and he asked Bill Clinton
not to campaign much because a lot of voters kind of hated Bill Clinton.
The republican candidate was George W. Bush, governor of Texas and unlike his father a
reasonably authentic Texan. You know, as people from Connecticut go.
Bush was a former oil guy and baseball team owner and he was running as a Compassionate
Conservative, which meant he was organizing a coalition of religious people and fiscal
conservatives. And that turned out to be a very effective
coalition and George W Bush got a lot of votes. He did not however get as many votes as Al
Gore. But as you’ll no doubt remember from earlier
in Crash Course US History, in the United States presidential elections are not decided
by popular vote. They are decided by the Electoral College.
So the election was incredibly close. It solidified the Red-Blue divide that has become a trope
for politicians since. And in the end Gore won the popular vote by about 500,000 votes.
However, Al Gore did not have the necessary electoral votes to become president. Unless
he won Florida. Did he win Florida? I don’t even want to go there…
In Florida the vote was ridiculously close, but George W Bush had a gigantic advantage
which is that his brother, Jeb Bush, was the governor of Florida.
So when it came time to certify the election Jeb was like, “Yeah. My brother won. No
big deal.” But then the Gore campaign sued to have a recount by hand which is allowed
under Florida law. But then Bush’s lawyers asked the Supreme
Court to intervene and they did. Their decision in Bush v. Gore remains rather controversial.
They ruled that the recount should be stopped, interfering with a state law and also a state’s
electoral process, which is a weird decision for strict constructionists to make.
However, one of the strong points of the United States these past couple centuries has been
that sometimes we have the opportunity to go to war over whether this person or that
person should be president and we chose not to.
So regardless of whether you think the recount should have gone on, or George W Bush should
have been elected, he was, and he set to work implementing his campaign promises, including
working on a missile defence system that was very similar to Star Wars.
And that was Ronald Reagan’s Star Wars, not George Lucas’ Star Wars. Man if we could
get a federally funded new Star Wars trilogy that doesn’t suck that would be awesome.
Anyway, in the first 100 days of his presidency Bush also barred federal funding for stem
cell research, and he supported oil drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge.
And speaking of environmental policy, the Bush administration announced that it would
not abide by the 1997 Kyoto Protocol on carbon emissions and that didn’t go over well with
environmentalists in the U.S. or in all of these green parts of not-America because they
were like, “You guys made all the carbon.” To which we said, “This is America.”
Libertage Bush also attempted education reform with
the No Child Left Behind Act, which mandated that states implement “rigorous” standards
and testing regimes to prove that those standards were being met.
The No Child Left Behind Act is especially controversial with teachers who are great
friends of Crash Course US History so we will say nothing more.
Most importantly, George W Bush pushed through the largest tax cut in American history in
2001. Claiming that putting more money in Americans’ pockets would stimulate growth
in an economy that had stumbled after the bursting of the dot-com bubble in 2000.
Oh, it’s time for the Mystery Document? The rules here are simple.
I guess the author of the Mystery Document, I either get it right, or I get shocked with
the shock pen. Alright, what have we got here today. I’ve got a feeling it’s going to
be a sad one. “It was a beautiful fall day, with a crisp,
blue sky. I was coming in to work late that day; I guess I didn’t have first period
class. It was only the second or third day of school. When I emerged from the subway, Union Square
was strangely quiet, which only added to the beauty of the day. People were standing still,
which is weird in New York under any circumstances, and looking down University Place towards
lower Manhattan. Before I even looked I asked a passerby what had happened. She, or he,
I really don’t remember, said that a plane had crashed into the Trade Center. Then I
looked and saw the smoke coming billo wing out of the South Tower. I thought it was an
accident, but I knew that this was not going to be an easy day.
Well it’s obviously someone who was in New York City on September 11, 2001, but that
only narrows it down to like 10 million people. However, I happen to know that it is Crash
Course historian and my high school history teacher Raoul Meyer who wrote that account.
This is the saddest I have ever been not to be shocked.
So whether George Bush’s domestic policy would have worked is up for debate, but the
events of September 11, 2001 ensured that foreign policy would dominate any discussion
of the opening decade of the 21st century. That morning terrorists affiliated with al
Qaeda hijacked 4 airliners. Two planes were flown into Manhattan’s World Trade Center,
a third was crashed into the Pentagon in Washington and a fourth, also headed for Washington DC
crashed in Pennsylvania when passengers overpowered the hijackers.
Almost 3,000 people died including almost 400 policemen and firefighters.
As Americans rushed to help in the search for survivors and to rebuild a devastated
city, a shared sense of trauma and a desire to show resolve really did bring the country
together. President Bush’s popularity soared in the
wake of the attacks. In a speech on September 20, the president told Americans watching
on television that the terrorists had targeted America “Because we love freedom […]. And
they hate freedom.” This is another critical moment in American
history where the definition of freedom is being reimagined.
And we were reminded in the wake of September 11th that one of the central things that government
does to keep us free is to keep us safe. But at the same time ensuring our safety sometimes
means impinging upon our freedoms. And the question of how to keep America safe
while also preserving our civil liberties is one of the central questions of the 21st
century. At any rate, in the September 20th speech,
the president announced a new guiding principle in foreign policy that became known as the
Bush Doctrine. America would go to war with terrorism making
no distinction between the terrorists and nations that harbored them.
Bush laid out the terms for the world that night: “Either you are with us or you are
with the terrorists.” But that dichotomy of course would prove to
be a bit of an oversimplification. So on October 7, the United States launched
its first airstrikes on Afghanistan, which at the time was ruled by a group of Islamic
fundamentalists called the Taliban who were protecting Osama bin Laden, al Qaeda’s leader.
This was followed by American ground troops supporting the anti-Taliban Northern Alliance
in chasing out the Taliban and setting up a new Afghan government that was friendly
to the United States. This new government did undo many of the worst
Taliban policies, for instance allowing women and girls to go to school, and even to serve
in the parliament. More women than girls in the parliament naturally.
But by 2007 the Taliban was beginning to make a comeback and although fewer than 100 Americans
died in the initial phase of the war, a sizeable force remained and in the ensuing 12 years
the number of Americans killed would continue to rise.
And then, by January 2002, Bush had expanded the scope of the Global War on Terror by proclaiming
that Iran, Iraq and North Korea were an “axis of evil” that harbored terrorists, even
though none of those nations had direct ties to the September 11 attacks.
The ultimate goal of Bush Doctrine was to make the world safe for freedom and also to
spread it and freedom was defined as consisting of political democracy, free expression, religious
toleration, free trade and free markets. These freedoms, Bush said, were, “right
and true for every person, in every society”. And there’s no question that the Saddam
Hussein led Iraq of 2003 was not, by any of those definitions, free.
But the 2003 invasion of Iraq by the United States was predicated on two ideas. First,
that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction – chemical and biological weapons that they
were refusing to give up. And second, that there was, or at least may have been, a link
between Saddam Hussein’s Iraq and the Al Qaeda attacks of 9-11.
So in March 2003 the United States, Britain, and a coalition of other countries, invaded
Iraq. Within a month Baghdad was captured, Saddam Hussein was ousted, Iraq created a
new government that was more democratic than Saddam’s dictatorship, and then descended
into sectarian chaos. After Baghdad fell, President Bush declared
the end of major combat operations in Iraq, but troops soon found themselves trying to
manage an increasingly organized insurgency that featured attacks and bombings.
And by 2006 American intelligence analysts concluded that Iraq had become a haven for
Islamist terrorists, which it hadn’t been, before the invasion.
In fact, Saddam Hussein’s socialist government, while it occasionally called upon religion
to unify people against an enemy, was pretty secular.
Although fewer than 200 Americans had died in the initial assaults, by the end of 2006,
more than 3,000 American soldiers had been killed and another 20,000 wounded.
Hundreds of thousands of Iraqis had died in the conflict and the costs of the war which
were promised to be no more than $60 billion had ballooned to $200 billion dollars.
So that, and we try really hard here at Crash Course to be objective was a bit of a disaster.
But let’s now go back to the domestic side of things and jump back in time to the passage
of the USA PATRIOT act. Which believe it or not is an acronym for
the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and
Obstruct Terrorism act of 2001. Oh, Congress you don’t pass many laws these
days but when you do… mmhm…. there’s some winners.
The PATRIOT act gave the government unprecedented law enforcement powers to combat domestic
terrorism including the ability to wiretap and spy on Americans.
At least 5000 people connected to the Middle East were called in for questioning and more
than 1200 were arrested, many held for months without any charge.
The administration also set up a camp for accused terrorists in Guantanamo Bay, in Cuba,
but not the fun kind of camp, the prison kind, it housed more than 700 suspects.
The president also authorized the National Security Agency to listen in to telephone
conversations without first obtaining a warrant, the so-called warrantless wiretapping.
In 2013 Americans learned that NSA surveillance has of course gone much farther than this
with surveillance programs like PRISM which sounds like it’s out of an Orwell novel
– I mean both like the name and the actual thing it refers to.
Meredith would like us to point out that Prism is also the name of a Katy Perry album proving
that we here at Crash Course are young and hip and with it. Who is Katy Perry? Oh right,
she has that song in Madagascar 3. Sorry, I have little kids.
The Supreme Court eventually limited the executive branch’s power and ruled that enemy combatants
do have some procedural rights. Congress also banned the use of torture in a 2005 defense
appropriations bill sponsored by Republican John McCain who himself had been a victim
of torture in Vietnam. But the Defense Department did condone the
continued use of so-called “enhanced interrogation techniques” like waterboarding.
Which most countries do consider torture. But George W Bush won re-election in 2004,
defeating the surprisingly weak John Kerry, who was characterized as a “waffler” on
a number of issues including the Iraq war. Kerry’s history as a Vietnam protester and
also terrible windsurfer probably didn’t help him much.
Bush’s victory is still a bit surprising to historians admittedly at that moment the
Iraq war seemed to be going pretty well. But during Bush’s first term, the economy,
which is usually what really drives voters, wasn’t that great at all.
A recession began during 2001 and the September 11 attacks made it much worse. And while the
GDP did begin to grow again relatively quickly, employment didn’t recover, hence all the
description of it as a “jobless recovery.” 90% of the jobs lost in the 2001-2002 recession
were in manufacturing, continuing a trend that we had been seeing for 30 years. The
number of steelworkers dropped from 520,000 in 1970 to 120,000 in 2004.
And in his first term George W Bush actually became the first president since Herbert Hoover
to oversee a net loss of jobs. Now I want to be clear that that’s not necessarily
his fault as I have said many times before – economics are complicated. And presidents
do not decide whether economies grow. But at any rate George W Bush was re-elected
and went on to have an extremely controversial second term. Let’s go to the thoughtbubble.
In 2005 several events undermined the public’s confidence in the Bush administration. First,
Vice President Dick Cheney’s chief of staff was indicted for perjury and then House Majority
Leader Tom “The Hammer” DeLay was indicted for violating campaign finance laws.
Then in August 2005, Hurricane Katrina slammed into the gulf coast near New Orleans submerging
much of the city, killing nearly 1500 people, and leaving thousands stranded without basic
services. Disaster preparation and response was poor on the state, local, and federal
levels, but the slow response of the Department of Homeland Security and Federal Emergency
Management Agency was particularly noticeable as thousands of mostly African American New
Orleans residents suffered without food or water. Damage to the city was estimated at
around $80 billion dollars. And the Katrina disaster exposed the persistent poverty and
racial divisions in the city. While the Katrina response probably contributed
to the reversal of fortune for Congressional Republicans in the 2006 mid-terms, it was
more likely the spike in gasoline prices that resulted from the shutting down of refining
capacity in the gulf and increased demand for oil from rapidly growing China. Voters
gave Democrats majorities in both houses, and Nancy Pelosi of California became the
first woman Speaker of the House in American history.
And then, in 2007, the country fell back into recession as a massive housing bubble began
to deflate, followed by the near collapse of the American banking system in 2008.
Thought Bubble, thank you once again for the tremendous downer.
So, the Bush years are still in the recent past, and it’s impossible to tell just what
their historical significance is without some distance.
But the attacks on September 11 had far ranging effects on American foreign policy but also
on the entire world. Under the leadership of George W Bush the
United States began a global fight against terrorism and for freedom.
But as always, what we mean by the words is evolving and there’s no question that in
trying to ensure a certain kind of freedom we have undermined other kinds of freedom.
We’ll get to the even messier and murkier world of the 2008 financial collapse next
week. Until then, thanks for watching. Crash Course is made with the help of all
these nice people and it exists because of your support through Subbable.com – a voluntary
subscription service that allows you to subscribe monthly to Crash Course for the price of your
choosing. There are great perks over at Subbable, but
the biggest perk of all is knowing that you helped make Crash Course possible so please
check it out, thank you for watching, thanks for supporting Crash Course, and as we say
in my hometown, “Don’t forget to be awesome.”

Why a wave of women in politics hasn’t happened yet | Politics Explained


First there was Julia Banks’ shock defection to the crossbench. Then Minister for Women Kelly O’Dwyer announced she wouldn’t seek reelection. And then it was Julie Bishop – one of the
most electorally popular members of the Liberal Party. The Liberal Party were losing women left, right and centre. And the ones who stuck around weren’t pulling any punches on the challenges of being a female MP. You’d have thought we’d learnt something
in the last 117 years. You see – Australia was among the first countries in the world to grant women the vote. White women were granted the vote way back in 1902, a year after Australia stopped being a bunch of colonies under the British empire, and started being an independent country. Unless you were Aboriginal, that is. Aboriginal men and women were forced to wait until 1962 before they were granted full rights to vote in federal elections. The right to vote came hand-in-hand with the right to stand for office. And despite that, it would take four decades before we actually had any women in Parliament. That was in 1943, when Enid Lyons was voted into the House of Reps, and Dorothy Tangney into the Senate. They were groundbreakers, elected while women in other parts of the world – like France and Italy – were still fighting for the right to have their voices heard. Given our impressive history, we must be absolutely killing it in the equality stakes now… right? Mmm, not quite. Unfortunately, women in Australia have a
long way to go before we reach parity in federal politics. Only one in three parliamentarians at a federal level are women. The big question is why? Women in politics – and especially those in leadership positions – have often been the target of criticism that’s based more
on their gender than their policies. “Which – If I can finish now.” *meows* “Oh yes, why don’t you meow when a women does that?” “Ah, I think I can say (they) have a bit of sex appeal.” “He confirmed that he had yelled ‘You should stop shagging men, Sarah’.” “Shocked, I told him he was a creep. His reply was to tell me to ‘F… off’.” You can see why maybe politics isn’t an
attractive option for a lot of women. Working in Parliament isn’t exactly an easy ride, and the hours and demanding workload are especially difficult if you have small
kids. Back in 2009, Sarah Hanson-Young was ejected from the Senate for bringing her two-year old in with her because her toddler was deemed a “visitor”. In fact, it wasn’t until 2016 that parents
were allowed to bring infants into the chamber. Greens Senator Larissa Waters gave multitasking a whole new meaning, when she breastfed her daughter while addressing the Senate in 2017. But what if we applied a bit of a heavier hand to fixing gender disparity in Parliament? Labor’s paving the way using quotas – that
is, affirmative action where a percentage of seats or candidates are set aside for women or other under-represented groups. They’re different from targets, which
are aspirational rather than set in stone. Back in 1994, Labor announced it would set aside 35 per cent of winnable seats for female candidates. That was later increased to 40 per cent, with a target of parity by 2025. They’re pretty close – right now about 46 per cent of federal Labor parliamentarians are women. “There are seven women now in Cabinet.” “That is the highest number of women ever in a Federal cabinet in Australia.” Scott Morrison may be playing up the number of women in his cabinet, but the Liberal party itself isn’t doing so well. It has half the rate of women as the Labor party – 23 per cent. “I have no problem filling seven slots for women in my cabinet and potentially more, because I have so many great women to choose from.” The Nats fare even worse – only 2 of their
21 Federal parliamentarians – or 9 per cent – are women, as they themselves acknowledge. “Both the women in my party – Bridget McKenzie, my deputy leader, and Michelle Landry – are ministers.” About half the world uses quotas or designated seats for women. The country that’s leading the way isn’t one you’d expect. In the 1990s, Rwanda was in the middle of a bloody civil war, and fewer than one in five parliamentarians were women. After the bloodshed the country drew up a
new constitution, and in it proposed a bold new initiative – that 30 per cent of seats should go to women. In 2019, that’s more than doubled. So we know that quotas have an impact. Why then is there so much opposition to them? It boils down to this: “I believe in any political organisation it
should be a matter of one’s own Merit. The concern is that by promoting someone based on their gender, they’re not choosing the best person for the job. But when you look back at some of the behaviour women in Parliament have been subjected to in recent years, it’s worth asking ourselves if the current system really is choosing the best people for the job. “Peace out.”