Party Instability: Why American Politics Feels Broken



American politics feels more chaotic and unstable than ever our political parties have sorted into ideological opposites but there's a reason for all this turmoil America's political instability is occurring because of deep ongoing economic and demographic structural changes that are causing existing voting blocs to regroup and reconsider which issues motivate them and which party they support as a result control of the legislative and executive branches keeps shifting back and forth and notably these structural changes are affecting countries all over the world what is stable today isn't stable tomorrow and political parties have to adjust in order to find positions that win them a majority of voters luckily there's a reason to be hopeful this has happened before in our history for example in response to the Great Depression Democrats found a winning combination of issues with the New Deal they promised voters security from financial ruin made welfare a popular voting platform and as a result went on to control Congress for 60 years today political parties are struggling to find a winning combination of positions on the challenges that are causing people to change political allegiances including global trade immigration automation access to health care and inequality once one political party figures out a winning combination of policies that can consistently win them elections political stability will return you

Do Government Shutdowns Work?



President Obama recently used executive orders
to make major changes to the United States immigration policy, an act that did not sit
well with the right. Some Republicans are proposing to fight back against the President’s immigration
overhaul with threats of another government shutdown. But, what exactly does it mean to shutdown
the government and is it an effective political tool? Well, a government shutdown happens when Congress
does not pass funding legislation put forth by the Executive Branch. Basically, if Congress doesn’t pass an agreed
upon annual budget, federal programs begin to shut down. This usually happens because the two sides cannot agree on a major issue. In 2013 the Republicans in the House passed
budgetary amendments that would harm Obamacare and the
Democratic controlled Senate rejected the budget. There was more back and forth between the
two sides, but this difference ultimately resulted in a government shutdown. However, even if the Obamacare changes passed
through the Senate, the President would have used
his veto power, which would have also resulted in a government shutdown. Every year in order to avoid a shutdown, the
House, the Senate and the President all need to come to an agreement
on the budget. So what happens when the government shuts
down? Welp, the President and Congress still get
paid, but many other people do not. Federal employees are split into two categories, essential
and non-essential personnel, with the latter being forced to go home unpaid. Anyone that works in national security, including
embassies abroad, federal prisons, border patrols, emergency
and disaster workers and those who operate the power grid are considered essential personnel. Almost everyone else is considered non-
essential. This used to include Military personnel, but
in 2013 Congress passed a bill ensuring them a paycheck. In 2013 federal programs like the National
Institute of Health, Department of Housing and the Department of Homeland Security all
took major blows. Over 400 National Parks and Monuments closed down, as did the Environmental
Protection Agency and parts of the Department of Veterans Affairs. The government estimates that about 800,000
government workers went unpaid during the shutdown. So, is shutting down the government an effective
political tool? The answer is. Sometimes. During a shutdown, the public starts to turn
on political parties and both sides feel pressure to get things done. In 1978 there was a shutdown that lasted 18
days, mostly over President Carter vetoing money for an aircraft carrier
he thought was wasteful spending. In the end, congress relented and the budget went through
without that line item. A similar outcome occurred in a 1982 shutdown which defunded
a missile program that President Reagan wanted. But usually shutdowns are resolved by passing
temporary budgets that give the disagreeing sides more time to compromise. There have been 18 shutdowns since 1976 and
they each happen for their own reasons. One time the government shut down for an entire
day, because Congress just didn't get around to voting
on a budget in time. Our elected officials aren't the only ones
who have to make big decisions… Ever wonder if college is actually worth the investment? Our friends over at Life Noggin just made
a fantastic video about it. Check it out here, and don’t forget to subscribe
to TestTube!

Congressional Delegation: Crash Course Government and Politics #13



This episode of Crash Course
is brought to you by Squarespace. Hi I'm Craig and this is Crash Course Government
and Politics and today we're going to cross the streams of the legislative and executive
branches and talk about delegation. I thought we weren't supposed to cross
the streams Stan?! Ooh, that's Ghostbusting. Sorry about that. We're far away from the text of the Constitution here, deep in the realm of informal powers. But basically, delegation explains why the
President is so powerful, even though the Consitution and its framers were terrified of creating a Presidentzilla. (Squeaky dinosaur noise) [Theme Music] So, what exactly is delegation? First of all, to clear up some confusion, it's not the same as being a delegate, which in Political Science has two meanings. That sounds like we're making it more confusing Stan. First off, a delegate is a representative at
something like a caucus, or in Congress. Usually, in the US, when we talk about delegates it's in the context of political conventions and choosing Presidential candidates. Political scientists also talk about the delegate role that a representative can have. If a representative is acting like a delegate she does what her constituents want, acting in their interests as much as she can. The other role that a representative can
have is that of a trustee. When a representative behaves like a trustee, he acts in what he believes are the best interests of the community as a whole. In general, the Senate was designed to act more like trustees and the House to be more like delegates. But neither of those is the delegation we're talking about. Congressional delegation happens when Congress gives, or delegates, a power to the Executive branch through legislation. Whenever Congress sets up an agency or program, it decides how much discretion to give the agency's personnel in doing whatever job Congress created the agency to do. The greater the discretion, the more power Congress delegates. This is how delegation works in general. The amount of discretion that Congress can give an agency varies a lot. Sometimes the laws that Congress writes have very specific instructions on what the agency can do and how it can do it, severely limiting the agency's discretion. A good example of Congress limiting an agency's discretion is the Tax Code, which is about 26 hundred pages long, without even including all the very
detailed rules and regulations that the IRS has to follow. Even with thousands of pages of rules, sometimes
the IRS acts beyond its discretion, as it did when it investigated the tax exempt status of 501C4 groups
linked to the Tea Party. Remember that scandal? Other times, Congress grants broad discretion to agencies. We'll learn more about this when we talk about bureauracracies in future episodes. But as you might imagine, agencies will try to take all the power they can get. OSHA Regulations are a good example of an agency having broad discretion over its rules. One thing to remember is that even when Congress does delegate powers to the Executive branch, which can look like trouble for the whole separation of powers thing, these delegated powers can still be check by the Courts, which can review laws and bureaucratic rules and regulations. The most memorable time that this happened was when the Court overturned the legislative veto in the famous INS versus CHADHA case. What?! You've never heard of
INS versus CHADHA? Well, look it up! So that's what delegation is. Fair enough. But it doesn't explain why Congress delegates powers to the Executive branch. For this, I think we need a little help from the Thought Bubble. There are three reasons that Congress delegates power to the Executive branch. Practical reasons, historical reasons and political reasons. To start with the practical reasons, Congress delegates power because it has to. Today's government, whether you like it or not, does a lot of things, and it would be pretty much impossible for Congress to administer all the programs that it creates. Imagine your local Congressman taking the time to inspect meat like the USDA does. You could also make a constitutional argument that Congress should delegate power since execution of laws is the job of the Executive branch. There's another practical reason for delegating. Writing detailed legislation is really hard, and since Congressmen are not usually experts in the policies they create, it's often better to let the people who will be implementing the rules have more say in what the rules will be. Congress also delegates for historical reasons. In fact, until the 20th Century, any governing that the National Government did do was done by Congress, and you'll remember that was the age of dual federalism, so most of the governing was done by the states. When Congress did delegate power, it sought to keep it away from the President. For example, the Interstate Commerce Commission, which was established to regulate railroads, was set up as an independent regulatory commission. Things started to change in the progressive era
when the national government began to actually regulate things, like the aforementioned
meat. Thanks Upton Sinclair! But the size and reach of the federal government really exploded with the New Deal. Now, one story of the New Deal is that FDR took the initiative and expanded executive power by creating all sorts of new agencies. Sending us down the path to the large scale government we know and love, or hate. But that's not the whole story. The problems facing the US overwhelmed Congress, so they delegated power to the Executive branch and the federal government grew into something approaching what we know it as today. The key thing to remember is that the New Deal was primarily a legislative program of laws that created new agencies and programs, not just a series of executive orders. Thanks Thought Bubble. The political reasons for delegation may sound cynical, and I guess they are, but they reflect the political reality that getting blamed for a bad outcome can cost you an election. Often Congress grants broad discretion in a law so that they can avoid responsibility and/or blame the Executive branch if it goes sour. You saw this in the debate over Obamacare, if you're being generous you'd call it a debate, you could call it a playground slap fight. So this is a good place to stop because it leads us into the next topic, bureauracracy, that we're going to take up in the next few episodes. But before we end, let me point out two important things. The first is that Congressionally delegated power is always contingent on time, place and national mood. Congress has the power to rescind, amend or claim oversight over the powers it delegates. Although, as we'll see, it's hard to control bureauracracies. Congress can do it if they want to and they can also draft laws more carefully to set strong limits. Who is in office at the time the law is written often can have a big effect on the degree of power Congress delegates. As a general rule, when there's unified government
with one party controlling both Congress and the White House, Congress will delegate more power to the Executive. Because he's their bro, or she's their bro. Historical context can matter too. After September 11th Congress delegated a lot of authority to the Executive branch to protect Americans from terrorism. And when the country is at war Congress tends to delegate to the Executive branch too. The second important thing to remember about delegation is that overall it represents a shift of power from the Legislative to the Executive branch. Why this has happened is complicated, and whether it's a good thing or a bad thing is an important and interesting discussion that you should have in your classes and with your friends. And with your grandma, and with
your grandma's friends. But that it has happened is a fact that you, and your grandma, and your grandma's friend need to recognise. Thanks for watching, I'll see you next week. Crash Course Government and Politics is produced in association with PBS digital studios. Support for Crash Course US Government comes from Voqal. Voqal supports non profits that use technology and media to advance social equity. Learn more about their mission and initiatives at voqal.org. Crash Course was made with the help of these nice delegates. Thanks for watching.

The American President's Cabinet Explained



I'm mr. beat I'm not the President of the United States this dude is he makes up the executive branch of the American government the branch that carries out or enforces the laws that the legislative branch makes and the judicial branch interprets but it's not just him it's his vice president who is currently this dude but it's not just these two dudes in fact there's a huge team working with them it's commonly referred to as the cabinet in this video I will explain the purpose and history of the cabinet so let's start with the Constitution Article 2 section 2 says the president gets some help he or she doesn't have to do the job alone the cabinet's official role is to give the president advice based on their expertise the Constitution actually doesn't say anything explicitly about a cabinet the word cabinet comes from the Italian word cabinet though which means a small private room you know a place to talk about important stuff without interruptions the first president to use the term was James Madison who called his meetings quote the president's cabinet over the years as the country has grown the cabinet has grown George Washington the first president and still my favorite one by the way held the first cabinet meeting on February 25th 1793 he had just four department heads there his secretary of states Thomas Jefferson Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton Secretary of War Henry Knox and Attorney General Edmund Randolph yeah Jefferson and Hamilton spent much of the meeting fighting over the creation of a National Bank today the meetings are bigger the cabinet officially includes the heads of fifteen executive departments so what the heck are these cabinet members in charge of well a lot the secretary of states who is currently Rex Tillerson mostly deals with foreign policy Tillerson presides over the State Department which employs around 69 thousand people and has a 2017 budget of over fifty billion dollars the secretary of the Treasury who is currently Steve minutia is the president's chief economic adviser although the position used to oversee Feder law enforcement agencies until 2003 the Department of the Treasury employs over 86,000 people and has a 2017 budget of over thirteen point three billion dollars the Secretary of War is now called the Secretary of Defense I guess that sounds less aggressive and more like we're all about peace and love man anyway that changed in 1947 the Secretary of Defense who is currently James Madison charge of well you know defense more specifically command and control and the carrying out of missions the Department of Defense is the largest department by far it employs over two point eight seven million people and as 2017 budget is over five hundred and eighty two point seven billion dollars the Attorney General currently jeff Sessions is the chief law enforcement officer and highest lawyer of the federal government sessions heads the Department of Justice which employs over 113 thousand people and it's 2017 budget is over twenty nine billion dollars the u.s. created the Department of the Interior on March 3rd 18-49 today the Secretary of the Interior is Ryan Zinke he and his department are responsible for maintaining and conserving most federal lands and natural resources and currently employs over 70,000 people with an annual budget in 2017 of thirteen point four billion dollars on May 15th 1862 Abraham Lincoln created what is today called the department of agriculture today the Secretary of Agriculture is sonny Perdue and he and his department are responsible for carrying out federal laws relating to farming forestry and food hey I like food the department has around one hundred and six thousand employees in its 2017 budget is over one hundred and fifty 1 billion dollars on Valentine's Day 1903 the u.s. created what is today called the Department of Commerce which is all about looking for ways to grow the American economy today it's led by the Secretary of Commerce Wilbur Ross his department employs around 44,000 people and it's 2017 budget is 9.8 billion dollars on March 5th 1913 the last day of his presidency William Howard Taft created the Department of Labor which is all about finding ways to help workers seeking work and those seeking away out of work headed by the Secretary of Labor who is today Alex a Costa the Department employs more than 17,000 people and as 2017 budget is over twelve point eight billion dollars in 1933 Frances Perkins became the Secretary of Labor and the first woman to ever serve in the cabinet the u.s. established the Federal Security Agency on July 1st 1939 that morphed into the Department of Health Education and Welfare on April 11th 1953 but today is called the Department of Health and Human Services currently headed by Eric Hagen the department promotes policy that focuses on the health of Americans and recently gained a lot of power after Obamacare went into effect it currently employs around 80,000 people in his 2017 budget is 1.2 billion dollars on September 9th 1965 President Lyndon Johnson created the Department of Housing and Urban Development as part of his Great Society initiative its mission is to help Americans get quality affordable housing but it is also used to coordinate disaster response across the country currently headed by Ben Carson the department employs over 8400 people and as 2017 budget is over 60 billion dollars Congress created the Department of Transportation on October 15 1966 to help provide the country with a safe and efficient transportation network currently headed by Elaine Chao the department employs over 58,000 people and as 2017 budget is over ninety 8.1 billion dollars it's three agencies of government when I get there that are gone commerce education and the what's the third one there let's see the third agency of government I would I would do away with the education the Commerce and let's see I can't the third one I can't sorry oops well he couldn't remember the name of the department but I bet he remembers it now he's currently in charge of it this dude is Rick Perry the Secretary of Energy and head of the Department of Energy which is in charge of the country's nuclear weapons program and nuclear reaction production for the Navy it also aids the country's energy needs whether it be through energy conservation or research or waste disposal the u.s. founded the department on August 4th 1977 it's 2017 budget was over 32 billion dollars and it employs more than 160,000 people the u.s. created the Department of Education on October 17 1979 currently headed by Betsy DeVos its main purpose is to manage and coordinate federal assistance to education but it also collects data on the country's schools and enforces federal educational laws it employs more than 4,400 people and it's 2017 budget is more than two hundred and nine billion dollars yeah that's a lot of student loans and grants for college while the US has provided benefits to its veterans dating back to the Revolutionary War it didn't create what's now called the Department of Veterans Affairs until 1930 and didn't become cabinet level until 1989 the current Secretary of Veterans Affairs is David Shulkin and the department's main job is to provide essential services to American veterans its 2017 budget is more than 182 billion dollars and it employs more than three hundred and seventy-seven thousand people and last but certainly not least is the Department of Homeland Security created in the aftermath of 9/11 on November 25th 2002 sure it's all about keeping America safe but more specifically there focuses anti-terrorism border security Immigration and Customs cyber security and disaster prevention and response after taking on FEMA the newest cabinet member it is also the third largest with a 2017 budget of more than forty point six billion dollars and over 240,000 employees the current Secretary of Homeland Security is Kearse gen Nielsen pending Senate approval that is all 15 department heads are in the line of succession meaning that if the president vice-president Speaker of the House and the president por tempore of the US Senate all died these folks would be next up to take the president's spot that's why Kiefer Sutherland became president at one time even though he was just the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development wait a second was that real life no yeah I'm pretty sure that's just a TV show come to think of it the president nominates the department heads and presents them to the Senate to be approved by a simple majority aka 51 of the 100 senators approved the vice president doesn't need Senate approval as he or she is elected but neither does the White House chief of staff who is basically the president's personal assistant because the chief of staff manages the president's schedule and manages the White House staff he or she is often seen as a gatekeeper of sorts the chief of staff actually isn't technically a part of the cabinet though he or she is what we call a cabinet-level official cabinet-level officials attend cabinet meetings but are not official cabinet members it includes the Trade Representative Director of National Intelligence ambassador to the United Nations the OMB director the CIA director of the EPA Administrator and SBA administrator you're all fired all four of fire go home cabinet members except the vice-president can be fired by the president fairly easily yeah the current president probably has made that quite evidence all cabinet members are subject to impeachment by the House of Representatives if they act up now here's the thing I haven't even got to the individual federal agencies that both fall under the umbrella of the department's or our independent agencies you know like the FBI CIA Federal Trade Commission Social Security Administration National Park Service Corporation for Public Broadcasting NASA and many others I am sure you have also heard of for the most part they are all part of the executive branch as well how many federal agencies are there well I had a really hard time figuring this out I honestly don't think anyone really knows there might be 430 according to one source I found or there might just be 115 according to the administrative conference of the United States which recently printed quote there is no authoritative list of government agencies unquote we do know that there are approximately 4 million people who work for the federal government probably maybe that number is not for sure either there's also all the state and local workers who get federal aid not to mention the millions of contractors who also work for the federal government the bottom line is the executive branch of government is huge when I see diagrams and government textbooks that look like this I just work chuckle that's ridiculous it's not just the president and his cabinet we're talking about a huge team of people that work underneath them millions of employees hundreds of billions of dollars the cabinet has a lot of power and they do a lot to help run this country they are a force to be reckoned with thanks to Ian for suggesting that I make a video about the president's cabinet ian is a longtime and loyal supporter of the channel on patreon and he's just a really smart young man who gives me hope for the future so thank you in thank you for watching and I will see you next Friday thanks ravit for creating this great video now this video only included the departments that were actually created there are actually many departments that were scheduled to be created but never were so if that interests you comment in the description because I've actually considered making a video about this topic

The 3 Branches of Government Explained



what do you mean and welcome to hip Hughes history where we're going to do an oldie but goodie today a flashback lecture for the boys and girls of America and maybe even men and women too a basic lecture on the three branches of government what you need to know to get through this life if you're going to be calling yourself an American citizen so why don't we go giddy up for the learning right now and go get er done so my fellow Americans and global citizens of the world let me first preface this by saying we've already done these lectures in much more detailed fashions so as I go through each article that we're going to cover I'm going to put up that video it'll be in the description down below so if you need more information you can go dive into those videos but for the basics I wanted to start off by kind of why the Constitution why three branches of government because that's most important that's probably more important than the little pieces and really the major concept of course is separation of power you've got to keep it separated separated because we learned and this is a very basic idea in American history that it kind of stinks when you only have a one-man rule situation when you have the king up on top of the pyramid sometimes the king can be a little great great if you know what I mean so we're never going to do that again now we're going to have that European style of monarchism where we're going to give power to one entity alone whether that is an executive a legislative or judicial why keep a way to be answer so that's the basic idea separation of power keep power separated because at the heart of the root is that something the heart of the root do roots have hearts at the heart of the matter is the idea that really power rests with people that we have natural rights that were born free free and proud I tell you and that the government's job is to keep that freedom that power that natural right safe that's the job of the government so if we're going to give that government power we're going to make sure it's really for them to take that away or just stop by our Liberty so that's why separation of powers and the other major idea is going to be checks and balances that we're going to set up a little bit of a mouse trap to make sure again that it's not easy to put power into motion to make laws to change things in my life because again the role of the governments to protect my Liberty that's the idea so if we're going to give these branches power we're going to make sure that one of the other branches can knock it down come full style I kid you but that is true for every power there is a check and a balance on that power so I will repeatedly be saying it's a check and balance make sure you listen for that kids so why don't we go line up the branches of power on the fence of learning and I'll see if I can help you knock it down all right basic learning alert the US Constitution is the basic set of directions the blueprint the plan for the United States of America so in that book of rules there are seven chapters and each chapter I'm kind of directs it's focused on a different entity of government or idea and the first three that's my dog dog and in those first three articles chapters we have one for each branch of government so the first one is going to be article 1 and that's written all about the legislative branch so we made the legislative branch first probably for a reason and now if you want to go watch that video there's the thumbnail right there to the description below and that'll break it down much more than I'm about to but the basic idea is first they're going to make laws that's the biggest deal of them all because laws have the power of force so we're going to make sure that if they have the right to make laws there's going to be checks and balances on that right but the first check and balance get this is inside Congress itself now when i say congress and i'm showing you that building right there that building is split in two right down the middle i don't really know how they split it but there is a Senate and a House of Representatives there are two bodies in Congress and in order to pass a law they need to both pass the same law now I'm not going to get into details but there's like 435 Congress people in the house and there's a hundred senators so you're talking about getting half of 535 thirty-eight people to agree very difficult to do so that's the first kind of roadblock is that to pass a law you got to pass the same law in both the House and the Senate sometimes they'll kind of play legislative ping-pong where they'll pass a law in the house send it over the Senate the Senate will be like I don't like that pot send it back to the house the house is like I don't like that part and it goes back and I can put them back and forth I kid you but that's the idea that I can go back and forth and that's there so there you have the first check and balance inside the actual Congress itself between the house and the Senate having to approve the same legislative language to make a law now they also have a huge kind of function in terms of oversight on the presidency now the judges do too will go over that but basically anytime the president picks somebody to be in government it's going to be Congress it's going to have to approve that person now this is specifically targeted to the Senate so now every time that the president picks somebody to be in the family of government they have to March themselves right over to the Senate and they have to have a confirmation hearing and they provide other types of oversight as well we're seeing that kind of you know unfolds every day in the news this is April 2017 as the House of Representatives and the Senate have oversight committees that are looking into kind of the monkey business of Russia in the election and whether or not the executive branch had anything to do with that it could be a farce it could be not a farce but that's the job of Congress is to provide oversight so most important thing they pass legislation it has to pass the House and the Senate in the exact same way let's go look at article two so article 2 is a pretty short article actually when you look at it especially when it's discussing specifics of executive power because we're talking about the presidency the executive so when we look in the actual Constitution the branch of government that is the executive we're going to see first that they enforce the law they're the ones that don't make the laws they don't interpret the laws they enforce congressional law so if the president wants to do something on immigration the president has to follow congressional law they can't make up a completely new way of dealing with that problem now the president also has enormous power in the judiciary as we mentioned before they pick the judges not only the Supreme Court judges who serve unlimited terms and are the highest court in the land but also all the federal court judges as well so that's a lot of power in terms how the law is going to be interpreted it depends who the president's going to get appointed on those courts but of course they've got to go to the Senate first check and balance how about that now the president also is the commander in chief so they're going to be able to make military decisions in order to keep the country safe but again those decisions can't violate law and also those decisions are kind of reliant on Congress because Congress passes the funding laws so it's hard to have a big war game with no money if you know what I mean so again check and balance you see where I'm going with this but really the president's power is in the sense that they are the figurehead of the country now this isn't in the Constitution this is what we call the unwritten Constitution but they are in a sense the chief of the nation if the aliens come down and go take me to your more dog barking if the aliens come down and say take me to your leader you're not going to take them to a senator you're going to take them to the President of the United States or the president United States has something we call the bully pulpit did I tell you where you're under the video on the executive branch you can go watch that and get more details well I just did and that bully pulpit is in a sense their tree stump they can stand on to kind of get the nation behind an idea so a lot of times the while they don't make laws they propose laws and they act as cheerleaders on that bully pulpit I can't lecture when dogs are barking behind me and the president can use that bully pulpit to get their message across now of course in the olden day someone like Teddy Roosevelt would ride the train across the country by the time we get to FDR its radio broadcasts of course in the 60s 70s and 80s it's going to be the television the boob tube then the Internet and now Twitter how about that so what else does the president do the president of course signs legislation or can veto legislation that's a check and balance on Congress's ability to pass legislation do you see how hard it's getting the pass of law now you understand why so that power rests with the President and the president also has a whole bunch of get-out-of-jail-free cards how about that a check on the judiciary it's called the power of pardon and the president can pardon anybody or commute a sentence less than a sentence for anybody convicted of a federal crime I even mentioned the word federalism but we do have states in here where they have their own governments so the president can't pardon somebody for a murder in Ohio unless they drag the body across state lines so let's go over that real quick again what can the president do the president enforces the law they use executive actions to do that the president is commander-in-chief the president can veto laws or sign laws the president can pardon people and the president can appoint people to the Supreme Court the judiciary and to course his cabinet and ambassadors and there's other appointments as well all right we seem to have another branch I want you to close your eyes and envision yourself with a big background so that was crazy take slack robe and such but of course we're talking about the judiciary and I'll point out that we have that video if you want to do the digging deeper if you know what I mean but just to kind of go over the very basics they don't really get a lot of power the outline of article 3 is basically kind of how they get their job and that's going to be first to be nominated by the president I told you that than to be approved by the Senate I told you that and then they get a job for a very long time they get a lifetime appointment and that's because we don't want judges who interpret the Constitution they are the referees of America we don't want them to be worrying about the fans going boo or yay so they have lifetime jobs and of course we have an appellate court structure there's different chords but way out of get shopping we have the Supreme Court who right now has nine members they are regulated in the numbers and all that by Congress but they really didn't originally have that much power we're not going to talk about it a lot but their original jurisdiction power really only deals with state out of state cases and ambassadors and these kind of weirdo situations their real power rests in their appellate jurisdiction meaning they hear appeals and at the end of the day we're just going to tell you Marbury vs. Madison because the absence of the definition of their power and the Constitution was decided in a Supreme Court case it's a little bit bizarre but we have a video for that too Marbury vs. Madison in the description below but the idea is that through this unwritten power which is hearing a case they gave themselves the power of judicial review so what does that mean just kind of breaking it down it means that if the legislative branch or the executive branch does something and there's a question of whether or not it's constitutional that it doesn't go against the words of the rulebook they have the power to strike it down we've seen this not with the Supreme Court but lower courts with Donald Trump's travel ban and of course there's a whole bunch of Supreme Court cases you're probably supposed to know already for school where you learned in school I hope which is going to illustrate that idea so really important the today what do you need to know judicial review that's the power for the Supreme Court yeah okay all right we didn't go over like how long they serve in different ways you get elected and all that jazz so make sure you check out those other videos if you want to do the deep dive or you could just read pick up a book because the more you know all right guys I'm done with you good dad I'll get out of here go do some homework or what it better go play a game about that all right guys I'm going to safe because I say at the end of every lecture I've ever done where attention goes energy flows and we'll see you guys next time that you press my buttons did I mention we have like 450 videos

Types of Bureaucracies: Crash Course Government and Politics #16



Hi I'm Craig and this is Crash Course: Government
& Politics and today we're going to do something we try to do a lot at Crash Course, punch
eagles. Also help you understand the news better. Now we're not going to explain it
like Ezra Klein, well we sort of will, or break it down into graphs and charts like
Nate Silver, or slow jam it like Jimmy Fallon. We're not going to slow jam it, Stan? Instead
Bureaucrat Jimmy and I are going to give you some tools you need to better understand news
stories and opinions about government and politics by describing the various types
of bureaucracies that affect our lives. Ain't that right, BJ? Yeah. [Theme Music] There are a number of ways we can try to make
sense of the vast federal bureaucracy, and one of the most straightforward is to categorize
the different agencies by type. Now labeling 'em this way doesn't actually tell us what
they do but you'll see them labeled this way in books and articles so you should be familiar
with the terms that political writers use. The first type of bureaucracy is the cabinet-level
agency, also called the executive department. Each of the fifteen departments is usually
headed by a secretary, except the Justice Department, which is run by the Attorney General.
You can find a list of the executive departments in any good textbook and I bet there might
be a list on the internet somewhere too. Maybe. But the ones you hear the most about are the
State Department, the Department of Defense, and the Treasury Department. Others, like
the Department of the Interior or Housing and Urban Development you usually only hear
about when there's a new secretary, or a scandal. Executive departments mostly provide services
through sub-agencies. For example the FBI is technically part of the Department of Justice
and the FDA is part of the Department of Health and Human Services. There are also independent
agencies that are very similar to executive departments because their heads require Senate
confirmation. Well their whole body requires — their — I'm talking about the head like
they're the boss — the head of the agency. The best example here is the CIA: Central Intelligence
Agency, but NASA is another independent agency. Next we have the independent regulatory commissions
which are supposed to be further removed from presidential oversight, which makes them independent.
You can recognize them because they're usually called commissions, like the Federal Communications
Commission, the Federal Trade Commission, and the Securities and Exchange Commission.
They all have rule-making authority and the power to punish violations of the rules, often
through fines. If you pay attention to stories about banking, especially banking malfeasance,
you'll find plenty of stories about SEC fines. Last, and pretty much least, frankly, are
the government corporations that are supposed to make profits but in fact tend to rely on
government subsidies to stay afloat. The U.S. Postal Service and Amtrak are the best known,
and for most Americans these are the agencies with which we have the most contact, especially
the post office. A more useful way to think about bureaucracies
is in terms of what they actually do, their functions. Although the problem here is that
many bureaucracies have more than one function. Maybe the Thought Bubble can help us out.
Thought Bubble! Let's do this! Some bureaucracies primarily serve clients.
Many of the sub-agencies of the cabinet departments fit this bill, with the most obvious being
the Food and Drug Administration, which serves the public by testing and approving new drugs;
the Centers for Disease Control, which tries to do exactly what the name expects; and the
National Institutes of Health, which, among other things, sponsors research that improves
citizens health. All of these agencies are under the auspices of the Department of Health
and Human Services. Another good example of a client-serving agency is the Department of Agriculture,
which in addition to rating meat administers the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program,
which is the snappy new name for food stamps. A second function that many agencies perform
is to maintain the Union. One way agencies maintain the Union is by collection revenue,
because without money the county doesn't function. The main agency in charge of collecting revenue
is the IRS. A second form of maintaining the union is providing security for its citizens.
The Department of Justice, which prosecutes federal crimes and protects civil rights,
and the Department of Homeland Security, which, among other things, is in charge of airport
security, are the main agencies that ensure internal security. Bureaucracies also keep
Americans safe from external threats. This is the job of various intelligence services like the CIA
and NSA, and especially the Department of Defense. A third function of bureaucracies is to regulate
economic activity, primarily by creating and enforcing rules and regulations. Some of the
agencies primarily charged with enforcing regulations are housed within executive departments,
like OSHA, within the Department of Labor. Others like the FCC and SEC are independent. The fourth major function of bureaucracies
is closely related to regulating economic activity. Some bureaucracies have the primary
function of redistributing economic resources. Agencies concerned with fiscal and monetary
policy handle the inflow and outflow of money in the economy through taxes, spending and
interest rates. Providing direct aid to the poor or welfare is another function of bureaucracies
that is even more complex and controversial. Most of these agencies, like the Social Security
Administration provide direct services so we can see the overlap between the function
of agencies. Thanks Thought Bubble. I've been suggesting
that even though they aren't mentioned in the Constitution, bureaucracies are pretty
powerful, so I should probably explain where that power comes from. Basically, Thor's hammer. Actually no, it doesn't come from that at
all. It comes from Congress, which, as we've seen, delegates power to executive agencies
in varying degrees. But once the agencies exist they create powers for themselves by
maximizing their budgets. Bureaucracies lobby for their own interests and the bigger and more important
they are the more money they get from Congress. We tend to think that the nation defense is
important, so the Department of Defense is able to convince Congress to give it lots of money.
Although mo' money can lead to mo' problems as Biggie helpfully reminded us. Money is also
probably the most important lever of power in the U.S. In addition to getting money for themselves,
another source of bureaucratic power is the expertise
of bureaucrats themselves. The President, and especially Congress,
will often rely on bureaucratic experts to tell them how a policy will be implemented. The source of their
power is the expert's command of useful information. You shouldn't underestimate this, as any
number of technology companies will tell you. So those are two ways of thinking about bureaucracies.
I hope that they're helpful and at least when you hear about the FCC issuing a fine for
Janet Jackson's "wardrobe malfunction" or something, you'll understand who's doing the
punishing. And when you read about Congress cutting SNAP funding you'll be like "Oh
snap! That's tied up with the farm bill!" Thanks for watching. I'll see you next episode. Crash Course: Government & Politics is produced
in association with PBS Digital Studios. Support for Crash Course: Government comes from Voqal.
Voqal supports nonprofits that use technology and media to advance social equity. Learn
more about their mission and initiatives at voqal.org. Crash Course was made with the help of all
these wardrobe malfunctions. Thanks for watching.

The Singapore Government Explained – Part I: The 3 Branches of Government



Singapore is an island Republic it is governed by a written constitution which forms the supreme law of the land and sets out the functions and duties of the various branches of government so how does the Singapore government work three branches any a Ministry of Education and law Executive Council serving two organs of state ministries and state boards as I could be the legislative and judiciary the three branches of government consists of the executive the legislative and the judiciary the executive branch of government is responsible for the execution and enforcement of laws as well as the administration of public affairs the executive branch consists of the president the Prime Minister and the capital executive authority is vested in the president and it is exercisable by him the cabinet and any Minister authorised by the Cabinet the president is a head of state while the Prime Minister is the head of the government and leads the cabinet the president functions were largely ceremonial from 1965 until 1991 in 1991 following a major constitutional amendment the office of the president became an elected one and the president was conferred certain powers over the government spending of Singapore's reserves and over appointments to keep public offices the president appoints the prime minister who commands the confidence of the majority of the MPs on the advice of the Prime Minister the President appoints other ministers from the MPs perform the cabinet the cabinet is responsible for all government policies in the day-to-day administration of the affairs and it's collectively responsible to Parliament to run the country in a suitable democratic way hmm what the other windy Londo help ya Singaporeans hmm keep singing point order hmm draw up legit boss the Parliament is a legislative branch in Singapore the functions of parliament in Singapore include making laws controlling the state's finances and checking on the actions of the executive as of December 2013 there are 99 seats in parliament of these 87 are occupied by elected MPs while the other seats are occupied by three non constituency MPs and nine nominated MPs MPs are elected into Parliament via the general elections which are usually held every five years when the general elections are called for Parliament this resolved the third branch of government is the judiciary whose role is to interpret and apply the laws passed by the legislature the judiciary operates independently from the legislature and the executive there are two tiers to the court system in Singapore the Supreme Court and the state courts the Supreme Court consists of the High Court and the Court of Appeal serious crimes and civil cases with claims exceeding two hundred and fifty thousand dollars are heard in the High Court while the Court of Appeal he has all appeals against any decision made by the High Court in its original jurisdiction the head of the judiciary is the Chief Justice who sits in the Court of Appeal alongside the judges of Appeal the other judges of the Supreme Court are the judges of the High Court and judicial commissioners all judges including the Chief Justice are appointed by the president if he acting in his discretion concurs with the advice of the prime minister the state courts hear cases involving less serious crimes and civil claims below 250 thousand dollars and comprised of the district courts magistrates courts juvenile courts coroner's courts and small claims tribunals now that you know how our government is organized let's find out more about how laws are made in Singapore or check out chip OWI Parliament gov as you need to find out more you