Sarah Howe | Two Systems || Radcliffe Institute


[MUSIC PLAYING] -Thanks so much, Judy. Wow. Somebody really did some
proper sleuthing there. There were some bits of
bio that I hadn’t even thought about for a long time. And thank you so much
to you all for coming. I’m having a really
wonderful year so far, wandering lonely as a cloud
in my Radcliffe office. I thought I would try
to do something slightly different from what I usually do
this afternoon and read poems, but try to talk a little bit
more around them than normal. And I guess this is because,
for once, the audience might actually have more lawyers or
physicists in it than poets. And I assure you, this
never, ever happens. So I guess I hoped
that this wouldn’t seem an exercise in saying, oh,
these poems are so difficult. Look what clever things
I’ve put into them. It’s more me trying to
show the way that I think and the sort of
serendipitous connections and leaps and
suturings of thought that go into a poem for me. Given that it’s
working, at the end, towards this current
project of mine, an erasure poem about and for
Hong Kong called “Two Systems.” There’s a sort of
teleological strand running through this talk. So the poems I’m
going to read today might seem a little
bit single-minded, because they’re all,
effectively– to my mind– variations on a theme. So I do have poems about
buses and theoretical physics and love and walking
home in the rain. But I’m not going to be
reading any of those today. And this first
poem, I think, could act as a sort of prologue. Because it’s the
same but different to the others, in as much
as all the other poems I’m going to read
explore the Chinese side of my heritage via–
more-or-less directly– my mum. Whereas, this poem is one
that’s firmly placed in England, my dad’s country. If you drive northeast
from Cambridge, UK– where I used to live–
for a couple of hours, you’ll eventually
reach a place called Binham Priory in Norfolk. And there’s a rood
screen there, which is an object that has
fascinated me for a long time. I think, partly,
because it feels to me like history in motion. It’s an emblem of
history in some sense. So the rood screen,
it’s a painting of saints, which has been
whitewashed and, then, over-painted in black-letter
script with text from Cranmer’s Bible. And this was quite common in the
early reformation in England. And often, the
text painted on top was of prohibitions
against idolatry. So this object is
a sort of emblem of transition from a
medieval culture of image worship to this sort of
self-proclaimed Protestant culture of the Word. But the punctum that made this
into the germ of a poem for me was the fact that
the fingers that have rubbed away
at the whitewash have done it selectively. So the faces are the
only areas that have been systematically uncovered. And as the historian
Eamon Duffy revealed, people thought of
this of white-washing, even at the time, as
a reversible process. That Catholic sympathizers
might whitewash church art instead of more
permanent sorts of destruction. So I’m going to read
you this poem called “Acts and Monuments,”
which has this epigraph, as obedient children, that you
give not yourselves over unto your old lusts. At the priories fall,
its people came too late, amidst clamour and cries. The glistering saints, torn
from their Sunday height– each gilded screen
and tabernacle, each tilted face quite slubbered
over, washed with white. As homily blurred into
homily, Binham’s flock continued to gaze. A whole generation,
disobedient children, thumbed at the
lime’s forgetfulness, hoping to coax
from stubborn chalk that serpent’s peep-holed
green, a flash of wheatsheaf hair almost as bright
as it ever was. What I want to talk about
today goes to the heart, I think, of what poetry is. Heather McHugh puts it very
beautifully when she says, all poetry is fragment. It’s shaped by its
breakages at every turn. And I suppose, this is the
most recognizable thing let’s you distinguish
verse from prose, that jagged, broken,
right margin. Though I am going to actually
read a couple of prose poems today, which I suppose
trouble that division. But for me, at least, poetry
is an art, fundamentally shaped by the white frame
of the page, that’s tuned into the unsung
as much as the singing, to wordlessness
as much as words. And so, as that poem “Acts
and Monuments” suggested, I’m going to be
talking, especially, to this idea of vacancy
somehow made visible, how poems might frame an
absence and, in the process, make it paradoxically
more present. And this is a painting that does
just this, frame an absence. It’s attributed to a 10th
century Chinese painter Li Cheng. But it’s actually,
probably, a copy of it a couple of centuries later. And my thinking
about this picture has been really indebted to
the wonderful Chicago-based art-historian Wu
Hung, who’s done lots of thinking about
ruins and monumentality; memory, absence, and
presence in Chinese art. And for him, this picture
is a quintessential example of something called [CHINESE],
so lamenting the past. It’s sometimes
translated as nostalgia. But actually, I think
it’s not quite nostalgia. And it’s not quite ubi sunt. It’s a bit different to the
idea of confronting ruins in Western culture. But it’s this moment
when past and present are standing face-to-face. But as Wu Hung points out, the
funny thing about this picture is that this stele–
so stele, of course, are these monuments which
have names or events or deeds inscribed on them
that need to be remembered. It’s blank. So unlike in poems
of the period, which very commonly depict ruins–
so you have your poet standing on the
hill looking down at the ruins of the old
capital and thinking, oh gosh. Lament, lament past. What you have here is this
odd displacement, whereby the stele is intact, right
down to the tortoise base. In fact, this impression
of wizenedness and ages is displaced onto these
contorted trees, if anything. The stele’s intact. But it’s blank. As if the surface, the
inscription, the writing, has been worn away by time. And with that in
mind, I want to read this poem called “Yangtze.” Although I was born and spent
my early childhood in Hong Kong. I didn’t actually ever
visit mainland China until I was in my early 20s. And this was back in 2004. And one of the first things
I did, as good tourists do, is go on a cruise
down the Yangtze. But at that time, work for
the Three Gorges Dam project had already begun. So the water level had
already risen by 1/3. So it was up to here in 2004. Whereas, now, it’s
sort of up to here. So your vista of
valley and gorge is quite different to how
it was a decade ago now. But what was most
extraordinary at that time was traveling down
this landscape, which felt like it should be in
a classical Chinese painting. You would periodically encounter
these towns and villages that had been not just
emptied and evacuated but positively stripped down
to the bare cause of buildings, ready to go under the water. Yangtze. The moon glimmers in
the brown channel. Strands of mist wrap
the mountainsides, crowded with firs. Declining cliffs sink beneath
fast water, by remote paths, twisting pines. Far downstream, two sides of a
half-built bridge fail to meet. Our crude boat, chugging,
points to Chongqing. As someone I now forget once
said, journeying is hard. My face greets the
evening breeze. I listen, the dream of a place. A cormorant dives
by trembling light. From the white eyelet of a
star, the sound of ripples. A fishermen skirting shore
in his high-prowed skiff, crossing bamboo oars, comes up
with a jolt. Nets catch, not fish, but the wizened finger
of a submerged branch. For below, a sunken
valley persists. Slick, bare trunks,
furred in wafting fronds, have water for
sky, ghost forest. Roots rot deep in the hill
where buried rock is still dry. Windows film, doors drift open
in the empty concrete shells of houses. Towns that once held hundreds of
thousands slowly filling with– What? What is it they fill with? Someone I now forget once
said, journeying is hard. The moon glimmers in
the brown channel. Wu Hung says one more
interesting thing about this picture,
which is that it has a relationship with the
convention for representing Chinese ancestral tablets
in art of this period, that they too are
depicted as blank tablets. And the idea was that
you should project, into that space, the image
of your own ancestors. This is something
that is especially interesting and tinged
with sadness for me. Because my mum was an orphan. So I have never known any
Chinese family except for her. So when I look into the blank
of my mental ancestral tablet, it is literally blank. And this is something that feeds
into the title poem of my book, “Loop of Jade.” You’re not meant to be able
to read this, by the way. This is just to show you what
it looks like on the page. The poem takes its title
from the jade bracelet– this one– that my
grandmother gave me as a baby. And the poem is a way to think
about lines of inheritance, search for roots, but also
things that one might not want to pass on. But the most important things
in the poem are left unsaid. So for example, my grandmother
wasn’t my grandmother by blood. And indeed, I never knew her. But she was, rather, the
women who, after my mom was born and
abandoned, slightly, tenuously took her
in, adopted her. This was in Guangdong
Province in 1948, ’49. So the Communists
came to power just as my mom was a few months old. And then, this woman took
her just across the water to the safe haven
of Hong Kong Island. So this is to illustrate
that the poem takes place in this counterpoint
of two shapes. And I’ve only actually
performed this poem once before. And I think that experience
showed me that I’m not really quite up to it. Because it demands two voices,
which I can’t quite do. So the prose sections
are putatively me. And then, the little
sections tell the story of the butterfly
lovers, which is a folktale that all Chinese
children would know. Which goes something
like, girl disguises herself so she can go to school. Falls in love with fellow pupil. But when she’s married off to an
older man, he dies from grief. And then, she hauls
herself into his grave. Everything’s awful. But then, God takes pity. And they’re turned
into the butterflies. And they’re reunited. And it’s only towards
the end of the poem that you discover that these
fragments of this story are being told in
my mother’s voice. So I thought I would just read
a couple of the prose sections. And by the way, I should say
that this alternation of prose and verse is something
that was inspired for me by a Japanese form
called haibun, which is actually how many of the original
haikus were presented. You would have these
journalistic prose, every day sections and, then,
this heightening into little haiku sections. So I thought I’d read a
couple of the prose sections. And then, there’s a change
of key on the last two pages of the poem. So the penultimate
section, this one– which is about trying
to score visually, hesitation, difficulty. Not so much a
physical stuttering as a sort of
psychological hesitation. This is in my mum’s voice. And then, this last section
is back to me again. And you can follow along in
the handout, if you want to. But actually, I
wouldn’t recommend it. When the television has stayed
on too long, the channels ended and all the downstairs
lights switched off but one, sometimes,
rarely, my mother will begin to talk
without prelude or warning about her growing up. Then, her words feel pulled from
a dark and unreflective well, willed, and not willed. It isn’t that this
tacit contract is not tinged by our same
daily fumblings, but when the men
are asleep, I think she believes it’s someone
else’s turn to listen. Once she spoke of her
horror as a very small child at the communal kitchen in
their low-rise tenement. Half-outdoors in
that muggy climate, it ran across the whole
row, a corridor or terrace. This space– aside from
housing a blackened, static wok the size of a Western baby’s
bath– was also a latrine. Of squatting barefoot over
the cracked tile trench and trying not to breathe. How, despite
themselves, her eyes would follow to the nearby
drain, as it sprouted– here, she giggles, shivers–
the glistening bodies of cockroaches, like
obscene sucked sweets. I see them, the color
of rust or shit, hitching up from the
crusted grill on agile legs. Things scuttling from some
dank, subterranean chamber of the head. Her longest and most
empty pause, I’ve learned, comes before the word
“mother,” as in, my– mother, she could speak Shanghainese. This, one of her trademark
non-sequiters– at the table, the family would laugh– arrived
while scraping off dinner plates several months after
a trip of mine to Shanghai. It’s as though she’s
been conducting the conversation in
her head for some time and decides, disconcertingly,
to include you. Or one Christmas, tucking
the cooled mince pies into kitchen paper– I sometimes
think she wasn’t very reliable, my mother. What she told me, I don’t
know how much I can believe. In her mouth, that
noun worried at me. For I would never
naturally use it myself– mother– except
at an immigration office, perhaps, to total strangers
or inside the boundaries of a poem. She places it in the
room’s still air, with a kind of resolve
and, yet, a sense it’s not quite right,
and mis-translation. Like watching her wade
one dredged step at a time out into a wide gray
straight, myself a waving spot, unseen,
on the furthest shore. There was a man in
a nearby district. When I was young and my
mother short of money, there was a while–
a lot of times actually– when I was sent
to live with other people. That man was one
of those people. Looking back, it was better
than the school on Macau. I learned more at his house. There were other children
, other girls there too. At night, he would teach
us the old stories, all singing together. People, they used
to talk about him. These weren’t just nursery
rhymes, though I had never heard those before either. I mean, the classical
legends and tales. He had a bad reputation. The legends, like
Shakespeare, had a lot of girls who
dress up as boys, so they will be allowed
to go to school or to war. My mother heard about it,
had me sent back to her. When I was old enough, I had
to go to the school instead. There was one– “The
Butterfly Lovers”– it was a poem and also a song. I used to be able
to sing it all. He was kind to me. I didn’t think I ever
taught you that one. It thuds into my chest, this
pendant ring of milky jade. I wear it strung on an
old watch chain, meant for a baby’s bracelet. Into it’s smooth
circlet, I can just fit a quincunx of
five fingertips. Cool on my palm, it
rests, the sinople eye on a butterfly’s wing. When I was born, she took
it across to Wong Tai Sin– my mother’s mother–
to have it blessed. I saw that place– it’s
joss-stick incensed mist, the fortune-casting herd, their
fluttering, tree-tied pleas– only later, as a tourist. As for the jade, I never
wore or even saw it then. The logic runs
like this– if baby falls, the loop of
stone– a sacrifice– will shatter in her place. Painfully knelt
on the altar step, did the old woman shake out
a sheath of red-tipped sticks and pick one to entreat my fate? And if I break it
now, will I be saved? At exactly the same time as I
was working on that poem, “Loop of Jade,” I also started
work on a sequence of poems– very
different poems, not really autobiographical
in impetus, though I guess they do touch
on my life in certain oblique ways– based on Borges’
famous Chinese encyclopedia. I’m sure many of you know this,
possibly, encountered it– as I did– in the preface to
Foucault’s Order of Things, where Foucault talks about this
laughter that shattered all the landmarks of our thought. I’ll just read it. “These ambiguities,
redundancies, and deficiencies recall those attributed
by Dr. Franz Kuhn to a certain
Chinese encyclopedia entitled, The Celestial Emporium
of Benevolent Knowledge. On those remote
pages, it is written that animals are divided into,
A, belonging to the emperor; B, embalmed; C, tame;
D, sucking pigs; E, sirens; F, fabulous;
G, stray dogs; H, included in the
present classification; I, frenzied; J,
innumerable; K, drawn with a very fine camelhair
brush; L, others; M, having just broken
the water pitcher; N, that from a long way
off look like flies.” [LAUGHTER] So this Chinese encyclopedia
is cited– which is to say, invented– by Borges
in one of his essays. And I guess I always thought,
being half Chinese, half English, that this
piece of writing was somehow describing me. And I think Foucault is
right when he recognizes that this is not so much
about the “exotic” charm of another system of thought. It’s about the
limitations of our own. So what I did was
I wrote 14 poems, one for each of the 14 animals. Like this one,
“d, sucking pigs.” So these poems use
Borges’ animals as a way of thinking about
cultural and racial hybridity, I suppose– my own. Also, some of the
later poems get into my own “mixed” marriage. When my husband–
who’s Jewish– and I were planning our
wedding, we thought it would be nice to somehow
convey aspects of our heritage. So we splashed a
glass– mazel tov! But then, I was
trying to read around to find out what Chinese aspects
we could put into our ceremony. And I came across
this custom whereby the groom’s family, upon
being reassured, shall we say, of the bride’s chastity,
are supposed to give her family a roast piglet. [LAUGHTER] In England, I sometimes
have to gloss shikse. And I know that they
should strictly be blonde. But here we are in the land
the Seinfeld and Philip Roy. And this poem is actually
a Shakespearean sonnets, albeit with fuzzy rhymes. That is a technical term. But in the couplet at the end,
the second line is a footnote. Right. Sucking pigs. Between choosing
canapes and favors, I read how the groom’s
family, by Chinese tradition, should gift to her kinsmen
a piglet, milk-fed, just a moon at the teat,
crisped to perfection. When quite satisfied,
the bride’s still intact. I imagine your mother
cranking the spit. Crackling’s coy,
brittle russet, then, succulent fat– that atavistic
aroma makes me salivate– you, physically sick. So as pet-names go,
Shikse’s not a bad fit. I did play your
Circean temptress. Wikipedia says it comes
down from Leviticus, how your God labeled
creatures unclean to ingest but, then, disgust seems
to blur into reverence. Cf. Xu Bing, “A Case Study
of Transference.” [LAUGHTER] So I guess I liked the
idea that– in these sort of cod, scholarly,
hyper-referential, encyclopedia poems– you might think that
a case study of transference is some reference to a piece
of psychoanalytic literature. But I also liked
the idea that people who know the work of the
Chongqing born Chinese artist Xu Bing might connect it
to this piece of 1994. Those are, actually,
two live pigs in a pen in an
art gallery space, which are doing their thing. And the male– as you
can possibly make out– is inscribed with Latin
text, whilst the female is inscribed with Chinese text. But what you probably can’t
see from the zoomed out view is that it’s actually nonsense
written on both of them. So you can see that this is
no language, this Latin script at the top. And the Chinese characters
are these nons made-up ones that Xu Bing had
actually come up with for a project of a
couple of years earlier called [CHINESE], which translates
as “A Book from the Sky,” which is a Chinese idiom
meaning nonsensical or illegible language from codes or down to
a doctor’s illegible scrawl. So nonsense is
actually something that I like to think about and
play with a lot in my work. Though that’s not going
to come up so much today, right until the very
end of my reading. And I sometimes wonder
if this has anything to do with growing up hearing
my mum– and everyone in Hong Kong– speaking Cantonese, a
language I couldn’t understand. And I wonder if that
experience somehow made me a poet, or at least more
susceptible to language as sound and cadence
separated from sense. Now, I’d like to read three more
poems from the Borges sequence, a little trio or
subgroup, all of which relate to censorship
in one way or another. So I didn’t speak Cantonese
when I was growing up. I only learned
Mandarin as an adult. And as I went through this
process of painstakingly– and with great difficult–
learning this tremendously hard language, one of the things that
struck me most was all the ways that Chinese can pun
that English just can’t. So the characters,
the written system, allow for this in one way. When a character
differs from another by just one dot or stroke,
they’ll look similar but have entirely
different meanings. And this is a sort of
punning that became very important to the
protesters in the visual culture of the recent Umbrella Movement
in Hong Kong, for example. But even more common
is puns based on sound, because Chinese is so
full of homophones. So things will sound almost
exactly the same, or exactly the same, bar the
differences in tone. And I thought it was fascinating
that this is something that has become a way for
Chinese dissidents to either get round
or protest censorship, the so-called “Great
Firewall” of China. And so I think Borges would
have approved of the fact that the now rather notorious
grass-mud horse of the top left– for some reason
they look like alpacas– first arose early
in 2009, as part of a hoax on the online
interactive encyclopedia of Baidu– the sort
of Chinese equivalent of Wikipedia– where
people entered these 10 mythical creatures into the
encyclopedia, all of which had these names that
sound like obscenities of one sort or another. So the grass-mud horse became
a widespread, hugely popular, internet meme in
China in 2009 and on, and gave rise to
this whole menagerie of subversive animals,
including its mortal enemy, the river-crab, whose
name sounds almost exactly like “harmony,” which, you
know, harmonious society. It’s become a euphemism
in contemporary Chinese whereby, when you say
you harmonize something, you mean you censor it. So two other memes turn
up in this next poem– the Elephant of Truth,
which apparently has been on the endangered
species list since 1949; and also the sensitive
fragile-porcelain meme. I didn’t I need to
say anything else, except maybe that
Cangjie, the court historian of the Yellow
Emperor, makes a cameo here, as the legendary inventor
of Chinese characters. Having just broken
the water pitcher. This poem has an epigraph from
a collection of koans called, “The Gateless Gate,”
which goes, Baizhang picked up a water
picture, set it on a rock, and posed this question. If you cannot call it a water
pitcher, what do you call it? This fact I can’t
forget, my 30th year had hastened by before I learned
to see how plum blossom lies one side-long stroke
of gum-suspended soot away from regret. It’s said, the man who
invented writing– charged with this burden
by the emperor– sought inspiration in the
surface moods of water. That he was by the
river when he spied, in the finely cracking
mud, a footprint– its brim still is a bronzed
mirror, stamped there by some invisible creature–
and understood his task. The moment he sketched
the first character, the sky rained millet. And the ghosts wailed all
night, for they could not change their shapes. 5,000 years later, in some
remote coal-mining district, sits an anonymous blogger,
his face lit by more than just the ancient monitor. He ponders how strange
it is, how useful that “I beg you for the
truth” is pronounced the same as “I beg you,
Elephant of Truth.” Or that sensitive words– as
in “filters,” “crackdowns”– sounds exactly like
“breakable porcelain.” Done typing, he clicks Submit. Recall the old monk’s
koan, the correct reply to Master Baizhang’s
question– his pupil kicked over the
pitcher and left. This next poem
revisits a figure who’s been really important
to me in my own work. He’s quite a troublesome
figure in lots of ways, Ezra Pound, one of
the founders of modernism in English. I think Eliot was
right when he said that Pound was the inventor of
Chinese poetry for our time. And that’s still true now. Eliot based that
judgment on “Cathay.” Maybe some of you will
know it, published in 1915, Pound’s
free translations from the classical
Chinese poet Li Bai, which– whenever you read
Chinese or Chinese-sounding poetry these days– is still
drawing on “Cathay,” basically. But this page here
is actually from his epic, unfinished, huge,
sprawling work of synthesizing historical and poetic
imagination– deeply flawed, but also, I think,
rather brilliant– called the cantos,
which he worked on for much of his adult life. And as you can see, one of
the most immediately striking things about the cantos is
that they have these Chinese characters in the margins, in
Pounds rather dodgy Chinese script. ; Which, of course, is
something I recall deliberately in my own work and book. The reason Pound is such
a troubling character– there are many. But one of them is his
pro-fascist and violently anti-Semitic wartime speeches
for Radio Rome, which were what landed him–
after his arrest in 1945– in a death-cell at the US Army
Disciplinary Training Center just outside of Pisa. And the mental
instability fostered by these hellish conditions
he met in the cage were actually what
eventually saved Pound from the scaffold
for treason, in favor of a American mental hospital,
St. Elizabeth’s, where he spent most of the rest of his life. The last cantos
that he wrote often are called the “Pisan Cantos.” And it’s not straightforward,
ethically, to be moved by them. But I find myself moved
by them, especially passages like this
famous on in Canto 74, when an African-American
soldier, Mr. Edwards, brings Pound a packing
crate to his medical tent to use as a writing table. The “Pisan Cantos,”
elsewhere, are horribly racist about
Pound’s African-American gods and fellow soldiers. But this moment does have
it’s tug on the heart strings. So where the last
poem and the next one are to do with circumventing
censorship, this one, I sort of conceived as
being about where we might draw the lines of free speech. Oh, by the way, Kung
Fu-tzu or Kongzi is the Chinese
name of Confucius. Stray dogs. Thou art a beaten
dog beneath the hail. To think again of Pound,
bared to the sky at Pisa. The traitor’s cage they built
for him specially, 6 by 6 feet of air-strip mesh and dust. Wire diamonds shadowed
starkly under foot. Day 25, DTC doctors transfer
him to a medical tent– a swollen magpie
in the fitful sun– fearing the first
signs of a breakdown. Three weeks in
this here sun going to change a man,
thinks Mr. Edwards, he with the face of
the Baluba mask, as he flips over
a packing crate– hang regulations– to fashion
the traitor a writing table. Squat at his
crate-cum-desk, Pound spreads flat the worn-out covers
of his dog-eared Confucius. He’d slipped it in his
slacks’ side-pocket that day at the house, a rifle
butt pounding the door. As he flicks through
the “Analects,” his hand starts to tremble. He pushes it hard into
his temple, takes up the donated pencil stub. Pull down thy vanity,
near illegible. Scrawling on squares of
shiny latrine roll, now lodged in a library’s vaults. Later, he gets hold of a
GI pad, ruled lines turned 90 degrees, like bars. No longer blithely
ranting on Rothschilds as in his radio days–
whether they are born Jews or taken to Jewry. Circe’s sty, glorious cant. Our captive flutters again
to the much-thumbed page where, having lost his disciples
at the city’s east gate, Kung takes with equanimity
the stranger’s slur. Look at this man here. He has a face like a lost dog. Yes, smiles Kung Fu-tzu, yes. That’s quite correct. That poem is, of course, just a
sequence of terrible dog puns, including that Ezra
got sent to the pound. [LAUGHTER] The third in the trio– by
way of indirect preamble. This is a photograph I took
in a public park in Chengdu a couple of years ago. And those of you who
have been to China have maybe seen this phenomenon
of writing calligraphy– in this case, a poem
by Li Bai– in water, using a giant brush on the
paving stones in parks. So I spoke just now about
Xu Bing’s [CHINESE], Books from the Sky. This is [CHINESE],
so ground-calligraphy or books from the ground. I sort of like that connection. It’s a practice
that– from what I can tell– seemed to arise
in public parks in Beijing in the 1990s, but then
spread around the country. And this is the
old man in question with his admiring
audience of– I think they were
physio-therapy students. But anyway, this practice
of ground-calligraphy, I think it chimes with a
certain strand of evanescence or disappearance in Chinese
art of recent decades. So Song Dong, a
Beijing-born artist, who began at an early age as a
painter but– after the events in Tienanmen of 1989– was
traumatized and stopped work for years, before returning
as a conceptual artist. In 1995, maybe having seen these
old man in the Beijing parks, Song began to keep a daily
journal, which he wrote out in water on a large flat stone,
so that his record of his days vanished faster than
the days themselves. The following year, in ’96, on
a freezing New Year’s Night, Song performed a piece
called “Breathing.” He lay down in Tienanmen
Square, his face to the ground, his lips
almost touching the pavement. And for the next 40
minutes, his clouded breath played over the concrete
flags, the vapor freezing into a thin sheet of ice,
which lasted for a few hours and, then, was gone by morning. So this photograph
and a couple of others are the only record
of this performance. I’m working my way
round to Hong Kong. This, by the way, isn’t how
this poem appears in my book. I just got excited by
the gradient-fill button on PowerPoint. [LAUGHTER] In Chinese, the Tienanmen
incident of ’89 isn’t known by its place name, but by
the date, June 4, [CHINESE]– references to which are
censored on the mainland. For a time, the
invented date, May 35, allowed Chinese web users
to circumvent the ban. Hong Kong is the
only place in China where the anniversary can
be publicly commemorated. And mass candlelit vigils
take place every year. And actually, they grow in
force and numbers every year. I won’t say too much, because
it’s all in the poem really. But this is my recollection
of a solidarity protest, a sort of fundraising
event that took place in Hong Kong in support of
the students in Tienanmen at the end of May 1989. Even I think I
remember that this was a euphoric moment
in Hong Kong, when hundreds of thousands of
people flooded into the streets in support of the Chinese
democracy movement and thought that China would
be reborn in Hong Kong’s image. We still don’t know how many
people died in the square. Innumerable. Poem on the eve of May 35. In the early summer of
1989, when I was five, my parents took me
on an unusual outing. It wasn’t that the Jockey
Club’s Happy Valley track– at that time, still epitheted
“Royal”– was unfamiliar to me. Every week, I went there for
an hour’s swimming lesson in the too-hot pool. My reward, an orange ice-lolly
from the freezer cabinet behind the clubhouse bar. But I knew things were
different that morning. For one, I had never trod
on the actual grass before. On race days, that
was the preserve of the slow-processing row
of black-trousered laborers, their cone hats and
canes, who would follow on after the rumbling
of the horses. Their job– with the
practiced touches of the blind– to feel out
the slightest hoof-flung sod and tamp it back into
the reperfected turf. I spent the day hoisted
on my father’s shoulders, staring out across the
jellied mass of human heads. On the big screen,
the dots of light weren’t tickering the customary
shifting dance of odds, but the exact words
that would rise from the rippling mouth
in the stands’ atoll, as the crest of
skyscrapers stood watch. On the news that
evening, I tried to pick out my waving
self among the banners’ swell, the toy-box people
chanting and abuzz. A few days later, there were
different pictures on the news. A man, with two
white shopping bags, edging crabwise on a faceless
boulevard in another city where, 23 years later, I would
struggle for over half an hour to hail a cab. On rainy race days,
the turf workers– still bamboo-brimmed–
would wear transparent macs, dotted with drizzle, and the
determination of a search party. Where they press the clumps
back down, you would never know. And now, finally,
onto my new project, “Two Systems,” which I’m
working on here in Radcliffe. Though, I actually
began work on this poem even before the Umbrella
Movement gained momentum. I started writing it in the
summer of 2014, last year. It’s an erasure poem that
takes as its source text the basic rule of
Hong Kong, which is often called the former
colony’s mini-Constitution. And it’s a document
that was negotiated by Beijing and London through
my childhood in ’80s Hong Kong. So I sort of grew
up in the shadow of the countdown towards
handover, which was agreed in ’84, when I was one. The title itself is an erasure. It refers to one country,
two systems– of course, the principle that
Hong Kong’s way of life should stay unchanged
for 50 years after the handover date
on 1st of July, 1997. One country, two
systems supposedly guarantees a high-degree
of autonomy from China. But what this
means is constantly being negotiated and
feared over right now. So I guess, the idea that Hong
Kong should remain a civil law jurisdiction within a civil
law state, a capitalist pocket in a socialist
framework, and so on. But what intrigued me
about the basic law is that it’s a
self-deconstructing– you might even say,
self-destructing– text, which enshrines within itself
the date of it’s undoing, 2047. On the basis that I think
that you are all probably more familiar with the Umbrella
Movement in Hong Kong than you are with the history
of the erasure poem. I could be wrong. I thought I’d give
you a posit history to show that this is far from
something that I’ve invented. So I guess it was popular with
Western avant garde writers since the ’60s. And so, this is a famous example
called Ronald Johnson’s RADI OS of 1977, which erased most
of Milton’s Paradise Lost, to give rise to these new,
surprisingly affecting work. It’s often praised for being
Pound-like in its imagism, out of the earlier
poem’s rubble. Johnson described his process
as being like etching, cutting away at each page. And indeed, erasure poetry
does have visual qualities that I think place it somewhere
between art and literature. And it’s rise
probably has something to do with contemporary
developments in the visual arts. So like Rauschenberg’s Erased
de Kooning Drawing, which does what it says on the tin. So I’ve been trying to think
about this visual dimension since I’ve been at Radcliffe,
the texture, the materiality, or otherwise of erasure. And I think Travis McDonald’s
“The Omission Repo,” is particularly interesting
in this respect. McDonald’s source text is
the 9/11 Commission Report, which gives his work an
obvious political valence. But he also has these three
different strategies for part effacing the background text. So by the way, I
think this is the best page in the whole poem. We have tried to remember
that sight can sometimes see what happened in shadow. It’s good, isn’t it? So like here, a sort
of fade or a blur or a strike-through– which
reminds me of the fact that George W. Bush’s
favorite writing instrument was reportedly a Sharpie marker. Oh, and this is Tom Phillips’
“A Humament,” and which is based on W.H. Mallock’s
late Victorian novel, A Human Document. Which sort of takes the visual
dimension to another level that I’m not sure I can
personally arise to. I’m just going to read
you this first page of “Two Systems,” though I’ve
given you three in the handout. And so, as I said,
I started working on this piece in the
early summer of 2014, when Beijing released
a white-paper that caused widespread
consternation in Hong Kong and was one of the spurs towards
the Occupy Central Umbrella Movement. One of the things they were
particularly afraid about was the idea that
Hong Kong judges might have to show fealty to Beijing. So I found it satisfying,
in a childlike way, to set about these pages from
the basic law with Photoshop’s eraser tool, so releasing
their anarchic, subversive, gloriously vulgar undersongs. But you find in amongst
the nonsense touches of sense starting to
emerge, including illusions to the current unrest
about Hong Kong’s path to universal suffrage. So I’ll read it from
this first page. The court of Kong is rat
hall, diction over acts such fence and reign affairs. Our region shall obtain
a cat on quest, the cat of Cat Hall, before all. EG joy, power to
the people, he-he. [LAUGHTER] I’ve never read that before. [LAUGHTER] Zen shall entitle the
age to dance, number the citizens among the elect,
work the high organ of men over and over. Mini rat, mini dance. There is a need for art. [LAUGHTER] I won’t read the second page,
though it’s in the handout. But what I found
was interesting, these characters
start to emerge, as I do more and more
of this, I guess in line with the repetitions
in the legal text. So there’s this sort of
hapless character called Reg on this page– Reg must
obtain the approval of people– who, in my mind, was a sort of
allusion to the colonial past. Reg, for me, is like
an irreverent nod to the Regina versus X
formula of English law. So he’s this cut-down
version of Regina. And then, by this
final page– which is the one seeking to define
a Hong Kong resident– hardly anything is left, except
that haunting date of 2047. So I’m sure we can
talk more about this. But I think it’s probably
time to open up for questions. [APPLAUSE AND MUSIC]

Saving Schools: History, Politics, and Policy in U.S. Education | HarvardX on edX | About Video


I’m Paul Peterson. I’m the director of the
education policy and governance program at Harvard University. Clearly, the US educational
system needs to do better by its next generation of students
so that they can perform effectively in the world economy
of the 21st century. Saving Schools is a
four course sequence. In all four courses we are asking
leading practitioners and experts to join us, to discuss why we have
headed in the direction we are going, and what steps need to
be taken in the future. In the fourth course,
we look at proposals to give families more school choices. A quarter of families today have a
child in the parent’s school of choice, whether it be a private school,
a charter school, homeschooling, or digital learning. In many states still
more choice opportunities are being developed via
school vouchers, tax credits, the creation of charter schools, and the
development of online learning courses. All these changes in the educational
landscape are raising many issues. What are the arguments of
school choice proponents? What do the critics say? Who’s making use of these
new schools of choice? Do students learn more in a choice
school than a regular school? What happens to those who remain in
traditional public schools operated by local school districts? What might the future of school
choice in the United States look like? Join us in our exploration
of these many questions, both by a look at the latest
research, and in conversations with leading experts and entrepreneurs. Join us for Saving Schools: School
Choice, the fourth and final mini course in the Saving Schools series. The course opens in February of 2015.

Paul Farmer on Leadership in Public Health for the Poor | Voices in Leadership at HSPH



good afternoon everyone my name is Emilio Lange and I'm a second year masters soon in the Department of Epidemiology focusing on infectious diseases I first met dr. Paul Farmer when he pleasantly surprised my research group and briefly sat in on our meeting discussing a TB diagnostic rollout program from my account and many others his exciting nature and deep intellect is captivating as I'm sure you will all agree today dr. farmers passion and dedication for his work or world renown best known perhaps through Partners in Health his many books and publications and the bestseller mountains beyond mountains dr. farmer graduated summa laude from Duke University with a Bachelor of Arts and medical anthropology he continued his education at Harvard University where he earned an MD and a PhD in medical anthropology during his time at HMS dr. farmer with his colleagues including Jim Kim and Ophelia Dahl co-founded Partners in Health focusing on improving health care in Haiti today Partners in Health is an international organization working with partners in Liberia Russia Haiti and many other countries in addition to directing Partners in Health dr. farmer has served as a UN special advisor to the secretary-general and writes extensively on social inequality and health he is Harvard's kolokotronis University professor chair of the department of global health and social medicine and chief of the division of global health equity at Brigham and Women's Hospital most recently he returned from Liberia with a group of physicians and health activists in response to the Ebola epidemic a current example of a medical issue where leadership has been particularly critical before I turned the session over to Professor Michele Williams who will be moderating today please join me in welcoming dr. Paul Farmer to the voices and leadership series at the Harvard School of Public Health Thank You Amelia and welcome welcome to all of you and here in the studio and to those of you who are listening and viewing this from the overflow room and even those viewing from more remote sites welcome to the voices and leadership seminar discussion series it's a real privilege for me I first of all I'm Michelle Williams and I'm chair of the Department of Epidemiology and it's a real privilege to be the moderator of this session today I should tell you that the voices and leadership seminar series goal is to provide students with an opportunity to really understand and appreciate the knowledge around leadership as it is applied to solving some of the most challenging problems in global Public Health and the Health Sciences and I think today we have with us a paragon of leadership particularly in solving the most recalcitrant racquel control issues in resource-poor settings dr. farmer has done this by combining health care delivery with scholarship and research and advocacy in addressing some of the biggest problems in some of the most resource poor settings dr. farmer I'd like to start by asking you a little bit to trace the arc of your career beginning in Jenkins Creek Florida to Duke to Boston Harvard Medical School to the development of Partners in Health why should I go back to herpetology is it that is going back a ways I'm Jenkins Creek is a it's in very rural coastal Florida and I'm you know I did a lot so getting to the leadership question right away I was lucky I had a high school guidance counselor a teacher who took an interest in maybe more of an interest in you know my college career than and I did if someone would have asked me well where are you gonna go to college I was hope well see maybe it could be Florida State or University of Florida or University of South Florida you know my horizons were rather they're not not that atypical of a public school high school student at the time and and she said but because when I got went from you asked the question about the 10 year old obsession I kind of went up the evolutionary tree you know I started with botany and then herpetology oh this is a reference that will not be familiar to your viewing audience because they didn't here then in here the ten year old question anyway I got up to the evolutionary tree of wanting to be a physician again I'm glad that no one said to me well why do you want to be a physician how would I have known I was you know 15 16 years old but happily I would I was steered towards Duke and I applied the only only place I applied you got you know it wasn't organized to get applications in and then I ended up there and and so my point about how that the arc is a the the take-home message as they say in medical school is there's a lot of serendipity involved it's very hard to plan out and how would you plan out that your high school guidance counselor who you've actually you know pulled pranks on and done immature things too is going to say well maybe you should think about this place and how would you know that you would meet through scholarship and reading someone who is at the University of Washington but headed to Harvard Medical School I think I think you have to be open to serendipity and that's part of leadership is not being afraid obviously these are not dangerous things that I'm describing going to duke or going to Harvard there are some dangers but they're not of the physical sort your suits right and to do something familiar to you it's right nothing something you've never never heard of and that's how Haiti that's how I ended up in Haiti at you know 20 three years of age going from a laboratory some laboratory research directly to Haiti and that was that changed my life so tell us a little bit in concrete terms what were some of the lessons you learned early on in Haiti which is so different in so many different ways even from Jenkins Creek it was very different and in one of the things I learned early on first of all I'd like to say that you know in terms of leadership there's all of these unglamorous parts of leadership right persistence serendipity being open to something new believing that you your path may not be laid before you and and then finally learning how to play nice with others I came from a big family of eight people and let me tell you and as the herpetologist in the group now that that is on film let me just say that one of my brothers became a professional wrestler with World Championship Wrestling I did not pick fights with those guys my brothers and sisters you know learning how to play nice with others that's a big part of leadership and then finally as you as you go on you start saying hey wait leadership maybe that's about creating a stage on which other people can lead that's a form of leadership acity building capacity and you know those terms when I went from Haiti to Harvard Medical School you know I'd already met the people with whom I would start we would start together partners in Aldo our Haitian colleagues like Fritz Laughlin Tom still alive he's a in his 80s Tom white who I met when I came up here to interview Jim Kim also met when I came here to interview through a professor affiliate dal I met in Haiti and and my college roommate you know Tom McCrory those are the people who started partners nothing that was 30 years ago leadership and development so you know you we didn't if we had sounds talked about leadership back then we would sound as pretentious as some of us probably were but you know you have to be there's to all these unglamorous and one of the biggest ones among them is persistence learning to play nice with you day and night that's why we all still work together it's not like it's been easy we've gone through some very difficult times together but we stuck together and that's a big part of it is learning how to play nice with others but also how to keep something going on so we talked about sustainability we can flip that on its head and say not is this sustainable but rather how do we sustain it whatever it is in public health that's a huge part of a struggle and for leadership is to say we will sustain it not can we sustain this and that meek and retiring approach to public health challenges I don't think it works in in in sort of my own understanding and looking at the arc of your work in Haiti in particular you started one of the first projects you started with was the bread project just a nutrition your homework right now oh of course and then you know you you developed that to the to bed to the to room clinic and that further grew can you tell us a little bit about your approach in how you start a project prove its concept and then scale because in addition to sustainability scaling something that works to make it more impactful and sustainable is really a challenge for those young leaders out there who want to move from the pilot project phase to actual implementation well a couple of things that I would say again I think if you if you were to go into a seminar or a classroom as I do every week whether here or in Liberia or Haiti or Rwanda and you said well some of the things you need to think about and I could make make a list of virtues or strategies for bringing something into scale those would be less interesting I think then the stories that don't get told and in fact in our first years there and I say our because remember these those some some of the people we work with died and I'd like to talk more about that if we have a chance but those who have not still worked together right and the way we told the story to ourselves when we were young or younger we were very young you know some of us was isn't it great what we're doing here isn't it a success you know we didn't use the words those but that baldly but you know what it wasn't great and it wasn't a success it was bad and it was low-quality I was gonna say low rent now it was really of poor quality what we were doing and that was and by the way the bread project it was not a mistake to think that people needed food security we're right on that at least but it was a mistake that project the way we did it I mean in the middle of a rural Haiti where there's a major problem with BRE FS reforestation I don't think having a wood-burning oven has a good idea I didn't have to go to Harvard School of Public Health to figure that out but you know so there's all of this difficult process you know you're and we we are kind of coached to tell victory narratives and I bet I did so in my interviews at Harvard Medical School I bet I was and I'd like to blot that out of my memory I worked out okay I guess cuz I got in but I'll bet you I told very you know not that I didn't think it was true but a very positive story of my year in Haiti between college and medical school but it was not positive it was full of pain it was full of mediocrity and worse and when we started thinking about scale which actually we learned to think about that here at Harvard School of Public Health were there and then because we took the the Community Survey from the project that had been headed by some professors here population sciences exactly and in first the team that we had of the six people license who I work with all my age I was going between Harvard Haiti Harvard Haiti half of them were dead before they were 31 in childbirth one for malaria from cerebral malaria and one from typhoid perforated helium how could that be good and that was just it was painful and again then the real virtues I think that our related leadership come through and that's persistence critical you know self-critical reflection of course listening to people right I mean if you want to figure out how to sustain something get a you know good analysis of what the problem is and and listen to people on that and my experience Haiti was the best teacher in part because my host there were only too happy to talk to me about what they thought was wrong with their lives in their world and they invariably tied it to the rest of the world right so it was a global political economy and III hope that I learned some of that in college but the Haitians would have a no other way the idea that there was some nation called Haiti that had boundaries so that a sustainable program would have to fit into whatever their GDP was they rejected that and because they said wait well you know our people were kidnapped from West Africa you know we lost you know things and that's the kind of historical analysis I get all the time from Haitians and it was a great lesson I learned a lot from them now that's a very long answer to your question but you know the the first order of virtues are usually really not the real lessons it's the reflection that lead to think about the tougher lessons so I wanted to ask a little bit about further along the lines of reflection as as you grew the partners and health concept and operationalized it in 1993 you took a your pivot up to that point you were delivering health care services but in 1993 you chose to develop the Institute for health and social justice with the award that you received from the MacArthur Genius award and that is an expansion of the scope in a remarkable way where you have now added this very large additional agenda of research to the partners and health mission which was you know quite saturated with providing health delivery in a resource poor setting undergoing still local challenges can you tell us a little bit about how you made that decision the strategy the thoughts that went in and some of the early implementation of this research arm to a health care delivery program well I'm so glad you brought that up because it allows me to say that that was a pivot but a pivot back towards our mission because we had gotten some things right when we were students because some not all of us were students but Jim this is 1987 we were in medical school and graduate school affiliate al was probably and you know Wellesley College dude so the original mission of Partners in Health was to serve the poor you know and particularly focus on their needs which again I've told you they're only too happy to say in my experience first and Haiti then across you know Latin America and someplace in Africa but second to link that service to formal training program what you call just a minute ago capacity building and third to generate new knowledge so we actually got the mission right and that's why some of us pursued you know graduate school a PhD as well I'm sure it's why you pursued a PhD and I see that you did not read my 1000 page doctoral thesis no I think you kidding really actually any thesis that's a thousand pages long you can bet is bad and after I graduated they passed the 500 page rule at Harvard and I think that's a true story now that it's going out into the world you know find out if it's not but but so it was a pivot back to the mission because I think and this this is a leadership warning as well I think when you are practitioners and many of you will and Bible practitioner doesn't necessarily mean a nurse or a doctor right there are many kinds of field work that you could do and that's true of research I'm sure you know in epidemiology you know you have people who feel like they're in the field right or consumed by you know I'm I know because we can we've done research in the middle of epidemics right and they're trying to do that now with Ebola to figure out generate knowledge but in when you're under that kind of pressure what are the first things to go out the door generating new knowledge you know whether you call it research or not but don't really care what you call it as much as I do that we got to learn we've got to learn from delivery and and training people formally so the pivot was really back towards the original mission and it's very tough mission if you're gonna say we're going to leverage all of our service delivery with formal credentialing training programs for you know people who want to be our colleagues you know you don't think there are people in Haiti and Rwanda and Malawi in the zoo to want to do graduate work who want to be credentialed who want to be a nurse or a doctor or professor they do and same for community health workers so that was the pivot really and it's been very tough that was 20 years ago as you pointed out and it's always tough to get you know us all to remember that the mission is really comes out of the union of those three endeavors yeah that's fantastic thank you I want just one additional question along this line and it fast forward to 2010 and it's post earthquake and you and your colleagues and your partners decide to build a 250,000 square foot hospital in an environment that's been devastated and that's another bold decision and in my doing my homework I understood that you had to really stand that up that's decision and you use the term imagine the unimaginable and I think that's another essence of leadership that I'd like you to share with the audience what that experience was like making this bold move at a time of such crisis that's a great question and I again I appreciate getting a chance to talk about it especially when we're thinking about leadership because this gives me a chance to say that sticking with equity and justice is never going to let you down in terms of leadership it may be painful it may be dangerous it may be mocked it may be disdain it may be doubted it may but it will eventually prove to be the right leadership challenge you have great leaders if we look back they they often are people who said we really can't you know we cannot allow this kind of disparity injustice inequality and so to go looking back whether at 2010 after the earthquake or saying something like you know if you are going between the Brigham and Women's Hospital here and a small hospital in rural Haiti and you're as I did as a intern resident fellow and infectious disease and faculty member you're going to see people with the same diseases right AIDS for example and imagine now looking back you know people say well that was really great leadership when you push forward you know treating aids in Haiti but part of me wants to say yeah that's really amazing you know of course these are not different species poor and rich black and white you know so you know it's the same thing with that hospital I mean the real question is how could it have been regarded as overly ambitious you know and go right through the list that was the complementary part to rebuild to build a teaching hospital a modern hospital in a country our oldest neighbor in which all of the hospitals have just been destroyed that that's the amazing thing to me in you know and it's the same around AIDS or maybe we should have a plan to do something about driving down case fatality rates for Ebola since again it's not it's a delivery problem not a problem of a different path you know pathophysiology for Liberians and us and so to stand that up as you said it was very difficult we had great partners great implementers great colleagues we had a four the first time support from people who actually did know how to build hospitals we had built the hospitals we'd built with little in the way of professional help so we had great partners but you asked about the leadership making the decision it was much more painful than it should have been because it should have been obvious that after all these hospitals were destroyed and people died of trauma by the way there's after after the Boston Marathon bombings there's a reason that no one who reached a hospital here died and there's a reason why so many construction that's right you know in public health you often you often hear people focus on the least common denominator that's not a good way for public health to be we should focus on equity and high aspirations and and drag each other up now that's again a longer answer than doing that's wonderful no it's wonderful appreciated I would be remiss if I didn't ask you to comment a little bit about your strategies for tackling health inequalities in the United States where resources are not as constrained as in some of the other places that you are known to work and have remarkable successes well you know the strategies it's funny there there's in a way it does lead me back to the generic strategy which is also a leadership strategy I believe which is focus on equity right so and there's an interesting you know you those of you in public health you know I think those of us in public health we can learn from errors made in the past right pitting for example prevention against care all right so say you're interested in I'm not going to start where you think I'm going to start I'm not going to start with AIDS well I'll just choose something else like low birth weight babies right do you want to prevent low birth weight babies meaning not prevent them as being but prevent them from being low birth you then knock yourselves out right but some babies aren't going to need Nick use right that's right so to pit better prenatal care against NICU care this is just pure lunacy right same thing you know say well we should be focusing more on Chevy Prevention yeah we should be focusing more on it but that's not you don't need to say then on treating people with AIDS when it is the largest infectious killer of young adults in the world it's kind of like saying we don't need a teaching hospital we don't need a modern hospital we need and then fill in the blank when in fact they don't have any hot modern hospitals cuz they've just been destroyed so you know going to the United States there's a couple of things one I learned from the Haitians and that is I'm not a very good nationalist you know they have a lot of reason to be nationalist you know they've been under siege for a long time i but I do I was born here and I do love this place just as much as I love anywhere else and there are some serious health disparity problems and looking at them they all have ways to prevent to palliate and I think you know to improve or you know address even late in the game and our strategy is sometimes to take lessons learn in Haiti or Rwanda and apply them here for example what is our weakest infrastructure problem in the United States as compared to Rwanda and it's it's not hospitals ours are pretty good it's actually community health workers we don't have them yeah and if we have them they're not properly supported supported or trained and so that's a that's a powerful they could be our allies in addressing health disparities you know and we we again we need to look at the causes of the causes right but we also need to understand people do get sick and meaning it'd be great if we could prevent all the pathologies that we do see in a hospital or a clinic here but when people are said we also have to pay attention to their suffering and even there I think we're we're in trouble in this country and we can you know address that those disparities of access to care and much more aggressively and never pit them against prevention right we should pit you know military spending against prevention or something like that and I I think earlier in your statement you or your corporate welfare but you also we shouldn't pit the different levels of prevention against each other so there's primary prevention and secondary and secondary and even tertiary and and that would be the reason for advocating for a comprehensive approach to health which in my view by the way just to contradict myself I like military spending when they're helping us with Ebola so yeah I'm a comprehensive prevention you can respect the social and economic rights of people living in poverty or marginalized by racism gender disparities etc that we know make people more vulnerable I mean read Bryan Stevenson's beautiful new book just mercy about the criminal justice system in the United States and you can think about primary secondary tertiary prevention there as well beautiful book and a board member of Partners in Health if I could brag but you know I think if we were refused to do that and you refused to do that you know you're the future leaders of public health and scholarship nationally internationally you say you know we're not so we're skeptical about preventing I'm looking at you Amelia because you take tuberculosis right do we need better Diagnostics yeah yes we do pediatric populations we don't even we were missing you know sometimes a half of them do we need better therapeutics yes we do you know we need better prevention and there's primary prevention to better housing condition it's better job social safety net that's going to protect workers who are and immigrants particularly right so that primary prevention can go all the way to we also need you know somebody has massive hemoptysis coughing up blood any better so thoracic surgery you know but this comprehensive you know seamless garment approach is is very sound in in public health and medicine completely I think this is time to invite the audience and including those in the spillover room can they communicate questions to us to engage dr. farmer in this discussion I miss you spillover room yes here please introduce yourself sure my name is Fiona Lander I'm in the mph program thanks Paul for the wonderful presentation I just wanted to ask I mean in this line of work you see a lot of confronting things how do you maintain the outrage without burning out well you know I think one of the things that we can do is say well you know that's outrageous right and you know I'll just you've already heard me say this in our class but you know I think it's outrageous that we have differential valuation of human life so that it would not be a national international crisis to reduce case fatality rates for Liberians and Sierra Leoneans and Canadians with with Ebola for example just as it was so saying that some things are about outrage and then working with others to do something about it is one way to avoid burning out right it's a it's a the the beauty of practice you know is and I'm not talking about clinical practice necessarily I'm just saying doing something activism being with others thinking how are we gonna how we gonna make this better I think there's none of there's much less burnout than risk of burnout then I mean I couldn't be a banker without burning out I mean I'd like to have some help from bankers right so I think this is a low-risk you know it's tough work there's no question but the vitality of practice is a beautiful thing and again you don't have to be trained in the in a particular field like if I if I'm a you know a physical chemist thank God I'm not too difficult it doesn't mean I can't be an activist that you know a church group or in a soup kitchen you know on and on it may go right or and so I think that that's actually insurance against Murnau the kind of work we do least I feel that way this is 30-something years and I'm more excited about this work than I ever have been no thank you plus you guys are my retirement plan back there and then up front here here is a question from our Ojai audience asked by the tutor user ripztorn day two and his question is how many hours this Paul Farmer sleep what does he do for fun to balance his life his family first one none of your business oh that case you know I'm gonna I'm lucky I'm one of those people can can get get by on a not a lot of sleep but you know eventually it takes its toll that's just physical and then you need you need a break and by the way the more you're working with other people the more your spelled you know and somebody else is there to look out for you and take care of you and you know I think cultivating things that you you like to do to step out of some of these grim situations though invigorating right is it is a very smart thing you know and I I mean and some hobbies are better than others for example I don't think it will do much for my career or standing here if I say that part of mine includes bad action movies but you know everybody should have you know escapes like that and it's great if it can be something I actually you know I like to you know I like to read fiction I like to step out of my world and go into another one and you know and and cultivating things that are beautiful I'm looking at you as if you asked the question but since the questioner isn't here so I think that's it doesn't matter what my my hobbies or habits are but you know cultivating those things with you know with your family if you're lucky are part of I think staying engaged in the work and you know the other thing I would add is that families this is a family affair right global health equity health disparities in addressing our world's disparities if you know we need everybody involved the kids the cat's the dog's the grandmas hi thank you again for being here my name is Kristen Gilmer and I'm a doctoral student in the DR pH program and infectious diseases are kind of the the global spotlight in regard to developing world what do you see as the biggest challenge regarding the fact that non communicable diseases like diabetes hypertension and heart disease are increasing do you think that the challenge is in the intersection and prevention well just to be something of a devil's advocate I will say one of the biggest challenges is pitting pathologies one against the other right in activism so you really I mean it's kind of startling I just saw a friend of mine who will go unmentioned but he's an eminent public health figure associated with this school recently determined returned from service to the United States of America and teaching in a certain program which I won't mention but you're in it so you know he was describing to me the you know the competition between people who were advocates to diminish hepatitis B and hepatitis C now I would have laughed aghast except I've already seen all this right so that's one of the biggest problems is we're not fighting you know with people who are fighting n CDs we're fighting n CDs or we're not fighting you know pitting tuberculosis against HIV they already work well together they play nice together to kill us right so that's what a big problem is this we're all socialized for scarcity where we think we're competing for the same resources you know and that that's a pathology that is embarrassing that's why I'm putting at the top of the list that we have to be very rigorous the goal is better health and less suffering and particularly for people who are living in poverty or marginalized by those they're the people we were supposed to be serving in public health right the the marginalized so that that's the goal then we followed the burden of disease and gaps right and that will always lead us you know in the right direction for example if there was no Ebola in Liberia we wouldn't be worrying about you know we'd worried about preventing it or surveillance all the things but and you know but it is a major problem and if there wasn't you know if there was no HIV in parts of Ethiopia served by PEPFAR which is you know the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS relief it's perfectly reasonable they said well what are the what is the burden of disease here and what are the gaps and I think that and fighting for more investments in healthcare delivery of course good health care and in training and in generating new knowledge that should be our goal and avoid the sort of guys gonna say catfighting it seems like a little bit too harsh but I've seen it a lot and as a someone you know work working in this field and you your generation should really stomp it out and also that's part of the leadership say no no no we're not pitting non-communicable against communicable diseases we're saying we don't want people to die untimely of any of these pathologies and we're going to study them to figure out what the burden of disease is and what's missing from other interventions and then push for those and opportunities for synergy so if you are working on PEPFAR project how can we improve infant mortality and maternal health as part of the spillover of you know why I'm saying capacity for healthcare delivery I'm glad you you jog my memory because clearly we've learned a lot of things right PEPFAR and and the Global Fund to fight AIDS tuberculosis in there you know and I think this is a the leadership has been involved in this program already but those are the first large funding F it's ever in human history for people living in poverty unless you look at colonial medicine right where you saying well those are that's for the colony and often that was for the white people in the colony not for the you know natives of whatever part of France or Latin America we're talking about or Asia for that matter so this is entirely unprecedented and we we better have learned things right and one of them is that community health workers are key for chronic non-communicable disease right if someone has serious chronic illness you know for which there isn't a ready prevention vaccine or or other forms of primary prevention then we better a major mental illness as an example do we every learn nothing about treating epilepsy about major mental illness about serious complications of coronary artery disease and and the answer is yeah we have learned a lot about we don't have a good strategy without community health workers and we should be training supporting and working with them very closely that's one one synergy back to Michelle's point it's a great question it is great question over here hi my name is Louisa I'm a medical student from Brazil and I was wondering I first heard about you as the man who'd cure the world my sister gave me the book before I got into med school and I was wondering as well I live in a very poor country not as much as Haiti but how do you keep it from being how do you incorporate the local costumes and the the local I'm afraid it's something that I look at very skeptically sometimes it's kind of like a colonization thing and we see this in Brazil because most of the medical students are rich or white and our patients are poor in black and I was wondering how do you deal with that without being it in your practice without being something top bottom or something that well that would cure the world without well it's very interesting I'm it's a great question first of all and Sandoval's again I have a deep debt of gratitude to the Haitians because my experience there remember I was 23 when I started working I still work there I just went from Liberia to Haiti you know which is not there are no direct flights but you know I've never had anyone Haitian asked me to look a different way I mean where is something else you did say costumes do you mean customs okay but but it's still you know you remember what I did my PhD in anthropology so those overlap there's categories for us and you know if we if we were to say well if I was to have said as a you know a med student or a Reds resident but you're a med student you know I want to integrate Haitian custom into our medical practice I hope someone would have said to me oh yeah what costume are you talking about because it matters right some of them are I mean they haven't been shown to be effective let's say I mentioned the three people that were personal friends of mine and when I was in my 20s who died one childbirth one of cerebral malaria and the third of typhoid and each one of them went through a hell before dying of basically a lack of access to modern medical care sometimes that involved local customs but really what it was was determined by the political economy of Haiti grotesque poverty no health care infrastructure to speak of and again you could have said well you know they it could have been prevented and by then I by the time this happened I had already had a few experiences of my own as a patient for example I was hit by a car when I was your age a medical student in Cambridge and if if the ambulance attendants would have come over and said should have looked both ways before you cross I would have been quite cross and I hope my friends and family would have they didn't say well we should have put prevention over care they said we're going to take you to you know the Mount Auburn Hospital which was good they did not ask me about my cultural background they did not you know they were not interested in what you know what I might bring they took me to the operating room and now that's an extreme example but each of the three that I mentioned there is not a different way to treat typhoid in Haiti compared to Massachusetts or to treat cerebral malaria of someone in a coma or to prevent death and childbirth birth or its infectious sequelae and so I think in my field especially if you studied anthropology and medicine you're always at risk I believe of romanticizing cultural difference when what you're really seeing is structural violence that's what you described we're white they're brown you just said it you know that's inequality that's not ancient Brazilian secrets you know and I think we got to be really hard headed in public health about this there's like structural violence whatever you call it inequality health disparities injustice racism all the things that it is let's all fight never to conflate that with cultural difference because that is a very convenient thing for medical students and and other helpers to do is to say Oh aren't these customs interesting and exotic right and as going on with Ebola – not that I feel passionately about it time for two more one more hi I'm Hannah I'm in the environmental health master's program here and I've been very taken in your work with your use of the Haitian word for – to be present and to be together and I was wondering if you could talk about how you bring spirituality into your practice well could you be talking about accompaniment yeah so it's true I did get that you know if someone had said to me when I was 22 and leaving college and you know what's accompaniment I said well isn't that something that a pianist would do or you know I'd never heard the term use like that and and I'm so glad I did it was early on in my experience in Haiti you know when the community health worker said you know what we do is we accompany others and come by that arose the word that I kind of picked from them and at the same time I was reading it in guess where Liberation Theology you know and I think that was very good for me because it was very as I said it was a painful experience not that it's not still painful and it's painful to see difficult and in just things unjust things right but those were two different and complementary sources for me the Haitian the depth and the passion that I saw among the community health workers I'm not trying to romanticize you know my colleagues from the 80s and many of them so my colleagues but I'm just saying there was a passion there it's a lot going on in Haiti admittedly at that time in the eighties and then on the other side the more reflective spiritual spiritualism you know spirituality spiritualities of the theologians I was I was reading and I think they've informed our work for weather in a secular sense or for those who are seeking some kind of solace or direction and that you don't often get in public help hi my name is Zahra I'm a first year masters student in the global health department I was wondering I guess what we sort of get hit with a lot here at school is how how Public Health is sort of the intersection of all these different sectors all these different players and I was wondering as I guess a public health leader in sort of the backdrop of Big Pharma trying to negotiate access for a third world third world sort of you know medicines and how government intervention should or should not be a thing how do you sort of negotiate access to that from a public health standpoint where you know primarily the demand is I mean or the demand supply is market driven it's sort of out of your control so how do you sort of negotiate that from you know to three degrees of separation in terms of equity and and sort of the bigger problem here it's great question I mean I doubt I can answer it well or concisely but I'll give it a try I'm certainly feel passionately about that too in the newspaper the New York Times today the director general of the World Health Organization is criticizing what you call big pharma for delays in the Ebola vaccine and and you know I'm sure that you know when I go through every line of it I'll say okay I agree with that and I agree with that but the what you ask how I would do it right and or we would do it and you know what we would say is okay who can make the things we want whether they be Diagnostics or therapeutics or vaccines preventives right and in the case of Ebola since is on my mind that's clearly going to be Big Pharma and and also you mentioned the state or public intervention what's the and that's what NIH is to you know regulatory capacity is also a public function you know it's not that investment in the product shouldn't be a public function I'm not saying that that's great you know we need you know those kind of those kind of investments because market failure is clearly are going to occur always in health care and education as a march SN reminded us you know yesterday Adam Smith said that right one of the the champions of the market said yeah but it won't work with health care and education did you not say that so I agree that we cannot fail to have public and global interventions to promote public goods like a vaccine and an Ebola vaccine is a good example so I would say we're we're we've read we're gonna reach out to companies and say hey can we be part of this now we would also like to be protected right health care workers we want to be protected from Ebola too I'd sign up in a minute for bolla vaccine trial I do it I certainly sign up for a vaccine but I'd sign up for the trial so and also what else can we offer well if we have a community based platform for delivering services why can't that be a community based platform for conducting research right especially with health with help so I'm I think that's in a really important thing not that the w-h-o is isn't saying they would do it but I'm saying they they need implementers and the I'm not just talking about doctors and nurses I'm not about this team that's army of health care workers who would be the first beneficiaries probably but also the effect or arm to reach the millions of people who would need that or some other vaccine and so I'm very interested in in that kind of direct work do I answer the question market failure for sure healthcare education public good you know yes we we need to multi-sectoral a multi-sectorial complex health problem so great response we have some more time and I understand we have a question from one our remote one of our remote viewers hi overflow room again here's another question from our online audience so that they can also be part of the conversation it's a question asked by Twitter user monkey ow and the question is I want to ask except for activism what characteristics of leadership should we pick up as a student in the medical world I think humility would be up there I mean humility and listening was first things to fall out of my mouth and it's not because I'm naturally inclined to humility or listening it's that leadership demands it right and there's time for you know in medicine like another fields and certainly in public out there's time for you know I'm not listening so much right now I'm talking but I think that humility is a we need more of it and especially in activism and academics you know another thing part about leadership as I said is you never go wrong when you're you have a health and social justice you know agenda it's not that that's the only agenda I mean you could say the agenda is you know developing some new tool those are greater than this you know new vaccine leadership in a corporate sector or an academic department there's so many things ways to do it I mean I'm interested in scholarly work as well but look you know global health equity is the right term for what we're doing it's probably better than any I mean it's hard to find a better term and that is a health and social justice endeavor so physicians he's a medical student or she's a medical student and those are the three things I would put up there on the list I'm going to ask a question just B we have a few more minutes and I'll come back to you in 2009 you were one of the editors on a book global health in the time of violence and we haven't brought up the issue of violence you mentioned structural violence be in earlier in this conversation but what are the opportunities for medical students and students and schools of Public Health to play a leadership role in really bringing to the forefront the the real important role violence is playing in the burden of disease and our capacity to actually mitigate problems such as getting vaccines to populations that need it because of structural violence you know that is exactly the leap I would make that you just made at the end there's so many different kinds of violence violence against women violence of war you know chronic low-grade violence like what's going in Mexico for example and that's you know the drug trade right so in each of guard –less of the kind of violence that you're talking about and it's important to make distinctions about different kinds of acute than event violence right but regardless of what they are they're all pretty related to structural violence and you know even though we do you know we don't have a prescription you know if we have a prescription say for you know active pulmonary tuberculosis it's hard to know what the prescription is for violence but one thing that if violence this kind of violence acute vent vent violence is related to the structural violence what are we doing to link our interventions and violence reduction to fighting for equity again to making sure people do have access to the kind of things that we would like to do school safety you know freedom from want and that involves medical care so I think there's a lot to be said for creating jobs and doing good healthcare you know you know and whether that be prevention or I should say and health care delivery I think that's a violence prevention effort and a diplomatic tool as well indeed they're the only kind of violence prevention I would know how to do is address these basic social and economic rights the right to health care the right to education the right to housing and when I get all crazy and say it would be great if people had jobs you know I've got one I know they want one thank you we have a question back here hi my name is Martha Vega med school graduate and research associate for the program of global surgery and social change based on your background number time hello okay I'm just wondering do you see any place in this whole world of public health where plant-based pharmaceuticals could be implemented do you see any future of that you know I I'm you said based on my background and botanicals I was thinking wow yeah I I I wish I knew more about that it is true that I you know it's a hobby but I I would assume the answer that question is yes you know I just don't know enough about it of course an infectious disease I'm going back to as I'm sure you can to a number of the therapeutic advances that have already been made by plant-based therapeutics that's been enormous from aspirin to malaria care to say nothing of modern malaria care so I'm just assuming the answer is yes you know how best to do that again would require the kind of cooperation I was mentioning around vaccines right is I don't know how to take go from you know some insight from the Ho Chi Minh Trail to make you know Coartem but a pharmaceutical company would and and you know finding out how to make that you know in the service of poor people is a tricky and important thing to do we have about two minutes left I understand and I wanted to just ask you to you share the top three or four things that these cohort of viewers might want to take away from this discussion around leadership in the face of challenging global public health issues well thank you Michele thank you for doing this I mean one of the first ones is that you know leadership is going to involve and creating a stage for other people to lead and you immediately said capacity building I think there's you know I look at my colleagues from Haiti who are I mean the leader the leader of the Partners in Health in Liberia is a former Haitian student of mine who's been involved in healthcare delivery for 10 years and she's still young but I mean I I've worked with people who believe that we should be creating you know ways for other people to lead another is you don't you just don't go wrong when you're focused on health and social justice ver cow or John snow you know read read the books read the BIOS and they're actually quite the the leaders of public health in the nineteenth century were much more focused on health equity and on social justice than the leaders of public health in the late 20th century when all the rage was how much is it cost and how effectiveness is it and let's have a formula it's it'd be great to know the formula of cost and effectiveness but it's not that easy so humility the third point is one that I would elevate is we need to be more humble about you know getting ready to decide this is what a health policy should be based on what's affordable and what it cost and more committed to going back to that social justice promote approach saying this is what people need to be healthy and have agency and to live lives with less suffering thank you so much I really appreciate you sharing the time with us for this session in this discussion and I want to also thank you those of you here in the studio and those in the overflow room and even in more remote sites I would also want to remind you that our next voices in leadership seminar discussion series will be happening on November 13th where dr. Mark Smith who's a former president and CEO of Health Care Foundation will be will be here for discussing with us so thank you very much and again please join me in thank you dr. Parmer

John Rawls–Modern Political Philosophy–Lecture 1 (audio only)



those of you who don't have to set the class readings and schedule of the lectures and so on we will hand some of those at after class we have run out of it but I hope majority have your head at the edge of electrogram it gives the assignments and so forth and I might talk about that for a moment application think about it and then if you all have any questions what you can ask me the mine there's a mine today by those awkward hi but anyway I'm sorry about this confusion I don't know not for the first time I'd like rum don't I think the things on here are two slides and you here right now as that if I hurry now pressing home well I'm sorry I just have to talk as loud as I can and then the interim by Monday I hope to know how it works on the on the handout shape for the assignments no I hope that it's self explanatory that is topics and a or splice in with the historical part so there will be two classes under a a once today and Monday and then after we're through with that Y we'll move on to walk and noon and then go down ABC and each nighter is a separate class so it means there will be three classes under lock in here then we go back to a two okay and then it precedes on from there I think there are and are enough instructions is how it's supposed to go and it adds up to 24 classes and pets they're only 22 or 21 I didn't count them but we'll do the best we can to get through this material as plan there any questions about that down past years have been sitamma complaint about the assignments being a bit vague and I have tried to correct that by saying that for each class there's a particular reading that you should do so with your conscientious and you keep up with the reading while you know where we are and I will try to follow this and I think if you do the readings you'll be able to get more out of what sitting here and in the section so I hope you'll be able to do that is anybody hearing me at all like that oh yeah so I hope those are self-explanatory and we'll be able to follow up memories I will explain it as you go along how it's supposed to go now on page 2 there's a remark in there but I know that a lot of these readings are extremely difficult and the fact I don't leave any of them are easy but some are more difficult to learn and in fact that you haven't read and you can't before you probably make very little sense out of the ground work very little sense however it's a book you should try and I'll do the best I can to convey way I read it no two people probably who had thought about it a lot read it the same way this is a very hard book and that there are a lot of books of which that is the case these are hard things and people interpret them in different ways and it isn't that any way to interpret them is equally good some interpretations are lousy but there are a number of them that are really quite good and it's hard to pick I hope it ain't we offer one that is respectable he was not generally accepted in support as we have time to talk about Conte and about any of the other writers so don't be dismayed if you disagree if you disagree with each other and those sections that don't be surprised if the Teaching Fellows don't say the same thing I do that's entirely proper and I hope that happens talking some alternatives now I forgot to add under the text TJ there but I believe it have it in the store I'm going over after with coop I don't leave everything's in if they're all out I'll order some more Tech now they want after there any questions about anything say I connected with after that's about the exam and about the 180 section will begin the week after next they don't think they can organising before that time but beginning the week after next way we shall have sex I often say about the examination that I will hand out we will hand out in advance that's the questions that it will organize your reading preparation for the examination so it's not a surprise examination these may be difficult questions but at any rate you never to be asked and you can prepare for it the idea of that exam is to organize your study for the course so you don't frantically try to learn everything that's simply impossible can't do that so if any of you have not enacted formal requirement to take class if you can come up afterwards our hop up and happy to sign a card in two ways that the idea thing and I will give a kind of warning uh some sort that you I mean you can do it if you try but you should sit it it's a way of saying that some previous watch it does help it is a matter of knowledge or technical knowledge particularly but it's not of having some awareness of what is subject right now this year is something of an experiment and I may find out that it's not a good idea that that is pending that's not much time on a book that I wrote myself and now when I was an undergraduate I just I was very unhappy that prophetic we thought about their own book and I think at that time I was right rather than now but in any case I'm going to do it some risk I've not done this before and I'll never do it again see so while 171 will be given next year or in all likelihood it will be given I doubt very much we'll do it in the same way a third thing I thought I would mention is it in these texts there brags damage of both I said to clear you them you're only responsible for the things that we talked about and the problems is we actually take up in here and take up a second but you're not required to know everything that you might know about about Marx for example or but even about the groundwork you'd be responsible for things that we talk about them and that's a level that we're able to talk about so in that sense you know the kinds of things that you ought to be aware of another thing I thought of my another observation I thought I could make about class is that I'm told that it tends to be cumulative in the sense that if you don't know what has gone on say the first month you tend to get lost after wall and you don't see the point of the thing that I would say later how far that's actually the case I don't know I can told that's the case so I pass it on to you good idea to keep up the content that is so well those of all the introductory comments I thought it would make about this is anyone have anything they'd like to ask well are you sure saying I know this is a large room but there might be yes ha well I'll have office hours yes after the class on Monday she has some time for it to be over but say it again we've got 3:30 now beginning of class I've handed out three sheets it's a kind of a summary of what I had hoping it over today and I won't do this every day because this is just kind of add to your burden but I thought it would do it at the beginning so we could be able to have some record of fundamental ideas I had don't over start with yes what sorry yes I know you don't you have some more than up so dope it handed out on Monday how many of you do not have the copy the sweet pages that I handed out so that's it and how many of you do so that's about another okay so that's about cash if you have talking head don't so that's an estimate if they want to wait we could do the map of the class if anyone sits doesn't show up it has time otherwise Monday well let you want them right away we'll try to do something after class otherwise they'll be available Monday okay and I will go over them so you'll be able to know what is being said now I begin on the list along the sheet with a few introductory comments the first one is its schnitz in this class we're going to approach political philosophy and takeaway I want to emphasize that there are any ways in which political philosophy can be conceived and different writers will a different times think of their work and its nature and aims in a different way and this will true all the writers who we read but all of them are much they belong to what I hear call the modern Democratic a tradition of sauce and all of them except Marx the week countless liberal so what we are discussing is a particular group of writers all of whom are in the runway Democrats and all the but one a week a campus liberal now in this class I regard liberalism from within the tradition of political philosophy so it isn't a few about particular social policy although it's some particular time it may be identified with such but it's a kind of philosophical view about the nature and grounds of the institutions that we today's society have been associated with constitutional democracies how do you explain justify and so on from philosophical point of view these institutions and that's the meaning of it that a have in mind and it has some characteristic elements of the liberal view and as we go through I will try to identify those and how they are regarded and understood by different writers now lighten one much else going on now to heck and comment the political philosophy rises open from different felt needs these and needs are not the same but a Tapert one that i mentioned here is it in any society there are certain sharp and divisive and apparently irresolvable political questions and sometimes over long periods of time did they seem irresolvable and i'm nation example that is in the case of the Wars of Religion in this 16th century and as a result of that we're a part as a result of that and beginning if they've got 18th century people accepted some form of the principle toleration but might say that that principle was a way of coping with promise religious pluralism it's as a result of that so we might say that in those are two centuries there are many Dilla Safa chol tracts and discussion about that principle and half arts Hannibal with Christianity how far depends on skepticism how far depends on indifference to religion and all those matters which was hotly discussed it's not now discuss because it's not a problem but that's the historical content but the principle and I think also that one of the important historical origins of liberalism is in that controversy not the only one but it's a basic principle I think open realism is some kind of principled toleration and different philosophical view will give a different account of it and the source of it now passing on to number three is sentence and put to comment on that to say that the purpose or aim or one purpose of aim of political flux is to discuss these kind of sharply conducive issues and it's certain period of time and one bit into this class when discuss or focus on where we can see things as beginning from is the conflict over the understanding about what conflicting claims between every end equality I said phrase that are used and I'm thinking over the course of democratic thought over the past roughly let's say two centuries or score so makes plain to us I there's no public agreement on how basic institutions of democracy or of our society are to be arranged if they are to be here I use it somewhat they crave appropriate to the liberties and nature of citizenship of regarding citizens as free and equal persons in other words there is a division between the division that was in the democratic tradition of thought between the a tradition that derives that from Locke let's say and the a tradition at the rise from so and I use here a way to take press that saying that the mission of deriving a from Locke emphasizes what comes phone called the memories of the moderns that is reading the speech and the thought maybe a conscience and various rights of eagles citizenship a civil in nature and on the other hand a tradition is to rise up from Rousseau which Constance said emphasizes the memories of the Ancients Colston was a French writer who never bats empty sending to about 1830 I don't know I've forgotten that date now the memories of the Ancients were roughly the liberties of citizens many adult male citizens of the athenian democracy and so by saying that the tradition derived from was so emphasizes those complement that it emphasizes the values of public life and public participation of politics and so on as opposed to the other of tradition and that's a very sharp conflict within this a tradition and it fit well both sides of it will recognize all these values on from inside and let's say they're going to wait them in very different ways and there's an explanation for this namely and how certain things are conceived and how certain philosophical notions are interpreted so although now going on to number five although it's a case at this conflict is supported by conflicts of interests of different kinds material interests we do synthesis so forth organizational interest and it's also supported by or haydn one more spot differences of opinion about the consequences of certain social policies so we might say that's an empirical matter is to what are the effects of certain institutions but also at the same time I think was it one quick view is to account these notions are the BMC whereby conflict of view I mean some philosophical or moral or political view and it does it in this class we are particularly interested in so that there are as I mentioned here two particular views that were concerned with on the one hand return with the doctrine of the social contract which we can take to be represented by Hobbes and Locke over so income and there's the utilitarian tradition which we can take the being represented by human Bentham and Jay s mill and Sidgwick and that's a very pressing philosophical position and as I mentioned includes almost also includes almost all of the great English economist over say heard 150 years to 1750 to about 1900 so it's not only a moral and political view it's also these people were also the same time very important economic political and social theorists in that way it's very rare to find such a long period of time at such a high level well it's no surprise there were that many smart people and it's been a very strong views had enormous influence on my face even today it's the dominant view in some form or other lots of people in different subjects so to come to the final introductory remark I mentioned a bet I make a reference to the preface of TJ card race at 2 & 5 where the ends of the Texas stated first aim being to work out a reasonably is Matic inspection of political justice that provides an alternative to the dominant utilitarianism of our and I put in brackets English speaking philosophical tradition that put in those brackets could be to go to the continent though wouldn't it all find the same thing and second that the show that this conception of political justice provides a more appropriate basis for democratic institutions and a more accurate characterization of are considered convictions about political justice then say the utilitarian view so what you do two things if it succeeds it will first offer a reasonably systematic alternative political concession they really systemic because the utilitarian view is also reasonably systematic so you want to try to offer something in cash some of the same bursaries but of course system itself is not the prime value or the prime criterion you wanted you that is a more adequate more appropriate basis of democratic institutions so that's the second of these is that's actually the more important of the two but commenting on the preface it does say both things now the view that is proposed adapt various ideas from the social contract tradition and also advance various ideas from huh and as I emphasized there I say it adapts them and not the docs thing because they're not the same idea these ideas on a go shift when you put them in another framework so I urge you to keep mine that the idea the social contract for example is not going to be the same in house as it isn't in lock it won't be the same it was so or contour any other writer probably that you pick they're going to be variations on breeds that is in case of for people like that coming Locke and we're so in Hobbes they're going to be different you want to be aware of the differences and how they change and what and it's none them knowing habit changing why that is always the the most simple to think so I just want that sighs that while there are contract ideas in TJ contine ideas they're not the same and I will try to make clear what the differences are but it's interesting to make comparisons that we need to writers in this sense to see why those differences occur so it's the nature of the you might say of the whole view and why it's set up the way it is is going to determine how any tailor idea in the end is interpreted and gets used you want to be sensitive to that well those are some introductory comments on kind of thing that doing why am I making any sense I know this is a large room but they kept tickly something seems extremely dense so you don't mind if somebody were where the safes over to raise a question this can be hard to listen to well I'm now on pace to for those who have it the heading of that is fundamental ideas and I say to those of you who don't have the sheet so I am going over it so you're not really missing anything oh I'm not going over and precisely for saying right now since the aim of TJ is to provide moral basis for democratic institutions with let's say a broken moral base for democratic institutions and to address this long-standing conflict that's how the claims of everybody and equality are to be understood how we to deal with that well in this particular case and sitting up ok I can't give it isn't looking to the public political culture of a Democratic Society for certain basic intuitive ideas and principles that can be worked up into a conception of political justice in other words we're going to try to look somehow in ideas with which we're all familiar as members of this kind of society and knowing something about its history knowing something by its constitution knowing something about or documents like the Declaration of Independence and so forth occurred those things and the general nature of the political culture you should be somewhat familiar this isn't a matter of being extremely educated this America paying some attention for the political culture savings meeting papers about Supreme Court cases and Sony at some idea what does Supreme Court does I'm not torn by the anchor family D and sense of all we know is but some awareness of the political pulpit one looks to that for certain basic intuitive ideas and then try to work them up into some kind of political conception justice so the idea is you should have a lot of familiarity with these from everyday discussion of political matters now I emphasize that well I will come to this website but you'll notice I keep using the phrase political justice and not just justice I don't that that is not done in TJ and that has encouraged a lot of misunderstanding but I'm doing it now this is a conception of political justice but I will come to that now some of these basic intuitive ideas are more basic than others you might feel that some of them are used in say some few and this will be true of justices Baroness will be used to give structure to the whole view and to organize the whole view and is some systematic doctrine and these ideas has a few of them I will call fundamental intuitive ideas and I'll go over three today if I had time and go with three more on Monday and that will serve as a kind of introduction to what will be going on now the basic button maybe I say the most fundamental you use that phrase in justice experiment is the idea of society itself as a system of social collaboration between citizens regarded as free and equal person that's the basic intuitive idea that society itself is a system of cooperation between citizens as between equal person now I'm not saying you accept that idea not saying you believe it's true of the society in which you live but that you can understand that after some reflection and developing it into a notion of some sort it's accessible to you now perhaps it isn't but anyway I believe it is and we're going to try to work on that idea and others other than that are analogous now in saying that society is a system cooperation between citizen we suppose that from a political point of view and in the context of public discussion of political questions citizens that do not regard their social order as a fixed natural order they can change it they can change institutions do not fix natural order that can be changed or they do not regard the social order is an institutional hierarchy publicly justified by political or an Socratic values it may be that love lots of people believe that they are also justified by religious values maybe that some people believe they're also justified by the values of other things but from the context of public discussion going to put adopt the idea work with this model that it's not justified in those ways but in terms of values that beacon can be connected with the way in which we developed this idea promote society as a system of cooperation between citizens as free and equal person it will have to be values in some sense it comes from that that are basic ones in political discussion both to other areas of life now there are three elements in the idea of collaboration that I would like to mention the first an element features our problem here is it social cooperation is distinct from merely socially coordinated activity an example of socially socially coordinated activity would be a lot of people doing things but it turns out it and they're doing them in a coherent way they know what the others are doing is so forth but they're all following orders from some a salute central authority that they never questioned now that's very well coordinated activity but it's not cooperation I'm going to use the front now of course here you I ordinarily sensible cooperation is not so precise that it they concludes that case so what I'm doing is actually defining it if you like clicking kind of way I'm just going to say that that is not going to be what I mean by cooperation at the borders from the center and the center can't be questioned that is not to operate so that would be one feature of it another feature of a cooperation that it is that it involves some notion of fair terms of cooperation if people are cooperating then they have an idea of what the terms of cooperation are and that the terms are fair or ought to be fair call if it's truly cooperation so in some sense if we were forced into it the terms aren't such that we could accept but therefore we had no choice we had to do it then that put some doubt that's cooperation so cooperation involves it they're fair terms of cooperation and that these fair terms are publicly recognized and they involve that is their terms of cooperation for some principle they characterizes the fair terms of reciprocity or mutuality that must be some kind of fairness between the parties and that kind of a notion has to be involved and the third notion is that involves the idea of each disciplines rational event vintage or assistants good so that the idea the national advantage specifies what it is that those engagements or operation are seeking to advance each from their own point of view oh it's at anyway going to involve that is the notion of cooperation going to have those three features now I'm mention in advance to give you some ideas at the break how are the fair terms cooperation to pacify now there's different ways of doing that but in justice fairness they get specified by those engaged in cooperation and of course it's at that point at some variation of the notion contract Anderson in other words it by some agreement of some sort that is an agreement on certain principles that determine what the fair terms are going to be so further development of the notions of cooperation is that we're going to say that those engaged in cooperation the ones that are to determine the fair terms of it but that's we'll be getting ahead of it now I turn next tune down for on the Sheep of those of you who have it talked about the role of the principles of justice as part of a conception justice their role is to specify what the fair terms of cooperation are then it's the role principles of critical justice to define what fair terms of social cooperation or when we think of the styling at home and this is discussed although not exactly the same ways I have discussed it here in section one which part of this assignment for today sections 1 1 & 2 for the day and 3 & 4 Monday ok so that's their role is to define a very firm with the cooperation so these principles that would look at content of them now actually what they do is specify basic rights and duties to be assigned by the main political and social institutions and they regulate the dictation of benefits that arise through or as a result of social cooperation now hence in a democratic society citizens I thought of as being equal persons that is within this model of that kind of society a conception justice that may be viewed as I said as specifying the fair terms of political Accord which means it isn't that creamy per person okay I hope that's some idea of what's this first fundamental idea from nature by adding on other things and helping oceans that within it or requirements that within it I'm going to attempt to develop not the deuce of course but to use as a framework for working out some kind of view now I'm going on to another fundamental idea this is introduced on page five of section one I'm going to take it here more or less the same form that it occurred there that that's the notion of for the idea about whether it's the time now let's say that a society is real order it is not only designed to advance the code of its memory but also when it is a technically regulated by a publicly recognized conception of political justice the definition that this is going to mean the following first it will mean that it is a society in which everyone except and knows that everyone else except the same principles of justice now courser has never been a society like that at least I can't think of one that fulfills always the condition but that for the time being try not to worry about that we'll see maybe that this has some some reason for doing this in this way but it would mean first every citizen safe we think this is the language that we've been using they all like to snap the same principles of political justice inside political joke because elsewhere they may hold other moral views but they agree on holding the same principles of Greek political and the other of course second characteristic with a real word society as defined here is its main political and social institution are publicly known or with good reason believed to satisfy these principles so it will be a society which everyone holds the same vessel to justice and also a society with those institutions that you get satisfied the principles so it's a society which is institutions of which are hard shot now this has a consequence that in a well-ordered society there is a we might say the publicly recognized political conception of justice establishes a shared point of view from which citizens claims on their political and social institutions can be adjudicated in other words they're going to make it Ronnie claims on these institutions and we're going to argue about the whether or not they're just not just supporting songs this argument in their case will not be fruitless we're not nitrogen miscible fruits because they agree on what the principles of political justice are so what they also agree certain general beliefs consequences and so on these questions will be often although not always a resolvable there will be publicly accepted answered it possible I say not always resolvable because the no principles possibly resolve every question but they can specify kind of framework within which people can at least walk and the 16th and 17th centuries in matters of agreement they just that is simply not true there is no common basis from which people can't even begin the clock but if you have publicly recognized principles in the sense then although they don't provide some kind of my safe deductive apparatus from which you can grind out answers they may provide a number of times some kind of framework within which these questions can be discussed so that's beginning characterization of a fellow in society now the point is although there may not be may not ever need have been and maybe they cannot even be in any precise way even even in heaven I suppose or ideal conditions of society this time nevertheless there may be some conceptions of justice that it's not impossible for them to serve in this role so one way to think about inception of Justices or certain principles is is it possible that these principles could ever serve in a society of this sort and I think we'd like to believe that any conception that we accept would at any rate allow for this possibility so in this respect I think the most my lord society the kind of a criterion that we can use to compare conceptions of justice and their very principles in the sense that well at least under ideal conditions there isn't anything about the content of these principles that makes it impossible for society this trying to exist now the third fundamental intuitive idea I won't be able to get through this today will have to begin on and on Monday is the one that's the introduced in section 2 of PJ so you can you should look at that landing the notion of the basic structure of society and that's an attempt to make and I want standing about now actually three o'clock so I will stop but it's the primary subject adjustment and it's a thing that in the sentiments I talked about the political justice it's about just that but can you hear me this one anybody who can't hear me okay I might prefer that too