The Renaissance: Was it a Thing? – Crash Course World History #22


Hi, I’m John Green, This is Crash Course:
World History and today we’re going to talk about something that ought to be controversial:
The Renaissance. So you probably already know about the Renaissance
thanks to the work of noted teenage mutant ninja turtles Leonardo, Michelangelo, Donatello,
and Raphael. But that isn’t the whole story. Mr. Green, Mr. Green. What about Splinter?
I think he was an architect. Ugh, me from the past, youíre such an idiot.
Splinter was a painter, sculptor, AND an architect. He was a quite a Renaissance rat. [theme music] Right, so the story goes that the Renaissance
saw the rebirth of European culture after the miserable Dark Ages, and that it ushered in the
modern era of secularism, rationality, and individualism. And those are all in the list of things we
like here at Crash Course. Mr. Green. I think you’re forgetting Cool
Ranch Doritos? Yeah, fair enough. Then what’s so controversial? Well, the whole
idea of a European Renaissance presupposes that Europe was like an island unto itself
that was briefly enlightened when the Greeks were ascendant and then lost its way and then
rediscovered its former European glory. Furthermore, I’m going to argue that the
Renaissance didn’t even necessarily happen. But first, letís assume that it did. Essentially,
the Renaissance was an efflorescence of arts (primarily visual, but also to a lesser extent
literary) and ideas in Europe that coincided with the rediscovery of Roman and Greek culture. It’s easiest to see this in terms of visual
art, Renaissance art tends to feature a focus on the human form, somewhat idealized, as
Roman and especially Greek art had. And this “classicizing” is also rather apparent
in the architecture of the Renaissance which featured all sorts of Greek columns and triangular
pediments and Roman arches and domes. In fact, looking at a Renaissance building you might
even be able to fool yourself into thinking you’re looking at an actual Greek building,
if you sort of squint and ignore the fact that Greek buildings tend to be, you know,
ruins. In addition to rediscovering, that is, copying, Greek
and Roman art, the Renaissance saw the rediscovery of Greek and Roman writings and their ideas. And that opened up a whole new world for scholars,
well, not a new world, actually since the texts were more than 1000 years old, but you know
what I mean. The scholars who examined, translated, and
commented upon these writings were called humanists, which can be a little bit of a
confusing term, because it implies they were concerned with, you know, humans rather than,
say, the religious world. Which can add to the common, but totally incorrect,
assumption that Renaissance writers and artists and scholars were, like, secretly not religious. That’s a favorite favorite area of speculation
on the Internet and in Dan Brown novels, but the truth is that Renaissance artists were
religious. As evidence, let me present you with that fact that they painted the Madonna
over and over and over and over and over and STAN! Anyway, all humanism means is that these scholars
studied what were called the humanities. Literature, philosophy, history. Today, of course, these areas of study are
known as the so-called dark arts. What? Liberal arts? Aw, Stan, youíre always making history less fun.
I WANT TO BE A PROFESSOR OF THE DARK ARTS. Stan: The Dark Arts job is a dangerous position. Yeah, I guess that’s true, so we’ll
stick with this. Right so here at Crash Course, we try not
to focus too much on dates, but if Iím going to convince you that the Renaissance didn’t
actually happen, I should probably tell you, you know, when it didn’t happen. So traditionally
the Renaissance is associated with the 15th and 16th centuries. Ish. The Renaissance happened all across Europe,
but weíre going to focus on Italy, because I want to and I own the video camera. Plus,
Italy really spawned the Renaissance. What was it about Italy that lent itself to
Renaissancing? Was it the wine? The olives? The pasta? The plumbers? The relative permissiveness
when it comes to the moral lassitude of their leaders? Well, letís go to the Thought Bubble. Italy was primed for Renaissance for exactly
one reason: Money. A society has to be super rich to support
artists and elaborate building projects and to feed scholars who translate and comment
on thousand-year-old documents. And the Italian city states were very wealthy for two reasons. First, many city states were mini-industrial
powerhouses each specializing in a particular industrial product like Florence made cloth,
Milan made arms. Second, the cities of Venice and Genoa got
stinking rich from trade. Genoa turned out a fair number of top-notch
sailors, like for instance Christopher Columbus. But the Venetians became the richest city
state of all. As you’ll remember from the Crusades, the
Venetians were expert sailors, shipbuilders, and merchants, and as you’ll remember from
our discussions of Indian Ocean trade, they also had figured out ways to trade with Islamic
empires, including the biggest economic power in the region: the Ottomans. Without trading with the Islamic world, especially
in pepper, Venice couldn’t have afforded all those painters, nor would they have had
money to pay for the incredibly fancy clothes they put on to pose for their fancy portraits. The clothes, the paint, the painters, enough
food to get a double chin, all of that was paid for with money from trade with the Ottomans. I know I talk a lot about trade, but that’s
because itís so incredibly awesome, and it really does bind the world together. And while trade can lead to conflicts, on
balance, it has been responsible for more peaceful contacts than violent ones because,
you know, death is bad for business. This was certainly the case in the Eastern
Mediterranean where the periods of trade-based diplomacy were longer and more frequent than
periods of war, even though all we ever talk about is war because it’s very dramatic,
which is why my brother Hank’s favorite video game is called Assassin’s Creed, not Some
Venetian Guys Negotiate A Trade Treaty. Thanks, Thought Bubble. So here’s another
example of non-Europeans supporting the Renaissance: The Venetians exported textiles to the Ottomans. They were usually woven in other cities like
Florence, and the reason Florentine textiles were so valuable is because their color remained
vibrant. That is because they were dyed with a chemical
called alum, which was primarily found in Anatolia, in the Ottoman Empire. So to make the textiles the Ottomans craved, the
Italians needed Ottoman alum, at least until 1460. When Giovanni da Castro, Pope Pius II’s godson,
discovered alum, in Italy, in Tolfa. And he wrote to his godfather, the Pope: “Today
I bring you victory over the Turk. Every year they wring from the Christians more than 300,000
ducats for the alum with which we dye wool various colors, But I have found seven mountains
so rich in this material that they could supply seven worlds. If you will give orders to engage
workmen, build furnaces, and smelt the ore, you will provide all Europe with alum and
the Turk will lose all his profits. Instead they will accrue to you.” So the Pope was like, “Heck yeah.” More
importantly he granted a monopoly on the mining rights of alum to a particular Florentine
family, the Medicis. You know, the ones you always see painted. But vitally, Italian alum mines didn’t bring
victory over the Turks, or cause them to lose all their profits, just as mining and drilling
at home never obviate the need for trade. Okay, one last way contact with Islam helped
to create the European Renaissance, if indeed it happened: The Muslim world was the source of
many of the writings that Renaissance scholars studied. For centuries, Muslim scholars had been working
their way through ancient Greek writings, especially Ptolemy and Aristotle, who despite
being consistently wrong about everything managed to be the jumping off point for thinking
both in the Christian and Muslim worlds. And the fall of Constantinople in 1453 helped
further spread Greek ideas because Byzantine scholars fled for Italy, taking their books with them.
So we have the Ottomans to thank for that, too. And even after it had become a Muslim capital,
Istanbul was still, like, the number one destination for book nerds searching for ancient Greek
texts. Plus, if we stretch our definition of Renaissance
thought to include scientific thought, there is a definite case to be made that Muslim
scholars influenced Copernicus, arguably the Renaissance’s greatest mind. Oh, it’s time for the open letter? An Open
Letter to Copernicus. But first, let’s see whatís in the secret
compartment today. Wow, the heliocentric solar system? Cool. Earth in the middle, sun in
the middle, earth in the middle, sun in the middle. Ptolemy. Copernicus. Ptolemy. Copernicus. Right, an open letter to Copernicus. Dear Copernicus, Why you always gotta make the rest of us look
so bad? You were both a lawyer and a doctor? That
doesn’t seem fair. You spoke four languages and discovered that
the earth is not the center of the universe, come on. But at least you didn’t discover it entirely
on your own. Now, there’s no way to be sure that you had access to Muslim scholarship
on this topic. But one of your diagrams is so similar to
a proof found in an Islamic mathematics treatise that it’s almost impossible that you didnít
have access to it. Even the letters on the diagram are almost
the same. So at least I can tell my mom that when she asks why I’m not a doctor and a lawyer and
the guy who discovered the heliocentric solar system. Best wishes,
John Green Alright, so now having spent the last several
minutes telling you why the Renaissance happened in Italy and not in, I don’t know, like India
or Russia or whatever, I’m going to argue that the Renaissance did not in fact happen. Let’s start with the problem of time. The
Renaissance isn’t like the Battle of Hastings or the French Revolution where people were
aware that they were living amid history. Like, when I was eleven and most of you didnít
exist yet, my dad made my brother and me turn off the Cosby Show and watch people climbing
on the Berlin Wall so we could see history. But no one, like, woke their kids up in Tuscan
village in 1512 like, “Mario, Luigi, come outside. The Renaissance is here!” “Hurry, we’re living in a glorious new era,
where man’s relationship to learning is changing.” “I somehow feel a new sense of individualism
based on my capacity for reason.” No. In fact, most people in Europe were totally
unaware of the Renaissance, because its art and learning affected a tiny sliver of the
European population. Like, life expectancy in many areas of Europe
actually went down during the Renaissance. Art and learning of the Renaissance didn’t filter down
to most people the way that technology does today. And really the Renaissance was only experienced
by the richest of the rich and those people, like painters, who served them. I mean, there were some commercial opportunities,
like for framing paintings or binding books, but the vast majority of Europeans still lived
on farms either as free peasants or tenants. And the rediscovery of Aristotle didnít in
any way change their lives, which were governed by the rising and setting of the sun, and,
intellectually, by the Catholic Church. In fact, probably about 95% of Europeans never
encountered the Renaissance’s opulence or art or modes of thought. We have constructed the Renaissance as important
not because it was so central to the 15th century. I mean, at the time Europe wasnít
the worldís leader in, anything other than the tiny business of Atlantic trade. We remember it as important because it matters
to us now. It gave us the ninja turtles. We care about Aristotle and individualism
and the Mona Lisa and the possibility that Michelangelo painted an anatomically correct
brain onto the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, because these things give us a narrative that
makes sense. Europe was enlightened, and then it was unenlightened,
and then it was re-enlightened, and ever since it’s been the center of art and commerce
and history. You see that cycle of life, death, and rebirth a lot
in historical recollection, but it just isn’t accurate. So it’s true that many of the ideas introduced to Europe
in the 15th and 16th centuries became very important. But remember, when we talk about the Renaissance,
weíre talking about hundreds of years. I mean, although they share ninja turtledom, Donatello
and Raphael were born 97 years apart. And the Renaissance humanist Petrarch was born in 1304,
229 years before the Renaissance humanist Montaigne. That’s almost as long as the United States
has existed. So was the Renaissance a thing? Not really. It was a lot of mutually interdependent
things that occurred over centuries. Stupid truth always resisting simplicity. Thanks
for watching. I’ll see you next week. Crash Sourse is produced and directed by Stan Muller. Our script supervisor is Danica Johnson. The show is written by my high school history teacher Raoul Meyer and myself, and our graphic team is Thought Bubble. Last week’s phrase of the week was Angry Birds. If you wanna suggest future phrases of the week or guess at this week’s, you can do so in comments where you can also ask question about today’s video that will be answered by our team of historians.
Thanks for watching Crash Course. As we say in my hometown, Don’t Forget to Be Awesome.

News Wrap: Italy’s far-right party shut out from power


JUDY WOODRUFF: In the day’s other news: Tropical
Storm Fernand has come ashore in Northeastern Mexico, and is now moving inland. It struck a sparsely populated area north
of La Pesca today with winds of 40 miles an hour and 18 inches of rain. Forecasters said that it will stay south of
the Texas border and dissipate by tomorrow. In Britain, lawmakers have dealt Prime Minister
Boris Johnson a stinging blow over Brexit. The House of Commons voted today to block
the country from leaving the European Union without a formal agreement. In turn, Johnson is warning that he will call
a snap election for mid-October, two weeks before the Brexit deadline. We will have a report from London right after
the news summary. In Italy, Premier Giuseppe Conte unveiled
a new governing coalition that shuts the hard-right League Party out of power. Conte met with the Italian president to present
his cabinet. It unites his populist Five Star Movement
with the center-left Democratic Party. Conte’s original coalition collapsed when
the League Party withdrew, in a failed bid to force new elections. The government of Afghanistan voiced new concerns
today about a potential peace deal between the U.S. and the Taliban. An adviser to President Ashraf Ghani cautioned
against withdrawing U.S. troops too quickly, with the insurgent Taliban at its strongest
since the 2001 U.S. invasion. But, in Brussels, the NATO secretary-general
tried to allay fears of a hasty pullout. JENS STOLTENBERG, NATO Secretary-General:
We will not leave too early, but our aim is not to stay in Afghanistan forever. Our aim is to make sure that Afghanistan never
again creates the platform for threats, for planning, for organizing, for funding terrorist
attacks against our countries. JUDY WOODRUFF: NATO has about a 20,000 troops
in Afghanistan, including some 14,000 Americans. The draft peace agreement calls for 5,000
of those U.S. troops to leave shortly after a final deal. Back in this country, a government watchdog
says migrant children separated from their parents last year have shown post-traumatic
stress and other mental health issues. They included heightened fear and feelings
of abandonment. The report comes from the inspector general
at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. It is based on interviews with about 100 mental
health clinicians who dealt with the affected children. The Pentagon has diverted $3.6 billion away
from military construction funds to build 175 miles of a wall on the U.S. southern border. The move effectively de-funds a total of 127
projects, including some military schools and day care. Defense Secretary Mark Esper announced it
late Tuesday, and President Trump said today that it’s part of his declaration of a national
emergency along the border. DONALD TRUMP, President of the United States:
The secretary of defense spoke with members of Congress and explained it to them. And I think he felt very good about it. He feels it’s a national security problem. I do too. It is. When you have thousands of people trying to
rush our country, I think that’s national security. JUDY WOODRUFF: A number of congressional Democrats
condemned the funding shift. Texas Congressman Bill Flores today became
the latest Republican to announce he’s retiring from the U.S. House of Representatives. Flores is in his fifth term, and is now the
15th GOP Congress member not seeking reelection and the fifth from the state of Texas. That is ahead of the pace at this point in
the 2018 election cycle, when a total of 34 House Republicans retired. Michigan will be the first state in the nation
to ban sales of flavored nicotine vaping products. Democratic Governor Gretchen Whitmer ordered
the move today. She said e-cigarette makers are using candy
flavors and misleading ads to, in her words, hook children on nicotine. YouTube has agreed to pay $170 million over
charges that it collected personal data on children without parental consent. The Federal Trade Commission and New York
state say that the company used the data to target kids with advertising. Under the settlement, YouTube also agrees
to limit its data collection. And on Wall Street, gains in technology stocks
fueled a rally. The Dow Jones industrial average gained 237
points to close at 26355. The Nasdaq rose 102 points, and the S&P 500
added 31. Still to come on the “NewsHour”: blocking
Brexit — British lawmakers defy their prime minister to stop an abrupt break from the
European Union; protests turn to policy in Hong Kong, as a controversial extradition
bill is withdrawn; how the Amazon rain forests bear the brunt of Brazil’s booming agriculture
business; and much more.

Trump and other G7 leaders to talk global economy and trade


JOINING US.>>THANK YOU SO MUCH. LELAND: GOOD TO SEE YOU. TAKE CARE. GILLIAN. GILLIAN: LET’S BRING IN THE REPUBLICAN SIDE OF THIS E EQUATION, FROM WISCONSIN, MIKE GALLAGHER, APPRECIATE YOU BEING WITH US. AND KICKING OFF THE G-7 BY ESSENTIALLY SAYING THE UNITED STATES TRADE WAR WITH CHINA HIGHLIGHTS WHY WE NEED THE GROUP OF 7 MORE THAN EVER TO HELP WEIGH IN WITH SITUATIONS LIKE THIS. DO YOU GET THE FEELING THAT PRESIDENT TRUMP IS GOING TO BE TAKING ADVICE FROM THESE FOREIGN LEADERS THIS WEEKEND?>>WELL, I THINK THE PRESIDENT HAS AN ENORMOUS OPPORTUNITY TO UNITE THE FREE WORLD IN OPPOSITION TO CHINA’S PREDATORY PRACTICES. THERE’S NO QUESTION IN MY MIND THAT THE CHINESE COMMUNIST PARTY REPRESENTS OUR BIGGEST ECONOMIC AND GEOPOLITICAL THREAT OVER THE LONG-TERM. I BELIEVE WE’RE AT THE BEGINNING OF A GENERATIONAL STRUGGLE AND I BELIEVE THE BEST WEAPON WE HAVE IN THAT FIGHT IS TO BE ON THE SAME PAGE WITH OUR ALLIES IN PUSHING BACK AGAINST THE CCP. AND FAR MORE IMPORTANT THAN ANY–>>DO YOU THINK THAT SOME OF THE FOREIGN LEADERS THERE LIKE ANGELA MERKEL OF GERMANY, MACRON OF FRANCE, DO YOU THINK THEIR WORDS TO THE SAME TUNE AS YOU JUST LAID OUT, ARE REALLY GOING TO MAKE AN IMPRESSION ON PRESIDENT TRUMP? DO YOU THINK MAYBE HE’S GOING TO KIND OF TAKE A STEP BACK IN THE TRADE SPAT OR DO YOU THINK HE’S GOING TO COME OUT OF THERE AND WANT TO GO EVEN HARDER?>>WELL, I DON’T KNOW. YOU KNOW, OBVIOUSLY, I HAVEN’T BEEN IN THAT ROOM. I JUST WOULD SAY THIS, I THINK THE SOONER WE RESOLVE DISPUTES WITH OUR ALLIES, AS WE HAVE AS PERTAINS TO THE 232 TARIFFS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO AND SOME OF OUR OTHER ALLIES. THE BETTER CHANCE WE HAVE OF UNITING OUR ALLIES IN OPPOSITION TO CHINA, I THINK ONE POSITIVE STEP WE COULD DO FROM CONGRESSIONAL, IRRESPECTIVE OF WHAT HAPPENS IN THE G-7 IS TO BRING THE NEW NAFTA TO A VOTE. THE FACT WE’RE ON RECESS WHEN THIS ISSUE IS UNRESOLVED IS ABSURD. I THINK THEY SHOULD CALL US BACK AND HAVE THE DEBATE. NANCY PELOSI SHOULD FEEL THE PRESSURE TO DO SO. WE SHOULD KEEP OUR FOCUS ON PROTECTING SENSITIVE U.S. TECHNOLOGY EXPORTED TO CHINA WHERE IT WILL BE USED AT BEST TO REPRESS CHINESE CITIZENS AND ONE DAY AGAINST OUR SOLDIERS, AIRMEN, MARINES AND SAILORS ON THE BATTLEFIELD. GILLIAN: YOU BRING UP A GOOD POINT WHICH IS A STICKING POINT IN THE TRADE SPAT WITH CHINA SINCE DAY ONE HAS BEEN INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY. IT’S CHINA STEALING EVERYTHING FROM SENSITIVE, CLASSIFIED, U.S. BUSINESS INFORMATION, TO STEALING ALL KINDS OF TECHNOLOGICAL KNOW-HOW FROM THE UNITED STATES. HOW DO YOU THINK PRESIDENT TRUMP IS TAKING ON THAT ISSUE SPECIFICALLY SO FAR IN THE, YOU KNOW, IN THIS BACK AND FORTH? DO YOU THINK HE’S REALLY GETTING AT THE HEART OF THE MATTER?>>WELL, I THINK THE TRUMP ADMINISTRATION DESERVES ENORMOUS CREDIT FOR DRAWING ATTENTION TO THAT ISSUE. FOR THE A LEAST TWO DECADES PRIOR TO THE TRUMP ADMINISTRATION, THE BIPARTISAN POLICY WAS IF WE INTEGRATED CHINA INTO THE ECONOMY IT WOULD MODERATE THEIR BEHAVIOR IN TERMS OF MILITARY ACTIVITY, DIPLOMATIC ACTIVITY AND ECONOMIC ACTIVITY. THE ONLY PROBLEM WAS THAT WAS ENTIRELY WRONG SO THE NATIONAL SECURITY STRATEGY AND DEFENSE STRATEGY OF THE TRUMP ADMINISTRATION SAY OUR FOREMOST GEOPOLITICAL THREAT IS CHINA, CHINA, CHINA. THE NEXT PHASE OF THIS IS IT TO ENSURE THE FUTURE OF THE INTERNET IS NOT DOMINATED BY THE CHINESE COMMUNIST PARTY PARTICULARLY HUAWEI AND–>>UNFORTUNATELY, CONGRESSMAN, THE PROBLEM IS THAT PRESIDENT TRUMP’S ADMINISTRATION HAS SHINED A SPOTLIGHT ON THE ISSUE, BUT WE’RE NOT SEEING CONCRETE PROGRESS IN TERMS OF DETERRING CHINESE HACKS. I MEAN, OVER THE LAST TWO MONTHS, THE NUMBER OF CHINESE ESPIONAGE EXPERTS THAT HAVE BEEN IDENTIFIED ON U.S. BUSINESS WEBSITES HAVE ACTUALLY SKYROCKETED.>>IT’S AN ENORMOUS CHALLENGE AND THAT’S WHY I CHAIR SOMETHING, A COMMISSION REVIEWING U.S. CYBER POLICY. I WOULD SAY WE’VE MADE SIGNIFICANT CHANGES IN OUR CYBER POLICY IN THE LAST TWO YEARS WE’VE ALLOWED OUR CYBER WARRIORS MORE LATITUDE TO ATONIGHT A POLICY OF PERSISTENT ENGAGEMENT AND I THINK THAT’S ONE OF THE REASONS WE DIDN’T SEE AS MANY CONCERNS ABOUT THE 2018 ELECTION AS WE DID IN THE 2016 ELECTION IN TERMS OF HACKING. NO DOUBT TO YOUR POINT THERE’S MUCH MORE THAT NEEDS TO BE DONE. ULTIMATELY, THIS IS A HUMAN PROBLEM. WE NEED THE BEST AND BRIGHTEST IN THE PRIVATE SECTOR IN THE SILICON VALLEY TO WORK WITH THE PENTAGON AND NOT THE COMMUNIST CHINESE PARTY. THAT’S THE ONLY WAY TO WIN THIS OVER THE LONG-TERM AND IF THE CONSENSUS IN SILICON VALLEY THEY’D RATHER WORK WITH THE CCP THAN REFINING THEIR INSTRUMENTS THAN WITH OUR WARRIORS, THEN WE’RE IN THE TROUBLE.

Charles V and the Holy Roman Empire: Crash Course World History #219


Hi, I’m John Green, this is Crash Course
World History, and today we’re going to talk about the Holy Roman Empire. Which as Voltaire famously pointed out, was
not holy, or Roman, or an empire. But the Holy Roman Empire can help us understand
world history, especially during the reign of its most powerful emperor, the smart, and
sensible, and hard-working Charles Hapsburg, known as Carlos I in Spain, and Charles V
in the rest of Europe. So, lets frame it this way. In soccer, the World
Cup is like a pretty big deal, especially for me. Mr Green? Mr Green? But I’m not even good at soccer You’re actually not that bad Me From the Past, but the only two things you put into your body are Wendy’s
and cigarette smoke. And that… it’s not great for your athletic career.
In 2014, the final pitted Germany against Argentina and if that game had been played
in 1550, both of those teams would’ve had the same head of state.
The 2010 final between Spain and the Netherlands, again the same head of state – Charles V.
Unfortunately, the 1550 World Cup had to be postponed until after soccer was invented. So, Charles V ruled one of the biggest empires
in history, behind only Chinggis Khan, Joseph Stalin and Stalin’s successors in the Soviet
Union. In addition to claiming to rule most of Europe,
during Charles’ lifetime, (1500-1558), one of his dominions, Spain, laid claim to nearly
all of the New World outside of Brazil. And a few of his subjects — the miserable survivors
of the fleet of Ferdinand Magellan — became the first known humans to circumnavigate the
globe. Under Charles, the template for the colonization
of the Americas and the Christianization and treatment of its indigenous people was laid
down, and Charles gave his seal of approval to the Jesuit Order to convert Asia. He underwrote
the first Mission settlements to California, and began the process of turning the islands
known as the Philippines into Asia’s largest Spanish-speaking country.
But he wasn’t just a conqueror. Charles also hosted the Valladolid debates, the first-known
discussions of universal human rights — and he actively sought to end slavery for many.
Although, not for all, and he didn’t really succeed in ending it for anyone.
Yet, for all that, Charles V isn’t known as a giant of world history. I mean his realm,
the Holy Roman Empire, was ultimately, a failed state, and his reign a bitter disappointment,
even to himself. Trying to rule an empire stocked with rebellious
subjects including Martin Luther and with territory in two hemispheres, Charles V managed
to totally bankrupt his realm and that was kind of impressive.
Because he had access to the silver and gold of the new world, the Renaissance banking
fortunes of Italy and the Netherlands, and the military power of Spain.
In short, Charles V was to the Holy Roman Empire what Screech is to the Saved by the Bell alumni. By the time he died, crippled with gout and
malaria at the age of 58 – wait are we still talking about Screech? No, apparently we’re
talking about Charles V now. Anyway, the Holy Roman Empire was defaulting
on massive debts to its creditors. So among historians, the debate over whether
Charles could have been a successful emperor tends to break into two schools of thought.
One argues that the Holy Roman Empire was doomed to fail largely because it lacked the
nationalism that powered the rising nation-states like France and England.
But Voltaire was probably right, that the Holy Roman Empire was doomed from birth. Over
it’s 1004-year-history, the Holy Roman Empire never had the means of levying direct taxes,
or directly raising an army from its territory, which nearly always included what are today
Eastern France, Luxembourg, Germany, Austria, the Italian peninsula, and Czechoslovakia,
and at times stretched to the Netherlands, and Belgium, Hungary, Croatia, Poland, and
western Ukraine. Governing such a vast area is almost impossible,
especially when you have to have like you know people on horses to deliver messages.
These days, even with the internet, governing Europe isn’t that easy – Ask the European
Parliamentg how it’s going. So the HRE began in 800 CE as a marriage between
the Germanic warlord, Charlemagne, and the only sort of warlord-y Popes in Rome.
After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire western Christendom was basically a flock
of rural warriors who reveled in trials by combat, Christian conversion through combat,
and, just generally combat. And Charlemagne shrewdly recognized that the
Church’s mainly literate hierarchy and command of tradition were his best possible instruments
for governing his battle loving feudal lords. So Charlemagne and Pope Leo III struck a deal;
Leo would bestow upon Charlemagne the authority and tradition of the Caesars, while Charlemagne
acknowledged the Church’s spiritual superiority over his secular power.
And the name for the agreement reflected the terms of the deal. Holy, because the Church
wanted top billing, Roman, to give Charlemagne maximum prestige among his feudal subjects,
and Empire, because they wanted it to be an empire.
Here’s a lesson in romance from history: marriages of convenience…. meh?
So the relationship between the popes and the emperors grew a bit rocky over time. In
the centuries after Charlemagne, one European warrior clan, the House of Hapsburg fought
to claim the Emperor’s throne, and to establish dominance over the Papacy.
And one of the tactics used by the Hapsburgs was to promote dynastic marriages between
Hapsburg cousins, thus keeping inheritances within the family and out of the hands of
the Church. This Hapsburg in-breeding worked politically,
but, over centuries, it brought out recessive family genes for mental illness and — most
famously — these oversized lower jaws that became Europe’s most-recognizable profile.
In short, in-breeding – great way to keep money in the family, maybe not the best way
to keep A++ kings in the family. The Papacy fought back and in 1356,the position
of Holy Roman Emperor was turned into an elected position. Candidates for the crown henceforth
needed to win support from at least four of seven “Electors.”
Now this didn’t prevent the Hapsburgs from reclaiming the throne, but it did force the
family to pay fortunes in bribes and favors to win it, because as always, money wins elections.
Charles was no exception and the bribes he paid to secure the his position as Emperor
in 1521 meant that he started off his rule in debt – which is never a great idea.
But wait, you say, now that he is Emperor he can just tap into a loyal group of subjects,
who will be more than happy to pay tax increases in order to pay off Charles’ debt.
But yeah, that’s not how the Holy Roman Empire worked. All right, let’s get to know
this Emperor in the Thought Bubble Charles’s parents came from two ambitious
dynasties. His mother, Juana, was the daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, whom you’ve probably
heard of. And from Juana, Charles laid claim not only to Spain but to parts of Italy, including
Naples and Sicily, as well as what became known as the Americas. Charles’s father
was the Duke of Burgundy, Phillip the Fair. And through Philip, Charles could claim the German
lands of the Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian I, Phillip’s father.
So Charles’s existence was pretty much a genetic engineering job designed to produce
a ruler of Spain and Germany. Only, Charles was neither Spanish nor German himself. He
grew up in Belgium, in the dukedom of Burgundy, which technically made him a French subject.
And ruling over so many disparate people was a recipe for trouble. Like, German peasants
in Frisia had revolted against the empire in 1515, but they weren’t nearly as troublesome
as the Germans living in towns. By the time Charles bought his throne in 1521, German
merchants had come to think of themselves as being guaranteed the rights to speak in
a parliament, to have a say in their taxes and even to form their own militias.
Protestantism was also a big headache for Charles, especially when Luther and his followers
claimed that they followed their consciences in matters of religion rather than the emperor’s
will. Charles thought that he solved this problem when he faced Luther at the Diet of
Worms in 1523, but that didn’t work out quite as planned.
Thanks, Thought Bubble. So, at the Diet of Worms Luther was so compelling when talking
about his faith that he became more popular – not less.
And shortly thereafter he began his famous German translation of the Bible.
So obviously, governing most of Europe was just a tremendous difficulty for Charles V,
but he also had to be the ruler of all of the Americas except for Brazil.
I can’t help but notice, Stan, that Brazil is always the exception in the Americas. And with the Spanish Conquistadors subjugation of the the American Indians by the late 1530s,
Charles’s life got even worse or arguably better.
Because he was richer and had more subjects which is the point of being an emperor I guess.
So unlike most of the Spaniards in Spain’s colonies, Charles actually showed some concern
for his native subjects, but he couldn’t really do much.
Like in 1520, after receiving a steady stream of complaints about how the native people
were being abused, Charles banned the granting of new encomiendas and ordered his officials
to phase out the old ones. And this worked … not at all. Hernan Cortes
and other leading conquistadors completely ignored Charles orders and just kept doling
out encomiendas. And then Charles sent new orders saying that
the Indians are “to live in liberty, as our vassals in Castile live…if you have
given any Indians in encomienda to any Christians you will remove them.”
Cortes responded, “The majority of the Spaniards who come here are of low quality, violent,
and vicious.” Well, I guess he was self-aware. Anyway, his
response amounted to – we could only get Spanish people to come here if they have the right
to exploit other humans. And then In 1526, Charles gave in and allowed
Cortes, and, later, Pizarro, to issue temporary encomiendas to their men.
Now so far, Charles isn’t looking so good in this story, so it might be useful to compare
his record to those of his contemporaries, who, in theory, ruled more coherent and governable
states. And it just so happens that Charles reigned
at the same time as two of Europe’s most notable proto-nationalistic leaders, England’s
Henry VIII and France’s Francis I of France. The bitterest rivalry was between Francis
and Charles, because Francis believed that Charles, as the Duke of Burgundy, which is
in France, was his subject. Charles, meanwhile, knew that Francis had
attempted to win the title of Holy Roman Emperor himself, and had warned the electors that
Charles was an unfit and despotic man. If we could just stop for a moment. Why on
earth would anyone fight to become the Holy Roman Emperor.
The two monarchs fought four separate wars against each other. And according to proponents
of nationalism, Francis should have had the advantage, right. Because he had unchallenged
power of taxation in France, and a religious class that was loyal to him, and a population,
or at least an elite, that all spoke French. But Charles’s troops won every war. Not
only that, in the course of the wars Charles’ troops managed to take Francis himself hostage
at the siege of Pavia, and sack Rome in 1527, ending the pope’s hope of becoming a real
player in secular politics, and, according to some scholars, ending the Italian Renaissance.
Charles also fought a war against Suleiman and the Ottomans, defeating them at Vienna,
although he wasn’t able to stop Suleiman from consolidating his control over the formerly
Habsburg territory of Hungary. But despite ruling this fractious, polyglot
empire rather than a compact national state, Charles did okay for himself.
Well at least by some measures – by other measure he was a total failure. Oh, it’s
time for the open letter. But first, let’s see what’s in the globe
today. Oh, it’s all of my past romantic relationships. An open letter to failure.
Dear failure, you’re so often in the eyes of the beholder, like what looks like failure
at one point in your life can later look like a wonderful success. I mean
Charles V had a lot of successes but ultimately he viewed his reign as a terrible failure.
That’s why he eventually abdicated and retired to a life of full time beer-drinking.
And then he split up his empire with his brother getting the Holy Roman Empire and his son
getting Spain. And that was probably marginally at least
a good thing for both the Holy Roman Empire and Spain.
In short, failure almost no person is merely a failure or even merely a success.
So enough with all these falsely constructed dichotomies failure, they are complete failure.
Best wishes, John Green. So, the story of Charles V reminds us of something
we learn again and again when studying World History: that there are multiple sides to
every piece of history. Yes, the Holy Roman Empire under Charles V
ceased to be Holy in the sense that it was no longer 100% Catholic, it was never Roman
since Latin wasn’t among the many languages spoken there…
And it wasn’t much of an empire because it was too diverse and spread out for Charles
really to have the power of an emperor. But as with most history, and many facebook
relationship statuses, and one Meryl Streep movie – it’s complicated.
But perhaps the one concrete lesson we can take away from the history of Charles V is
the benefits of acknowledging the limits of one’s power. Charles never did.
His imperial motto was plus ultra. And that means “further beyond,” but it could also
mean limitless. Charles sought to fuse Atlantic and Central Europe into seamless whole on
a scale the size of today’s European Union. He tried to stamp out the Protestant Reformation
and make his response, the Catholic Counter-Reformation global.
He tried to create new policies in the New World, while still defending old policies
in the Old World. And by trying to be the most powerful Emperor
in the most powerful empire in the history of the world he failed spectacularly.
There’s a lesson in that for all empires, and all nation-states, and even all people.
Thanks for watching. I’ll see you next week. Crash Course is filmed here in the Chad and
Stacey Emigholz studio in Indianapolis and it’s made with the help of all of these
nice people and with your help. Largely thanks to the support of our Subbable
subscribers. Subbable is a voluntary subscription service that allows you to contribute directly
to Crash Course so we can keep it free for everyone forever. Thank you for contributing,
thank you for watching, and as we say in my hometown, “don’t forget to be awesome.”

Yanis Varoufakis on Julian Assange and the Political Economy & future of Europe


[musique] [musique] Bienvenu sur “The Source” un programme
dédié à donner de la voix aux lanceurs d’alerte, aux anciens initiés, et experts politiques. Mon nom est Zain Raza et aujourd’hui,
avec nous, un auteur à succès, ancien ministre des
finances grecque et co-fondateur de the Democracy in Europe Movement 2025 Yanis Varoufakis. Yanis, merci de nous rejoindre.
Avec plaisir! Avant que je ne commence à développer,
les problème sociologique et économique touchant
à l’Europe, je voudrais parler de Julian Assange, qui fût forcer de chercher refuge à l’ambassade de l’équateur à Londres. depuis 2012 et jusqu’à récemment il n’était accusé de rien. Mais maintenant ils peuvent resserrer les restrictions qui l’entourent. Il y a des informations, que le gouvernement US se prépare à le poursuivre en justice. Quel précédent cela peut il établir pour
la presse et ce que cela signifie pour sa liberté? Bien, ils ont Julian, donc ils ont vous avoir, moi, tous. C’est une lutte évidente pour la liberté de la
presse et pour les droits des citoyens de savoir quel gouvernement fait quoi derrière leurs dos et supposément en leurs noms. Julian ne fut jamais poursuivi pour tous ce que son nom charrie à travers la boue de l’affaire suédoise. Les progressistes aussi furent incités à croire qu’il cherchait à fuir la justice suédoise pour l’affaire de viol et chaque fois que ses supporters pointaient le fait que Julian ne voudrait rien de plus que de faire face à ses
accusatrices en Suède, mais la seule raison pour
laquelle il ne sort pas de l’ambassade de l’Équateur tient à sa connaissance d’un appareil de sécurité secret prêt à lui sauter dessus depuis les USA. Simplement, parce qu’il embarrassa ces structure sécuritaire en révélant les informations que nous connaissons et
cherissons sur les massacres en Irak, en Afghanistan, les papiers de la CIA de 2017. Les progressiste même furent incités à croire, ou dire
“Oh! allez. Il n’y a rien c’est de la paranoïa” Il essaye simplement d’éviter les accusations en Suède. Maintenant, nous savons grâce à un
accident, un ratage au USA, les autorités ont, en faite, publié les charge émises contre lui et qui sont effectivement des accusations d’espionnage, ce qui
signifie que si Julian sort de l’ambassade
équatorienne il serait arrêté par la police anglaise et extradé aux USA, et nous n’entendrons plus jamais parler de lui. Ce serait comme pour C. Manning, il disparaîtrait dans une sorte de
Guantanamo où même ses avocats n’auront pas d’information sur ce qu’on lui reproche
et cela afin de s’assurer que les gens comme vous, moi, notre audience et tous les autres n’aient aucun accès aux sordides secrets de nos appareils de sécurités, supposément en notre nom.
Regardons en Europe. En Allemagne, les centres s’effondrent, comme on peut
le voire au niveau des élections régionales et
fédérales L’aire “Mutti” ou A. Merkel touche à sa fin. Beaucoup disent désormais. Le
Brexit, plein de reculades et de drama, touche aussi à sa fin. Certain disent que cela peut encore durer
longtemps. L’opposition de l’UE sur le budget italien s’accentue, donc avant que le problème était à la périphérie et il semblerait que l’instabilité atteigne le centre. Pourriez-vous commenter sur ce développement, est-ce que tout est dut aux migrations et aux réfugiés ou bien, est-ce plus profond qui serait en marche, ici ?
Cela n’a rien à voire avec les migrations, rien à voire les réfugiés. Notre génération à un devoir
vis-à-vis d’elle même, pour saisir ce qui arrive, et ce qui arrive à notre génération. C’est en même temps simple et complexe. L’histoire simple la voilà : 2008 fut notre 1929. Comme à l’époque tout a commencé avec Wall street, qui est toujours le centre du tremblement de terre du capitalisme. Quand le capitalisme atteint un niveau d’insoutenabilité, passé un certain point, il s’effondre à Wall Street. Ce qui arriva en
1929. C’est ce qui est arrivé en 2008. L’idiot d’establishment, qui devait gérer le capitalisme globalisé, pour le
dire autrement, la foule de Davos fut pris de court et n’avait aucune idée, même de ce qui advenait. ils optèrent donc pour des politiques autoritaire d’un socialisme pour la finance et l’austérité pour les pauvres. Ils essayèrent de garder le
couvercle sur la crise, qui était hors de contrôle et de compréhension, tout comme en 1920-30. Le centre ne teint pas comme à cette époque. Il y eu une tentative cynique pour faire reposer le coût de la crise sur les épaules des plus faibles membres de la société et le résultat en fut le fascisme. Ce qui arrive ici : Brexit, la fin de
l’état de grâce pour A. Merkel, le moment fasciste de M. Salvini en Italie ou Orban en Hongrie. Le fait que les principaux
parties du centre-droit ou centre-gauche d’Europe s’effondrent, tout cela est le résultat, le contre coût de notre 1930. Il est essentiel pour nous démocrates, progressistes et c’est ce que DIEM25 essai de faire en Europe, de s’unir au delà des différentes nation, et d’oublier les anciens systèmes politiques pour faire une nouvelle politique qui confronte à la fois l’appareil de classe dirigeante déliquescente et le retour des fascistes, nationaliste et xénophobes. C’est une lutte complexe mais c’est le devoir de notre génération.
Depuis 2017, de nombreux mouvements
émergent. Pourtant, quand je les observe ou que je
fait des recherches sur eux, je remarque qu’il n’y a pas de proposition économique concrète pour le
contexte historique… Qu’est qui fait que DIEM25 un cas différent des autres mouvement et combien il est important pour la jeune génération de connaître quelque
base d’économie. La différence fondamentale entre ce que fait DIEM25 et les autre progressistes ainsi que les bons mouvements du passé, c’est que les autres commencent par se
rassembler autour de la table, dans les parcs ou dans la rue tous ceux unis par un même sentiment d’urgence de changer le
monde mais sans programme sur la manière de le faire. DIEM25 fait le pari inverse. Nous avons fait notre inauguration, comme vous le savez à Berlin en fev 2016, nous avons passé deux ans à répondre à la question : Comme peut ont régler, gérer les chose différemment. Que fait-on de la dette privée, et celle publique, que fait-on à propos de la pauvreté,
comment fiance-t-on un programme anti-pauvreté, et
comment faire avec les brevets, sur les retour d’investissements, le revenu universel
citoyen, Comment faire sur la question d’un travail
garanti, qui permettrait au gens de rester dans
leurs régions, pour qu’ils ne migrent pas soit à l’intérieur de leur pays soit à internationale, et nous avons aboutit au New Deal Européen, c’est notre programme. Une fois les réponses trouvé, et nous
sommes convaincus par notre programme, alors nous nous sommes étendu pour créer une
aile électorale partout, comme ici en Allemagne, aujourd’hui avec pour but de faire sortir ce programme dans la rue, dans les parcs, dans les salles de réunions C’est une différence importante, et j’ai
peur que, pour répondre à votre question, sur la raison qui devrait pousser les jeunes à
apprendre de l’économie, je leur dirai l’économie c’est chiant, c’est nul mais c’est le langage de la politique, de ses négociation et de ses réalisation,
or chacun d’entre nous doit comprendre les bases nécessaire à sa participation à la lutte politique, afin de se rendre
effectifs. Vous avez mentionnez le dividende universel citoyen, certain l’entendre comme un revenu universel. Je parle de sa substance, les gens ont tendance à croire que c’est une idée de gauche, mais vous
dites qu’elle implique des valeurs libérales, pourriez-vous développer cette idée? C’est le type d’idée qui transcende les clivage politique même la famille de l’ultra-droite libertarienne la supporte car ils y voient une alternative à l’État providence. Pour DIEM25 ce n’est pas un alternative, à un système social, mais plutôt quelque chose de séparé et essentiellement
complémentaire. Pour le dire avec des mots simples, nous ne sommes pas pour le financer par des impôts, car nous croyons que l’un des principaux problème de notre temps celui de la robotique, de l’automatisation
et des plateformes capitalistes, comme Airbnb, ou de
l’uberisation, le vrai problème est que nous avons des multinationales qui possèdent
l’ensemble du marché, et leur capital augmente grâce à vous et moi, chaque fois que nous recherchons sur Google, nous contribuons au capital de Google. Mais la société, vous
et moi, n’en profite pas de ce capital, les profits de ces de ces entreprise son accaparés par les actionnaires de Google. Nos propositions challenge donc les fondations du capitalisme, celui des multinationales à l’air de l’automatisation et ce que nous disons c’est qu’une par des actifs de ces entreprises doit être confisquée et mis ensemble dans un fond pour la société dont les dividendes financeraient ce dividende universel, car chacun participent à la richesse de ces personnes et même de leur point de vue, en fin de compte, si l’on ne fait rien, l’extrême concentration des richesse dans les mains de ces multi- nationales va une division profonde entre d’un côté leur capacité de production d’objets, de
services, qu’importe, et notre capacité à les payer.
En un sens, nous sauvons les entreprise contre elles, celle comme Google. Revenons sur la politique européenne, les ministres des finances
allemand et français ont récemment proposé une avancée pour le budget de l’Eurozone qui devrait permettre des choses telles qu’une assistance financière rapide, par temps de crise, assistance sur les investissements, et réformes
structurelles et ce budget de l’Eurozone serait une part d’un plus grand budget de l’UE.
Est-ce ce dont l’Europe à besoin et ce que le New Deal européen défend? C’est comme réarranger les chaise sur le Titanic plutôt que de le détourner de l’iceberg, ils ajoutent l’insulte à la plaie. Nous avons besoin d’un budget de la
zone-euro, mais il ne propose pas cela du tout, ils proposent… c’est typique de l’Union européenne, ils proclament
quelque chose afin de ne pas avoir à le faire, en pratique. Ils proclament, souvenez-vous, en 2012, une union bancaire. Normalement
nous avons en Europe, une union bancaire, mais nous n’en avons pas ici. Nous avons quelque chose qui en porte le nom, afin de ne pas en avoir une effective. Encore aujourd’hui si une banque italienne s’effondre, c’est au gouvernement italien de s’en occuper. Cela n’est pas une union bancaire! Avoir une union bancaire avec des systèmes bancaires nationaux est un affront à la
logique. De même que avoir une monnaie commune sans budget pour la zone-euro est un affront à la logique. Alors, que font-ils? Ils clament que nous avons une union
bancaire afin de ne pas avoir à la créer. ils clament que nous allons avoir un budget de la zone
euro, mais si vous regardez les détails que proposent-ils? ils proposent d’integrer au budget de l’union européenne une ligne de crédit pour permettre aux
États d’emprunter de l’argent, mais ils doivent
rembourser lorsque la situation va, soit disant, mieux. Cela n’a rien à
voire avec un budget de la zone euro. Vous savez ce que c’est? C’est la troïka, celle de la Grèce sous stéroïdes. Un budget, fédéral un budget de la zone euro devrait être financer par une source commune et certaine. Une obligation commune… Donc, à moins d’avoir une capacité
d’emprunt au niveau fédéral, il n’y a pas de gouvernement fédéral, à moins d’avoir la possibilité de lever des taxes au
niveau fédéral, il n’y a pas de budget fédéral. Ce n’est donc pas une zone euro. Et, aussi, le budget de la zone euro dont ils parlent, elle propose effectivement des prêts minuscules qui viennent avec des restrictions,
l’austérité en pièce jointe, de l’un à l’autre, minuscule Ce budget va être intégré à ce lui de l’UE, ce qui représente 1%. Pourtant, un budget fédéral s’il veut être macroéconomiquement signifiant, il faut qu’il représente au
moins 20% du PIB. Oui! 20% du PIB. Alors que ce ne sera qu’une fraction de 1%… Ils tirent sur la corde, je veux dire, vous savez, comme citoyen nous avons le devoir de regarder ces annonces, celle du ministre
des finances français ou allemande, et d’en rire ensemble, très fort. Un autre proposition faite par l’union européenne, celle d’une armée
commune. Ils parlent d’augmenter les dépenses en cyber sécurité, créer un drone qui servirait l’union européenne. C’est une manière de réanimer le capitalisme par des
l’investissements militaro-industriels, mais est-ce une bonne idée au regard des aventure de l’OTAN, ou comment évaluer la situation. S’il on veut booster le capitalisme
européen la chose la plus évidente à faire est d’investir dans les énergies vertes, afin d’obtenir une énergie renouvelable partout en Europe, et nous rendre indépendant de Gazprom et M. Poutin. Cela marcherait très bien, mais à la place, nous parlons de créer une nouvelle armée en Europe ce qui est curieux, et même perturbant, car imaginons que nous faisons une armée européenne. Disons que nous avons une armée forte d’une million
d’européens armés jusqu’au dent. On va en faire quoi? Qui va décider de l’envoyer cette armée sur un champ de bataille? Quel gouvernement, le gouvernement allemand? M. Juncker? Avec quelle légitimité? Il n’a rien de plus dangereux que d’envoyer une armé pour se battre et il n’y a rien qui exige et qui suppose plus de légitimité démocratique que cette décision d’envoyer des hommes
et des femmes mourir et donner la mort. L’idée d’une armée européenne aura du sens une fois que nous aurons un gouvernement, mais
cela suppose une fédération. Créer cette armée sans constitution démocratique fédérale, revient à créer une armée hors la loi ce qui serait néfaste pour les intérêts de la planète. Combien de temps reste-t-il avant que l’UE ne s’effondre et que peuvent les individus, spécialement la jeunesse, faire offline et online pour éviter cette effondrement? Il n’y a pas le temps, l’Europe est à un avancé de désintégration et je ne pense pas uniquement au Brexit. Ce n’est qu’un exemple, un exemple parlant. La manière dont les force centrifuge écartèlent actuellement L’Europe…. Il suffit de regarder le gouvernement italien, celui de Hongrie, ou de la Pologne. Que se passe-t-il en Allemagne ? Il y a la CSU à Munich, en Bavière, il y a des élément au sein de la CDU, il y a un SPD en PLS, la FDP qui prône des politiques qui vont de fait détruire la zone euro au nom de la rectitude. L’ensemble de l’Union européenne est désormais écartelée. Nous n’avons pas le temps. N’aillant pas agit hier, il va falloir que nous agissions aujourd’hui! Vous vous présentez aux élections au nom de DIEM25 en Allemagne; pourquoi ce pays et aussi développez votre vision. DIEM est née en février 2016 à Berlin, ce n’était par hasard. Comme nous l’avons dit lors de l’inauguration à la Volksbühne, rien de bien ne peut arriver en Europe à moins que cela ne commence en Allemagne. Son économie est la plus puissante
d’Europe, les allemands sont un peuple dévouer à
l’Europe très largement, même si cela diminue à cause des erreurs de l’establishment. C’est le champs de bataille de l’Europe. Ce n’est pas l’Italie, ni la Grèce ou le Portugal DIEM25 va se battre au Portugal, en Italie, en Grèce, en France, en Irlande, partout. Mais ici, c’est le champs de bataille et ma candidature pour le parlement européen en Allemagne symbolise la fin du mythe d’une division Nord/Sud, qu’il y aurait un clash entre l’Europe du Nord et du Sud. Notre détermination à démontrer aux allemands, aux grecques, aux français que le vrai clash est entre progressiste et autoritaire, partout, et avant ou à moins de changer l’humeur en Allemagne l’humeur ne changera nul part en EUrope. Yanis Varoufakis, Auteur de Best-seller, activiste, et cofondateur de Democracy in Europe Mouvement in 2025 merci beaucoup pour votre temps. Merci à vous. Merci à vous aussi de nous avoir
rejoint aujourd’hui. N’oubliez pas de vous abonner à notre chaîne Youtube et de donner car sinon nous ne serrons pas capable de produire des analyse indépendantes et à but non lucratifs. Mon nom est Zain Raza,
à la prochaine. [Music]

DiEM25 will contest the European Parliament elections in Italy – Yanis Varoufakis | DiEM25


Hi everyone, we will do this conference
in English. that’s the first information to let you
know. But there will be the possibility to ask
questions in Italian. They will be translated, Alessio is the one
who’s going to do it. Of course replies will be translated. I would like to thank Yanis Varoufakis,
for accepting our invitation to come here and tell us the latest news
about his movement, and of course his opinion on what is going on in Italy. I’m going to ask actually a question, exactly on this, it’s going to be my first
question : If you can give us some insight on your
agenda and your new alliances in Europe. I’m thinking of course about the European
elections of next year. There were some talking about five
movement stars (5 Star movement)
and also Mélenchon so we would like to understand, if you can
tell us something about your plans for the next weeks and months? Tank you! Well tank you so much, tanks to all of you.
for being here. Tank you for your hospitality. Thank you for your question. The main reason why we’re here is because
Italy today is being torn apart by two destructive forces. One is Brussels, and
the other is Salvini. By the failed establishment of Renzi,
Merkel, Junker, Moscovici on the one hand and by the reckless, racist, xenophobic,
anti-European Salvini project. What we are doing as Diem25 in Italy,
France, Germany, Greece has to be seen in this context. Today Italy is ground
zero of the European crisis. Italy should be in the focus of
progressives around the World. Brussels and Salvini, this is a statement
that may surprise some of you, Brussels and Salvini are working very well
together, as we speak, against the interests of Italians, in particular, and
of Europeans in general. Salvini is Brussels’ greatest supporter.
Junker, Merkel, Macron et al. are hanging on to power with the argument:
“whatever mistakes we have made in Brussels in Berlin, in Rome (talking about Renzi),
after us comes Salvini. So you’d better support us. And Brussels is
is also Salvini’s greatest supporter. By imposing on Italy rules that guarantee
Italy’s stagnation, and falling income for the average Italians, they enable Salvini’s
sortie into xenophobic populism. Allow me to turn directly to the issue
that concern most of you here in Italy today. The clash on the Italian budget
with Brussels. Our position as Diem25 is that both
Brussels and the Lega-5 Stelle government are profoundly and intentionally wrong.
Brussels is wrong to impose on Italy fiscal and banking rules that guarantee
Italy’s stagnation. Rules that were agreed too, by the now
collapsing Italian establishment. The EU’s revamped fiscal rules are
analytically baseless. There is no such things as a structural
deficit. It can not be measured and it should not be measured. It based on faulty
economics. They are forcing Rome to introduce
austerity at a time when Italy’s growth has collapsed to almost 0%. If the Italian
government, any Italian government, were to follow the fiscal compact, you would have an increase in
the debt to GDP ratio. Not a fall, because the denominator, your GDP, would
go into reversal. You would have an other recession. The Lega-5Stelle government is wrong also.
This budget will not boost growth sufficiently to make a difference to most
people, the result would be a deficit overshoot without much benefit. Cutting for instance
the top tax rate will not boost growth. When the rich receive a hand-out, they
take it to Switzerland or to Luxembourg, or save it. Even worse, it is our view that
both Brussels and this government know that they are wrong. Brussels is
choosing to be wrong, because Brussels, the bureaucracy, is more interested in
maintaining control over our countries than they are in shared prosperity across
Europe. And the Lega-5 Stelle government is
choosing to be wrong, because Salvini and Di Maio are more interested in
maintaining this precarious alliance than in the prosperity of the Italian
people. So, here we are as Diem25 facing this
situation : Italy stagnates because its centrist establishment agreed to EU rules
that choked Italy, causing its own political demise, the political demise
of the establishment that approved these rules, and paving the ground for Salvini.
The ancient regime of Renzi et al. and his patrons in Brussels and the Lega-
5 Stelle government are two faces of the same problem. And they will continue to
reinforce each other while Italy sinks, while Europe fragments. One of the side
effects, the collateral damage of this clash between Salvini and Brussels is that we
have stopped talking about the Eurozone reforms, that are absolutely necessary
to keep Italy in the Eurozone. To keep Greece in the Eurozone, to keep
the Eurozone sustainable. Reforms that even Macron discussed are
now dead in the water. The oligarchic establishment the PD, Forza
Italia…, caused the problem and today they cannot pretend to be part of the
solution. Salvini is exploiting this to bring through his rabid xenophobia a new
fascist moment in Italy. While 5stelle is increasingly discredited
as a crutch on which Salvini is leaning to take over government completely
next year. We must act now, Italy has an urgent need
for a new progressive alternative to the implicit but destructive alliance
between the establishment and Salvini’s nationalism. But what Italy does
not need from us progressives is yet another sad leftist alliance of
the usual left wings suspects. Italy does not need another Frankenstein
left wing list that stitches together the dead parts of what used to be Italy’s
glorious left. The last thing Italians needs is another
list of leftist candidates lacking a coherent program of change. A Europeanist
program of change that answers the question what do you do with the banks,
what do you do with public debt What do you do with poverty, not only in
Italy but also in France, in Germany, in Greece. This is why we are here today, to
announce that we are going to put together such a list, with a single, coherent,
credible program. You may very well ask : and who are you?
Who are we, who are going to do this? Last march, in Napoli, Diem25, I was there,
colleagues, political movements from Poland, Denmark, Portugal, my friend B.
Hamon from France together with Luigi De Magistris, the mayor of Napoli we
embarked upon this project of putting together a transnational list with a
coherent program across Europe. This program is now complete, after many
months of very hard work It is the progressive, ecological, feminist
humanist, rational program of the pan-European coalition that we now call :
“Primavera europea”, “European spring”. What we propose, because this is Italy and
we have a major crisis, allow me to start with Italy. Let me give you an
example of the kind of proposal we are bringing to the table, that address the
local, the national and the European at the same time. The first thing we propose, regarding the
Italian budget, is that the component of it which concerns minimum guaranteed income
is introduced and indeed expanded. Simultaneously, number 2, scrap Salvini’s
top tax cuts – when you give hand-outs to the rich, as I said before, you are not
boosting growth, we have known this forever Why have we forgotten it now? Replace those
tax-cuts with a growth enhancing green investment plan, that pushes the deficit,
not to 2.4% of GDP, but to 3% of GDP, but most of it is made up of public
investment, we are talking about something like 20 billion, for 3 purposes: first, the
industrial and ecological transition necessary in this country, to solve
for instance problems like ILVA in Taranto and off-shoring of low-added-value
manufacturing; secondly, environmental safety, beginning
with a plan for seismic prevention, that we have included in our program,
and thirdly, investment in infrastructure to avoid repetition of the Genoa disaster
and invest in sustainable transport. And what about the fiscal rules of the EU?
Our proposal is that we go from 2.4 to 3 but in a growth enhancing manner. Well,
if the EU wants Italy to adhere to the fiscal compact, it can be done. Our proposal
is that the government of Italy calls for an EU council summit, to propose
the following: in order to reduce the fiscal deficit of
Italy from 3% to 0,8%, even to 0%, if Europe cares for this so badly, that we
adopt, as the EU, the EU council can give this green light, as a result of one simple
decision, no need for any treaty changes whatsoever, to give the
green light to the European Investment bank that belongs to all EU member states, for
issuing EIB bonds up to 5% of Eurozone GDP per year, for 5 years, this is about 500
billion Euros, with the European Central Bank standing by
in the secondary bond market to purchase those bonds, in the same way that it has
been doing for the last few years. This way you boost investment, public
investment, through the EIB in Italy in Germany, in Greece, by 5% of GDP, and
that way you can ameliorate, then you could have an Italian government, which is
reducing Italian deficit down to the levels prescribed by the European Council and
the fiscal pact. This is part of our New Deal for Europe,
you can see that we are combining a solution for Italy with a solution for
Europe. Europe desperately needs a large scale green investment program
to create the good quality jobs that we are lacking across Europe, which are
causing our young into precarious jobs in Germany as much as in Italy, which feeds
the nationalist internationalism across Europe, racism, xenophobia,
we need to make this investment in the green energy union that we do not have,
for many reasons, for the planet’s sake, but also for the sake of becoming decoupled
from Putin’s Gazprom. Diem25, in every country, we just gave you
an example here in Italy, combine solutions at the pan-European level, with solutions
at the national level, indeed, the regional level. Ladies
and Gentlemen, austerity for the many and socialism for the bankers, has given
rise to the present fascist moment in Italy to the collapse of the political centre
everywhere, to the reactionary, divided Europe that Mr. Trump dreams of.
Today here in Rome we are saying: Enough! We are saying another Italy,
another Europe, is not only possible but it is here, in the form of our
transnational movement, with a single coherent program that people
can believe in in Italy, in Germany, in France, everywhere. Talking about our next steps: we are here
as part of the process that we began in Napoli, in March of this year, with Luigi
De Magistris, with Benoît Hamon of Génération, with the Alternativet party
in Denmark, with Razem in Poland, with Livre in Portugal, with Mera25, our
new party in Greece, with green parties that we are in discussions with, with
leftist parties, but what matters to us is that we do not simply present to you
a list of people who want to be elected, that our list should have one common
radical europeanist program, Whoever wants to discuss this program with
us. Which is at a very advanced stage you can go into europeanspring.net, and
read our program for Europe as a whole, anyone who wants to discuss this, you can
come along. The discussion ‘are you with Melenchon’,
are you with… whoever, is not the kind of discussion that people out there care for.
This is old style politics, we are not interested in it, we are interested in
solutions. Anyone who wants to join us on the basis of one program for the whole
of Europe that works for Italy, that works for Germany, can come with us and will be
part of this list. The European Parliament elections of May
2019, they are only a start, they give us an opportunity to have this debate.
We will use the May elections to transcend the fake conflict between Salvini and
Brussels, between the authoritarian incompetent establishment and the
misanthropic nationalist international. Diem Italia is here, we are moving up and
down the country, we are scheduling 3 major events in November, there is going to be
one, the final one in Milano, there is going to be one in Taranto, there are going to be
3 major events, we are beginning to collect the signatures that are necessary for Diem
Italia to run in Italy, we invite all the various partners that we embarked upon this
journey last March in Napoli, to join us but there is no more time to waste.
We are moving, we are declaring our presence in Italy and elsewhere, because we are
going to be doing the same thing, there will be a similar announcement of a
political party belonging to Diem25 in Germany on the 24th and 25th of November
in Greece we have already started, in France… we are here not only to contest
an election, but we are here to bring to the people of Italy a scent of next May’s
European Spring, with a message: Italian progressives are no longer alone!
Thank you. Than you Yanis,
We open the questions, so, if there are any? Do you need a translation, anything in
particular? OK, yes, so… Hello, Angela Maoro, Huffington Post Italy:
You didn’t talk about the immigration, which is a topic on which Salvini gains votes.
So what do you have to say about that? I think it’s a topical point in the next
European electoral campaign for everybody.
Thanks. Europe does not have a migration crisis.
Italy and Greece, we have a migration problem. Why? Because there is no such
things as a EU. Europe as a whole is large enough and rich
enough to deal with this problem in a humane way. We must bind together in order
to change the position of the EU regarding migration. But we are not going to do it
through using migrants as scape goats We are not going to succeed either saving
our countries or our Europe, by turning xenophobia, or turbo-charging, I should say
xenophobia, like Salvini is doing. The fact that Salvini is gaining votes
in Italy by becoming increasingly racist is simply a
symptom of inability of progressives to bind together to combine a rational
approach to the problem with a humanism which is in the heart and in the minds of
Italians and Europeans. Our position is very simple. The migrants that are coming
to our shores are an essential ressource for the future. Europe needs migration. We
are an ageing society at the European level, but you can not pile up migrants
and in Greece on the basis of xenophobia in Austria, in Germany, in France, which
then gives a xenophobe like Mr Salvini the opportunity to gather power in Italy,
through turning humans against humans. [Italian translation of the answer] Q: Hi I’m Simon ?? from the Norwegian weekly
paper Morgenbladet, I wanted to ask you: you became yourself famous for opposing
the EU commission and its economic politics I was wondering if you could be a bit
more specific on what exactly is the difference in the way, back in your days,
you criticised the EU commission and the way the Italian government is doing it now
when it comes to the ‘manovra’, the budget? Obviously there is lots of differences when it
comes to immigration for example but exactly the way there are claiming their right to
have their own economic policy. And then, a second question : On 5 Stelle
have you completely giving up hope on seeing the 5 Star movement as a progressive
force in Europe, you now count them as equal to Lega or do you see possibility
in the future of changing that situation? Regarding the difference, between our
opposition to the Brussels establishment and that of the Lega, we are radical Euro-
peanists, we want to bring Europe together. We want… ehm… if you want, a federal Europe, that works
democratically whereas Mr Salvini and his Lega would like to see the dismemberment
of the EU and maybe then its retention as nothing more than a trade zone, that is a
profound difference. We are opposing Brussels, because we are Europeanists and
as Europeanists we are against the policies of Brussels that are destroying Europe and
giving Mr Salvini the opportunity to finish it off On the second question, we never give
up hope on anyone. Some of us are atheists within Diem25m but
we are all believers in humanity. 5 Stelle have to decide for themselves
whether they want to continue this path of being the crutch of a racist,
xenophobic Lega and to be working for them, before Mr Salvini chews them up,
and spits them out, after the European parliament election, or whether they want
to return to a humanist block. If they do we will welcome them. Do you need a translation? So we can save
time and go to the next question, ok? Yes? OK. Can you give us a small summary,
thanks. [Interpreter’s translation] Giovanna Ferrara, “Il Manifesto”, I wanted
to ask this question: from the point of view of new architecture
of Europe, what do you think about the unique situation that has crystallised
in Italy, regarding conflicts within the institutions: I’m talking about the
case of Mimmo Lucano, and of those municipalities that declare “open ports”,
against the directives of the government, and I’m thinking about the “Mediterranea”
organisation, which was born precisely to become the anvil between… inside this
conflict within the institutions. [Interpreter’s translation for Yanis] Diem25 is a municipalist movement, not just
a Europeanist movement. We believe that, within a united Europe, a
democratic Europe, regions and municipalities should have a lot more
autonomy. Indeed the Eurozone crisis has reduced the autonomy of mayors, of
regional authorities by pushing authority down to level of the local. The result is
a greater crisis, both the of local economies and of democracy. In the case of Riace,
you will allow me to simply add to that which you all know, that I find personally
quite interesting and worrying that in an area where you have a particular mayor,
effectively damaging the interests of the mafia, by taking away contracts from them,
that this government, that at least part of it was suppose to be absolutely
determined to make a difference in this fight, is targeting this particular mayor
in the way that they are doing it. This is why, Diem believes very strongly
that this fake contradiction, this fake conflict between the establishment
and the anti-establishment government, is fake. Even down to the level of
Riace. You see how fake it is. Do you need the translation? Yes? [Interpreter’s translation] I have a question also for you Y. : It’s a curiosity, actually, because we hear
a lot talking about communication strategies, to also attract the sceptical citizens, the
euro-sceptical citizens that are apparently growing and I would like you to say some
words on it, I mean do you have a specific communication specific communication strategy? Spin doctors and these new tools,
are you planning to use new tools to… I mean to spread your ideas? We have no spin doctors, we do not have
image makers. Not because we can’t afford them, no I don’t think we can afford them,
but we don’t want them, and we don’t want them because I think that people out there
have had enough of spin. They have had enough of fudges, they have had enough of
politicians. We are not politicians, we are engaging in politics, not because we
want to become ministers or members of parliament but because we feel a historic
duty to intervene in this fake conflict between the establishment and the so
called anti-establishment. The way we are approaching, those who are
sceptical, not just about Europe but about politics, about the future, about the
capacity of democracy to change anything. Those who agreed in the end with W.
Schäuble, when he said that the democracy can not be allowed to change anything.
We are determined to address particular issues, with very specific proposals. Not
wishful thinking, not ‘we want another Europe, another world’, No, you heard
before the specific proposal about the Italian budget. We argued that, yes to the minimum
guaranteed income, and no to the tax cuts, use this money for public investment. We
explained where we think the money should go. Maybe boost the deficit of three percent,
but at the same time go to the EU with a proposal, which is completely legal and,
and within the treaties on how to shrink that deficit down, while boosting
investment within a pan-European. So, speaking to people, to people’s worries
answering their number one question, which is : why should I be optimistic about
the future of my children? The answer is, because we have a capacity
as Europeans, as Italians, to invest in good quality green jobs for your children. And
this is how we could do it. That is us spin doctoring. It isn’t an utopia, what you are saying? What is a utopia, is to think that we can
continue the way we are continuing! What is utopic, is to think for Brussels
that if only Mr Renzi where to return to power in Italy, to impose the rules of
Brussels, everything would be fine. That is utopia. What is utopia, is to think
that Mr Salvini beats up even more hatred for the foreigners and clashes with Europe
without a plan for green investment, that things are going to be better. What we are
proposing is the only realistic plan. Is it utopia to think that realism can
succeed? Well maybe, but it’s a realistic utopia, and that is the only thing that can
stop an awful dystopia from setting in! You need a translation ? No? Ok, here. Good Morning, I am Luca Mariani,
Agenzia Italia, if it’s possible I would like to speak in Italian. Yes of course, you can. Three questions. The first: will you be
the frontrunner for the EU commission? Let’s ask 2… Oh no, very short ones. Will the frontrunner
for the EU commission be Mr. Varoufakis? Second: who will be the frontrunner of your
movement in Italy? De Magistris, the mayor of Naples?
Third: I see Salvini declaring that he is safer in Moscow than in the European capitals,
I see Trump having a privileged relationship with Conte and Farage, maybe this is not
an opposition between Bruxelles and Salvini maybe there is a slightly larger game at
play here? What do you think? Of course, it is a much bigger game. But
Mr Salvini is a major player. S. Bannon will concur. There are other
players, Mr Seehofer in Munich, Those who will probably replace Mrs. Merkel.
Mr. Orban, Mr. Kurz, and so on and so forth… but let me answer your question about
the Spitzenkandidat (frontrunner) : This process has already died according to
the Christian-democrats, they don’t believe in it. The Social-democrats have ceased to
exist. It seems to me that this process has been shown up for what it was, a fake
democratic process. Now Diem25, European Spring, our alliance, are going
to have an open primary before May to decide who is going to represent us in
Brussels. So you can think of this as the Spitzenkandidat of the movement. If You
are asking me personally, I’m going to make myself available to the movement.
But let me also say, that we are absolutely determined to break free of national
divisions in the European parliament elections our movement is going to have
a German leading the ticket in Greece, there will be Greeks contesting European
parliament seats in Germany, there will be Italians in France, and so on. This is our
symbolic way of doing away with this fake division between North and South. There is
no division, between North and South No clash between Italy and Germany, or
Greece and Germany. There is only one clash between progressives and those who
are undoing our societies everywhere. And that clash happens in Greece, in Italy
everywhere. I think that is more or less what I want
to say on this issue. You need translation?
No? A question here… I can speak in English but it’s better
maybe in Italian I just wanted to ask: last week there were
elections in Bavaria, regional elections, with the victory of the green party, led
by a 34-year-old, I wanted to know if these elections, in which, for the first
time the green party, such a young woman, in Bavaria, the land of the German
automobile industry, a green party that is not scared to talk about a numerus
clausus regarding migration policies, I’d like to know if there is a possibility
of an alliance, within Germany, of the German DiEM, and, considering that
we were talking earlier about humanism as the answer to the migration problem, what
does DiEM stand for, can one talk unabashedly about limiting migrant numbers, obviously
considering the available resources for education, for offering work and a
dignified reception to the migrants arriving in all of Europe. [translation for Yanis] We welcome the fact that the green party
did well, in Munich. They did not win Bavaria. They simply took the votes of the
collapsing social democrats. The winners in Bavaria, remain the forces
of the right. The CSU together with the AFD. A crushing victory by them. Let us not
forget that. Would we want to align ourselves with the green parties of Europe?
Absolutely! We are in discussions with them, but I
will answer the question in the same way that I would answer it if you were to
ask me about the Linke, about liberals, anti-systemic liberals, by saying
We are not interested in labels. We are interested in getting things done.
So, we put out a program, which we call a new green deal for Europe. Where we make
proposals about this investment program of 500 billions in green transition, a year,
every year for 5 years. We have a program for what to do with public debt, with the
non-performing loans of the banks, with poverty, with democratisation and so
on. It’s a very comprehensive program. And we are inviting everyone to discuss it
with us, not to accept it. To tell us where we are wrong, and we should do differently.
And we wish that the green, the left, the liberals, progressive-conservatives even
come to us and we can have this discussions in order to start tabula rasa
a new progressive movement in Europe. This is our position, and we are going to
stick to it. On the question of humanism, humanism is
inconsistent with electrified border fences! Full stop. So we have a question here. And we have
some more, so plz keep your answers short. Sorry, you answer too, but the
questions short. Hi, it’s Eric Reg??? of the Globe and Mail,
of Canada. The Italian government insists it doesn’t
want to leave the Euro. But my question do you believe them, do they secretly or
not so secretly want to leave the Euro? And, if they do, is it not a bad idea
to do so in the sense that, for 20 years, since the introduction of the Euro in
Italy, this country has been a corpse it’s just hasn’t worked for this country.
Thank you! No, I don’t believe them. What I do believe
is that Mr. Salvini has chosen a two phase strategy. First beat up anti-migration
rage, xenophobia before the European parliament elections in order to garner
votes but keep the Euro question under wraps for now. So that after the
European parliament elections, he can became prime minister and then
go into phase 2, which will be… not necessarily… there will be no
referendum about the Euro, or anything like that. But he will cause a crisis, that will make
it a natural progression for Italy to forge a parallel currency, that then is the
precursor of something very much like Italexit. This is my personal view. But it
is neither here nor there. The second question, would it be a good
idea to get out of the Euro. I have been very steadfast in my view on
this, regarding Greece, regarding Italy regarding all Euro-Zone member states.
It is this : some people think there is a contradiction in what I am going to say.
There is no contradiction. First we should not have entered the Euro-
Zone. Italy should not have entered it. Greece should not have entered it. We
should not have created the Eurozone Not that the common currency would be a
bad idea, but THIS common currency with THESE rules. Think about it . We created a
central bank without a treasury, to have its back and we have 19 treasuries without
a central bank to look after national banking systems, that they cannot ever save
during a crisis. It is as if we had created a monetary union designed to cause problems
for our citizens. That’s point number one.
Point number two : We should not have a policy of exiting
that terrible monetary union. Some people say, hang on a second, you
just said that we should not have entered it but now you say we should not exit it.
Yes! Because it’s one thing to say, We should not have come in, it’s quite
another to say we should get out. It’s not the same thing. Because, once we
get in, things change. And getting out has a major cost for Europe as a whole,
for Italy. It does not mean that we should not prepare a parallel currency, I prepared
one, when I was a minister. It does not mean that we should stay in the
Euro, even if our countries collapse. No! it means that should be prepared, on
the one hand to go to Brussels, to go to Berlin and put forward proposals for
making changes to the Euro-Zone, that will allow Italy to breathe within it and at the
same time, prepare for exiting for the very simple reason, that even the Bundes-
bank is preparing for an exit of Germany. Because this is a very unstable currency. Tank you Y. There is a question over there. Sorry to bring you back to the Italian
politics… Don’t be sorry, this is why I’m here. OK, thank you. Francesca ??? from Agorà.
I want to ask you, in case of a crisis of the Italian government, what are the
chances of Mr. Di Maio to be your partner? And then: do you see a default of Italy
as a possibility? I’ll start from the second part. I think a
default will be unlikely. But there are ways of hair-cutting debt,
that do not count as default, so for instance, one of the things that is
not unlikely, is that there will be, in the case of Italy and Italian public debt,
financial incentives for Italian savers to buy more bonds, with tax-breaks that
clash with Brussels’ rules. For instance, a parallel currency would, if there was
re-denomination of part of the debt, would also be an effective haircut, that would
not count necessarily as a default. But this is a theoretical discussion. What
really matters, is that we avoid this clash between this government and Brussels, a
clash that is not leading to any improvement in the lives of Italians or the rest
of Europe. On the first question that you asked, I
think I’ve already answered it. As I said, we are atheists who happen to be faithful
in human nature, if Mr. Di Maio drops out of this government and stops being the
crutch of Mr. Salvini, and 5Stelle join again the ranks of humanist rational political
forces, we would be welcoming them as well But I do not see this happening. Every day
they stay within this coalition, I believe 5Stelle is losing its soul. But have you been in conversation,
for example, with Fico? The one who is considered on the left of the… We’ve been in conversations with many
people, not with the particular person that you mention, at least not me, maybe
somebody from our movement has,
maybe I can ask one of our DiEM25 representatives here, to answer
the question. But this is not the issue. The issue is: is 5Stelle interested in
reclaiming its position on the humanist side of politics? Thank you. There is another question over
there and then here… I’m Italian, and Deutsch-Italian from Berlin.
We know that you are going to meet, as soon as possible, Bernie Sanders, so we would
like to know something about the “Internazionale progressista” as we call it.
Thanks. Well thank you for the question, because
this is something quite exciting. DiEM25 is not only europeanist, or actually
we are europeanist because we are internationalist. Europe is a source of
great instability for the rest of the world We are causing serious problems for the
rest of the world, through our inability to solve our crisis. At the same time we
have an American president who is determined to destabilise what is left of
the stability of the world, and we have the complete failure of the West, of the EU and
the US, to get their act together, to deal with the global crisis which began in 2008
and which has not finished. Anyone who thinks it has finished, should reconsider
their views. This is why we need to go beyond the limits
of Europe. You see, the financiers are internationalists, they know how to bind
together to make sure that the majority of people in every country bails them out after
they’ve made their huge errors, the fascists, the nationalists, the racists,
like Trump, Bannon, Seehofer, Salvini, are internationalists, they bind together
magnificently, the only people who are failing, are the progressives. So on the
30th of November, Bernie Sanders and I are going to be launching the progressive
international in Vermont, and we’re going to issue an open call to political forces
from across Europe, from Africa, from Asia from Latin America, from Central America,
to join us. It is going to be a very difficult process, but at least there is going to be
a start. Thank you. Ehm, Paddy? Paddy A??, Sunday Independent,
Professor, to change theme slightly, Brexit. Eh… Is… you say Salvini is
working toward the disintegration of the EU that’s his aim, but have Mr. Farage and
Boris Johnson started the job already? And do you feel that we’re in a Brexit
situation where the 27 countries say ‘unless we get an Irish border resolution,
there’ll be no deal’. Do you think the 27 countries will hold together on that? Yes. But then the question is, will London
prefer a no-deal to a united Ireland? ‘Cause that is the issue, really. I do
believe that, remember that DiEM25 is a movement with a presence in Ireland, both
the Republic and Northern Ireland, and we’re very proud of that, and we’ve brought people
together that would not have been in the same movement if DiEM was not in Ireland.
We think that this is a magnificent opportunity to bring back the concept, in a
non-sectarian way, of a united Ireland. The border must never return. The Good
Friday Agreement must be maintained and supported, and Europe has a role to play
in this. But let me say something about Brexit: you mentioned Mr. Johnson and
Mr. Farage, they would never have succeded to win the Brexit referendum if it was not
for the incompetence of Brussels and Frankfurt in handling the inevitable crisis
of the Eurozone, between 2010 and 2016, and let me explain this: at a time when the
financial world was collapsing, between 2008 and 2010, the ECB, completely hostage
of its charter, that was written by the Bundesbank, was shrinking the money supply
while the Bank of England was boosting the money supply as if there was no tomorrow,
the Bank of Japan, the Fed in the US, the result was hundreds of thousands of
Italians, Greeks, Spaniards, Portuguese, moving to England, at a time where Mr. Osbourne
the Tory party treasurer, was imposing austerity on the majority of the English people. So
you have the refloating of the financial markets in England, drawing people from
the continent, while British workers were being treated with austerity. That was the
recipe for creating the Brexit movement. It was Brussels and Frankfurt’s policies
that gave rise to the disintegration of the EU with Brexit. This is why DiEM25 is
determined to clash with the Brussels establishment in order to save the EU, in
order to make sure that borders, like the one between the Republic and Northern
Ireland never come back. There is a question there. May I? Eva Giovannini, “Mezz’ora in più”,
Rai3. I wanted to come back to what my colleague
asked about earlier concerning Russia, there are explicit encouragements both from
Washington as from Moscow to the government to keep going with this “manovra” (budget proposal)
and there is even talk of potential economic support from the Kremlin, to buy
Italian public debt, they talk about 6 billion I’d like to know from you, politically
speaking, what would it mean for us, for Italians, to be Moscow’s debtors, and so
for Moscow to be Italy’s creditors? Thanks. It is a very bad Idea, very bad idea. For
two reasons. Firstly : Russia is bankrupt and the most they can do, is buy 4% of
your debt issuance for the next year. In the next year your debt issuance is 250
billion €. If they choose to, they would buy 4%, it’s irrelevant. So they can’t
help Italy. That’s one reason. Secondly : you should
not want to be helped by Mr.Putin. The last thing we need in Europe, in Italy
is more dependence on Mr. Putin. Or indeed Mr Trump for that matter.
Remember Mr Trump and Mr Putin are united by a wish to see a Europe that is
disintegrating and becoming more reactionary and more right wing and more
fascistic. This is why we are here. We are here because we need to fight
against Mr Putin, against Mr Trump, against the Brussels establishment that is
making Mr Salvini powerful enough to be playing these games with Mr Trump
and Mr Putin. Plus, if I don’t… I remember something
similar promised to Greece, right? I mean, Russia also promised to buy Greek
bonds some years ago? I’ve written about this in my last book,
which is exists in Italian : “Adults in the room.” and I explained why I was the
one member of the Greek cabinet under Mr Tsipras who effectively vetoed any
discussion with Putin on us being helped by Russia against our struggle with the
troika. For the same reason that I outlined here, I refused even to go
to Moscow along with Mr Tsipras. In the end, of course, Mr Putin did
exactly as I predicted, and said to Mr Tsipras : ” We are not going
to help you!” OK, do you need a final translation? It’s
OK ? OK? So Yanis Varoufakis, tank you again very
much for being here. Tank you to you all. Tank you.

American History: The Greatest Speeches (1933-2008)


[FDR]: So first of all, let me assert my firm
belief that the only thing we have to fear is fear itself. Nameless, unreasoning,
unjustified terror which paralyzes needed us to convert retreat into advance. Yesterday, December 7, 1941—a date which will live in infamy—the
United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and
air forces of the Empire of Japan. A short time ago an American airplane
dropped one bomb on Hiroshima and destroyed its usefulness to the enemy.
That bomb has more power than 20,000 tons of TNT. The Japanese began the war
from the air at Pearl Harbor, they have been repaid many-fold. And the
end is not yet. With this bomb, we have now added a new
and revolutionary increase in destruction to supplement the growing
power of our armed forces. We have been compelled to create a permanent
armaments industry of vast proportions. In the council’s of government, we must
guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence—whether sought or
unsought—by the military-industrial complex. The potential for the disastrous rise of
misplaced power exists and will persist. We must never let the weight of this
combination endanger our liberties or democratic process. I do not believe that any of us would
exchange places with any other people or any other generation. The energy, the
faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavor will
light our country and all who serve it. And the glow from that fire can truly
light the world. And so my fellow Americans ask not what your country can
do for you, ask what you can do for your country. My fellow citizens of the world, ask not what America will do for you, but
what together we can do for the freedom of man. And there are even a few who say that it’s true that communism is an evil
system, but it permits us to make economic progress. Lasst sie nach Berlin kommen—let them come to Berlin. [Cheering] All free men—wherever they may live—are
citizens of Berlin and therefore, as a free man, I take pride
in the words ich bin ein Berliner. I have a dream, that my four little children will one day
live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color about skin, but by
the content in their character. I have a dream today. Let freedom ring and when it happens, we allow freedom ring, when we let it
ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will
be able to speed up that day when all of God’s children—black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics—will be able to join hands and
sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual, “free at last, free at last, thank God Almighty, we are free at last.” There is no constitutional issue here. The command of the Constitution is
plain. There is no moral issue. It is wrong, deadly wrong, to deny any of your fellow
Americans the right to vote in this country. To know war is to know that there is still madness
in this world. They are poor to be lifted up, and there
are cities to be built, and there’s a world to be helped. Yet, we do what we must. I’m hopeful—and I will try, best I
can, with everything I’ve got—to end this battle and to return our sons to their
desires. Yet as long as others will challenge America’s
security, and test the dearness of our beliefs with fire and steel, then we must
stand or see the promise of two centuries tremble. All we say to America is be true to what you
said on paper. But somewhere I read of the freedom of assembly. Somewhere I read of
the freedom of speech. Somewhere I read of the freedom of press. Somewhere I read that the greatness of America is the right
to protest for rights. [Cheering] And so, just as I say we aren’t going to let any dogs
or water hoses turn us around, we aren’t going let any injunction turn us around. I don’t know what will happen now. We’ve
got some difficult days ahead. but it really doesn’t matter with me now
because I’ve been to the mountaintop. [Cheering] And I don’t mind. Like anybody, I would like to live a long
life. Longevity has its place. But I’m not concerned about that now. I just want to do God’s will. And He’s
allowed me to go up to the mountain. And I’ve looked over, and I’ve seen the promised land. I may not get there with you, but I want
you to know tonight, that we as a people will get to the promised land. [Cheering.] So I’m happy tonight, I’m not worried about anything, I’m
not fearing any man. Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord. [Cheering] I have some very sad news for all of you,
and I think sad news for all of our fellow citizens and people who love
peace all over the world, and that is that Martin Luther King was shot and was
killed tonight in Memphis, Tennessee. Martin Luther King dedicated his life to
love and to justice between fellow human beings, he died in the cause of that effort. For
those of you who are black and are tempted to be filled with hatred and mistrust of the injustice of such an act against all white people, I would only say that I can also feel in
my own heart the same kind of feeling. I had a member
of my family killed, but he was killed by a white man. But we
have to make an effort in the United States. We have to make an effort to
understand, to get beyond—or go beyond— these rather difficult times. My favorite poem—my favorite poet was
Aeschylus—he once wrote ‘Even in our sleep, pain which cannot
forget, falls drop by drop upon the heart until in our own despair, against our
will, comes wisdom through the awful grace of God.’ What we need in the United
States is not division, what we need in the United States is not
hatred, what we need in the United States is not
violence and lawlessness, but is love and wisdom and compassion
toward one another, a feeling of justice toward those who
still suffer within our country, whether they be white, or whether they be black. Throughout the long and difficult period
of Watergate, I have felt it was my duty to persevere. To make every possible
effort to complete the term of office to which you elected me. In the past few
days however, it has become evident to me that I no longer have a strong enough
political base in the Congress to justify continuing that effort. Therefore, I shall resign the presidency
effective at noon tomorrow. Vice President Ford will be sworn in as
president at that hour, in this office. Today is a day for mourning and
remembering. Nancy and I are pained to the core over the tragedy of the shuttle Challenger. We know we share this pain with all of
the people of our country. This is truly a national loss. We’ve
never had a tragedy like this and perhaps we’ve forgotten the courage it
took for the crew of the shuttle. But they, the Challenger Seven were aware of the
dangers and overcame them and did their jobs brilliantly. We mourn seven heroes. And I want to say
something to the schoolchildren of America who were watching the live
coverage of the shuttle’s take off. I know it’s hard to understand, but
sometimes painful things like this happen It’s all part of the process of
exploration and discovery. It’s all part of taking a chance and
expanding man’s horizons. The future doesn’t belong to the
faint-hearted. It belongs to the brave. The Challenger crew was pulling us into the
future and we’ll continue to follow. There is one sign the Soviets can make
that would be unmistakable, that would advance dramatically the cause of
freedom and peace. General Secretary Gorbachev, if you seek
peace, if you seek prosperity for the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, if you
seek liberalization, come here to this gate. Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate. Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall. Just two hours ago, allied air forces began an attack on
military targets in Iraq and Kuwait these attacks continue as I speak ground forces are not engaged this
conflict started August second when the dictator of Iraq invaded a small and
helpless neighbor Kuwait a member of the Arab Lee and a member of the United
Nations was crushed its people brutalized five months ago sediment
saying started this cruel war against Kuwait tonight that battle has been
joined this speaker mr. vice president members of Congress honored guests my
fellow Americans we are fortunate to be alive at this moment in history never before has our nation enjoyed at
once so much prosperity and social progress with so little internal crisis
and so few external threats never before have we had such a blessing
opportunity and therefore such a profound obligation to build a more
perfect union of our founders dreams we begin the new century with over 20
million new jobs the fastest economic growth in more than
30 years the lowest unemployment rates in 30
years the lowest poverty rates in 20 years the lowest african-american and Hispanic
unemployment rates on record the first back-to-back surpluses and 42 years and
next month America will achieve the longest period of economic growth in our
entire history good evening just moments ago I spoke with George W
Bush and congratulated him on becoming the 43rd President of the United States
and I promised them that I wouldn’t calling back this time now the US Supreme Court has spoken let
there be no doubt while I strongly disagree with the court’s decision I
accept it I accept the finality of this outcome
which will be ratified next monday in the electoral college and tonight for
the sake of our unity of the people and strength of our democracy I offer my concession this nation stands with the good people
of new york and the jersey and connecticut as we mourn the loss of
thousands of vs I can the rest of the world hears you and the
people and the people who knocked these
buildings down will hear all of us yeah yeah yeah and all those watching tonight from
beyond our shores from Parliament sand palaces to those who are huddled around
radios in the forgotten corners of the world are stories are singular but our
destiny is shared and a new dawn of American leadership is at hand to those to those who would tear the
world down we will defeat you to those who seek peace and security we
support you and to all those who have wondered if America’s beacon still burns
as bright tonight we proved once more that the true strength of our nation
comes not from the might of our arms or the scale of our wealth but from the
enduring power of our ideals democracy Liberty opportunity and
unyielding hope yeah that’s the true genius of America that
America can change our union can be perfect what we’ve already achieved gives us
hope for what we can and must achieve tomorrow this election had many firsts and many
stories will be told for generations but one that’s on my mind tonight’s about a
woman who cast her ballot in Atlanta she’s a lot like the millions of others
who stood in line to make their voice heard in this election except for one thing and Nixon Cooper is
a hundred and six years old she was born just a generation passed slavery a time
when there were no cars on the road or planes in the sky when someone like her
could vote for two reasons because she was a woman and because of the color of
her skin and tonight I think about all that she’s seen
throughout her century in America the Harding and the hope the struggle and
the progress the times we were told that we can’t and the people who pressed on with that
American creed yes we can at a time when women’s voices
were silenced and their hopes dismissed she lived to see them stand up and speak
out and reach for the bailout yes we can when there was this fair and
the Dust Bowl and depression across the lamb she saw a nation conquer fear itself
with a new deal new jobs a new sense of common purpose yes we can when the bombs fell on our
Harbor and tyranny threaten the world she was there to witness a generation
rise to greatness and a democracy was saved yes we can she was there for the buses
in Montgomery the hoses in birmingham a bridge in Selma and a preacher from
Atlanta who told the people that we shall overcome yes we can a man touch down on the moon a wall came down in Berlin a world was
connected by our own science and imagination and this year in this
election she touched her finger to a screen and
cast her vote because after a hundred and six years in America through the
best of times and the darkest of hours she knows how America can change yes we
can America we have come so far we have seen
so much but there’s so much more to do so tonight let us ask ourselves if our
children should live to see the next century if my daughter should be so lucky to
live as long as an mix and Cooper what change will they see what progress what we have made this is our chance to
answer that call this is our moment this is our time to
put our people back to work and open doors of opportunity for our kids to
restore prosperity and promote the cause of peace to reclaim the American Dream
and reaffirm that fundamental truth that out of many we are one that while we
breathe we hope and where we are met with cynicism and doubt and those who
tell us that we can’t we will respond with that timeless creed that sums up
the spirit of a people yes we can thank you God bless you and
may God bless the United States of America yeah

Populism is reshaping our world | The Economist


December 2016 Italy’s populist
opposition is shaking up the establishment They’re days away from a referendum that could spell the end for the Italian
government and make it the latest domino in the toppling international order
Around the world populist leaders are connecting with voters fed up with
politics as usual and exploiting anger at an establishment out of touch with
ordinary people but giving voice to people’s frustrations is one thing
offering them real answers is quite another Jeff Segal grew up in New York but moved
to Italy 40 years ago He’s trying to drum up support ahead of the referendum like millions of Italian voters jeff has turned his back on mainstream
political parties. He now campaigns for the populist five star movement its
sought to build a following less through policies and more by challenging
everything about italy’s political class Five Star’s anti-establishment message is
resonating with voters it is now Italy’s biggest opposition
party the country has been crippled by recession and stagnating wages with
rates of inequality among the highest in Europe many people feel left behind
by globalization and let down by political leaders now the populist sense
there may be an opportunity to bring those leaders down
a referendum on constitutional reform has become a vote of confidence in the
ruling elite Prime Minister Matteo Renzi has said he
will resign if the country votes no He’s the latest politician to find himself in the firing line tonight thousands of five-star
supporters are gathering at a rally in Turin some are starting to ask what they
might do with success Virginia Raggi is one of the first leaders leaders of five-star to win power as the
new mayor of Rome she’s already under pressure to offer actual solutions But Raggi is just the warm-up act there’s one man that
everyone has turned out to see Five stars leader and showman Beppe Grillo A former stand-up comedian Grillo knows
the buttons to press. It’s his appeal to peoples emotions that has helped turn
five star into a real force Beppe Grillo has vowed to get rid of
political parties but he certainly knows how to start one Grillo’s success has come through
impassioned charges against the corrupt elites and global forces he blames for
Italy’s woes but five stars leaders may soon have a harder note to hear a question of how they would tackle
unemployment and inequality two days after the rally Italians
overwhelmingly voted no in the referendum Prime Minister Renzi made
good on his promise to stand down it’s another victory for populism as
across the world charismatic leaders defy expectations they’re finding
success selling deceptively simple answers to difficult questions they almost always blame the failings of free trade and mass
migration for rising inequality but is this the right target few cities are immune to the uneven
impact of globalization here in San Francisco is another more conspicuous
driver of change it’s not just trade that’s transforming the global economic
order it’s technology the latest venture from a San Francisco
startup has the potential to turn one of America’s most iconic industries on its
head last year uber paid 680 million dollars
for Otto a company whose technology could fundamentally change trucking
forever it allows a truck to drive down a highway with nobody at the wheel the company claims it could save the
industry billions of dollars a year reduce emissions by a third and
eliminate the driver errors that cause up to 87% of truck crashes but this bright
sounding future has a dark side a series of studies have found
technology not globalization to be the biggest driver of inequality in
developed countries there were three and a half million
people employed in trucking in America and with their industry seemingly the next
in line for automation many face an uncertain future Robert Calista has driven trucks since
the 1980s both his parents were truck drivers before him populist leaders have been able to
capitalize on a growing sense of them and us as inequality grows in Western
democracies wealthy California has become one of the most economically
unequal states in America as technology has displaced many lower skilled jobs Russell Hancock runs a think-tank in
Silicon Valley sponsored by some of the state’s biggest tech companies An alienated public turned on the establishment because it failed to
provide answers as some tech giants become as powerful
as that establishment it’s a lesson they’re starting to learn so they’re
going back to school if technological change is part of the problem the people
behind it are asking how they can offer solutions Hadi Partovi is the CEO of code.org backed by some of Silicon Valley’s
biggest firms he campaigns for children to be taught computer science in schools It will need help from governments and business to ensure retraining isn’t an option reserved for
those with the time and resources technology itself can help too
Sebastian Thrun used to be in charge of Google’s self-driving car project now he
runs an education company offering quick training programs online an ongoing online education could be one way to start relieving the pressure on
people who today feel left behind because in the long run technology has
the potential to create more jobs than it destroys For too many people in western democracies
progress is still something that happens to other people
wealth does not spread itself an underclass appears beyond help finding a
way to reconnect with them and provide an alternative to populism will be at
the top of the agenda for the political and business leaders of tomorrow

What is populism and how is it shaping global politics?


Populism can be very hard to define because
it varies from national context to national context. The one thing that parties, movements, politicians
who are described as populists tend to share is this insistence that So there’s a very “us versus them” quality
to populism. They’re really a consequence of other parties and institutions failures,
rather than the cause of them. Billionaires in this country With left wing populists, the enemy tends to be a sort of financial or business type of elite. When Mexico sends it’s people, they’re not
sending their best. In a lot of other countries, the enemy may
be immigrants, people who look different than us, people who think different than us. The social and economic problems that Europe
is currently grappling with started decades ago and have sort of gradually increased over time. So what we really had was this kind of conflation
of economic and social problems that really I think, push a lot of voters to embrace radical change. The upcoming French elections provide us with
a great prism through which to understand the meaning and the rise of populism. Marine Le Pen who represents the national
front has turned herself into an incredibly powerful, and I think interesting figure. Should Macron win and not manage to convince
voters afterwards that his program can actually solve their problems; we should expect her
to come back in the next presidential election even stronger. Germany, along with France remains the main
player, the main power in Europe so what happens there really has a huge impact outside of
the country’s borders. The populist right, the Alternative for Germany,
was a few months ago predicted to do quite well at the national elections. Now it seems to have declined, somewhat partially due to infighting. Historically of course, because of Germany’s
past, there’s been a real barrier to the rise of far right populism in Germany. So the fact that we’re even seeing seeds
of it, is really a reflection of how deeply the structural shifts in European political life go. The Netherlands, the populist there was predicted
to come out on top. Even though Wilders did not win, he did manage
to increase his vote. So, I wouldn’t take the election result
as a sign of absolute defeat but a sign that we have to continue to worry about the underlying trends that fed these parties. It’s much more dangerous in a way in places
like Poland and Hungary because the institutions and the norms of democracy are much weaker
and therefore much easier to maneuver around or even overthrow. We’ve seen that happen in Hungary, we’ve
seen that happen in Turkey. It also of course happened in Venezuela. And people are very worried about something
like that happening in a place like Poland. But if we think about populism as a consequence
of rising dissatisfaction and the inability of elites and institutions to deal with it;
then there could potentially be a silver lining in populism. Populists tend to raise issues that a lot
of people are concerned about. They tend to focus on problems that are not
being addressed. If traditional elites and institutions can
look and say hey we better figure out better ways of dealing with these issues and concerns, then populists will have performed oddly enough a kind of backhanded service. If not, then we can expect the populists to continue
to grow in support, and probably the problems not to be absolutely addressed. Politics is about getting your message across. So populists tend to be very good at this because they tend to present pretty simple and often problematic solutions to contemporary problems.

The European Union Explained*


Where, is the European Union? Obviously here
somewhere, but much like the the European continent itself, which has an unclear boundary,
the European Union also has some fuzzy edges to it. To start, the official members of the European
Union are, in decreasing order of population: * Germany
* France * The United Kingdom
* Italy * Spain
* Poland * Romania
* The Kingdom of the Netherlands * Greece
* Belgium * Portugal
* The Czech Republic * Hungary
* Sweden * Austria
* Bulgaria * Denmark
* Slovakia * Finland
* Ireland * Croatia
* Lithuania * Latvia
* Slovenia * Estonia
* Cyprus * Luxembourg
* Malta The edges of the EU will probably continue
to expand further out as there are other countries in various stages of trying to become a member. How exactly the European Union works is hideously
complicated and a story for another time, but for this video you need know only three
things: 1. Countries pay membership dues and 2. Vote on laws they all must follow and 3. Citizens of member countries are automatically
European Union citizens as well This last means that if you’re a citizen of
any of these countries you are free to live and work or retire in any of the others. Which
is nice especially if you think your country is too big or too small or too hot or too
cold. The European Union gives you options. By the way, did you notice how all three of
these statements have asterisks attached to this unhelpful footnote? Well, get used to
it: Europe loves asterisks that add exceptions to complicated agreements. These three, for example, point us toward
the first bit of border fuzziness with Norway, Iceland and little Liechtenstein. None of
which are in the European Union but if you’re a EU citizen you can live in these countries
and Norwegians, Icelanders, or Liechtensteiner(in)s can can live in yours. Why? In exchange for the freedom of movement
of people they have to pay membership fees to the European Union — even though they
aren’t a part of it and thus don’t get a say its laws that they still have to follow. This arrangement is the European Economic
Area and it sounds like a terrible deal, were it not for that asterisk which grants EEA
but not EU members a pass on some areas of law notably farming and fishing — something
a country like Iceland might care quite a lot about running their own way. Between the European Union and the European
Economic Area the continent looks mostly covered, with the notable exception of Switzerland
who remains neutral and fiercely independent, except for her participation in the Schengen
Area. If you’re from a country that keeps her borders
extremely clean and / or well-patrolled, the Schengen Area is a bit mind-blowing because
it’s an agreement between countries to take a ‘meh’ approach to borders. In the Schengen Area international boundaries
look like this: no border officers or passport checks of any kind. You can walk from Lisbon
to Tallinn without identification or need to answer the question: “business or pleasure?”. For Switzerland being part of Schengen but
not part of the European Union means that non-swiss can check in any time they like,
but they can never stay. This koombaya approach to borders isn’t appreciated
by everyone in the EU: most loudly, the United Kingdom and Ireland who argue that islands
are different. Thus to get onto these fair isles, you’ll need a passport and a good reason. Britannia’s reluctance to get fully involved
with the EU brings us to the next topic: money. The European Union has its own fancy currency,
the Euro used by the majority, but not all of the European Union members. This economic
union is called the Eurozone and to join a country must first reach certain financial
goals — and lying about reaching those goals is certainly not something anyone would do. Most of the non-Eurozone members when they
meet the goals, will ditch their local currency in favor of the Euro but three of them Denmark,
Sweden and, of course, the United Kingdom, have asterisks attracted to the Euro sections
of the treaty giving them a permanent out-out. And weirdly, four tiny European countries
Andorra, San Marino, Monaco & Vatican City have an asterisk giving them the reverse:
the right print and use Euros as their money, despite not being in the European Union at
all. So that’s the big picture: there’s the EU,
which makes all the rules, the Eurozone inside it with a common currency, the European Economic
Area outside of it where people can move freely and the selective Schengen, for countries
who think borders just aren’t worth the hassle. As you can see, there’s some strange overlaps
with these borders, but we’re not done talking about complications by a long shot one again,
because empire. So Portugal and Spain have islands from their
colonial days that they’ve never parted with: these are the Madeira and Canary Islands are
off the coast of Africa and the Azores well into the Atlantic. Because these islands are
Spanish and Portuguese they’re part of the European Union as well. Adding a few islands to the EU’s borders isn’t
a big deal until you consider France: the queen of not-letting go. She still holds onto
a bunch of islands in the Caribbean, Reunion off the coast of Madagascar and French Guiana
in South America. As far as France is concerned, these are France too, which single handedly
extends the edge-to-edge distance of the European Union across a third of Earth’s circumference. Collectively, these bits of France, Spain
and Portugal are called the Outermost Regions — and they’re the result of the simple answer
to empire: just keep it. On the other hand, there’s the United Kingdom,
the master of maintaining complicated relationships with her quasi-former lands — and she’s by
no means alone in this on such an empire-happy continent. The Netherlands and Denmark and France (again)
all have what the European Union calls Overseas Territories: they’re not part of the European
Union, instead they’re a bottomless well of asterisks due to their complicated relationships
with both with the European Union and their associated countries which makes it hard to
say anything meaningful about them as a group but… in general European Union law doesn’t apply
to these places, though in general the people who live there are European Union citizens
because in general they have the citizenship of their associated country, so in general
they can live anywhere in the EU they want but in general other European Union citizens
can’t freely move to these territories. Which makes these places a weird, semipermeable
membrane of the European Union proper and the final part we’re going to talk about in
detail even though there are still many, more one-off asterisks you might stumble upon,
such as: the Isle of Man or those Spanish Cities in North Africa or Gibraltar, who pretends
to be part of Southwest England sometimes, or that region in Greece where it’s totally
legal to ban women, or Saba & friends who are part of the Netherlands and so should
be part of the EU, but aren’t, or the Faeroe Islands upon which while citizens of Denmark
live they lose their EU citizenship, and on and on it goes. These asterisks almost never end, but this
video must.