Is TTIP a “monstrous assault on democracy”? – Truthloader

In many ways we’ve been talking about copyright
and patents but there are actually something even worse in TTIP. We also know that TTP
has this thing that George Monbiot was talking about. So let me talk a little bit about that.
It goes by the world’s most boring name. It’s called Investor State Dispute Settlement and
you know once you listen to that you think well I’ll go and make a cup of tea because
I really don’t want to hear anymore. But in fact what it means in essence is that a corporation
can sue an entire nation for what it alleges is a loss of its future profits. And the way
it works is this. Is that if for example the European Union (EU) as one hopes, brings in
more stringent environmental laws to protect the environment from industry for example
and that industry is owned by an American company and we have TTIP in force then the
American company will be able to sue the European Union for the profits that it would’ve made
had we not had the enhanced environmental protection because they will say they have
lost profits because we brought in better environmental protection and so it’s a way
for companies to claim back theoretical losses caused by nations making democratic decisions
about the laws they want to bring in and for example Ecuador is being sued by Oxidental
over oil claims and there are special courts, tribunals rather that exist outside the normal
courts which adjudicate these and this court has just awarded $2 billion to Oxidental because
it says that its future profits have been hurt and therefore it has a right to this
money. An American pharma company, Eli Lily is suing Canada for $500 million because it
claims that it would’ve made a profit on some drugs were it not for the fact that Canada
has just rejected two of its patents so it said well because you rejected our patents
we won’t have these profits so you owe us $500 million and this was originally for people
investing in emerging countries where the courts weren’t very reliable but it makes
no sense when you have a treaty between the EU and the US which have two of most advanced
call systems in the world who can therefore adjudicate these and decide whether these
companies do in fact have a right to any compensation. But these courts are above national courts
so it’s a way for companies to ignore local laws.

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The Open Government Data Revolution

so I see what I want to say dovetails very well into into the previous talk many of the examples that were being given to you about effective modern governance at the city level are going to end up drawing on this foundation this foundation of of open data that we've been engaged in for a while now around the world and the UK was one of the one of the initial leaders in this work and still is trying to push the envelope as I'll try and describe I'm from a university background in that I head up a group a Southampton on web and Internet science but I'm also an open-air data adviser to the government and actually helped set up the original dot uk' portal with Tim berners-lee back in 2009 I'll talk about that a little bit just a few things to say in fact again the the keynote this morning talked about data is the new oil and people think there is a super abundance of data and indeed there is but the extraordinary thing about the super abundance of data is that in itself it's extraordinarily powerful people think it's an unalloyed problem but if you get the right data organized at scale it becomes a remarkable properties one of my favorite examples is this one from from Google Google's research where they in fact took a search log of took the log queries from a very large number of American users and were looking to predict from the search terms being looked at the outbreak of seasonal flu an epidemic of flu essentially United States it takes about two weeks using traditional methods to get physicians data back to the Center for Disease Control's to actually plot this actual data trend you can see here that CDC data this orange plot here they were able to build a model essentially a a knowledge based model of what terms were being used to precisely match that outbreak and of course they were doing it in the end at real-time okay they could show real-time tracking of the flu outbreak and of course it's because people collectively are going to be searching at times of flu outbreaks as they're breaking out in the community for a particular sets of key terms and objects of interest to them and such like and that's this it seems to me a extremely powerful indicator of how something as fundamental as public health policy or well-being in a community can be driven by this data of course the realistic question is whose data is this and just how easy is it for anybody else other than a very large search engine company to do this and what would the terms and conditions be under which that data could be released back I loved these examples and my other favorite example this is you can just about make out what appears to be a light pollution map of the of the UK Europe actually each of those luminosities is a is a geo code from a Flickr upload a picture so each of those points of brightness is a Flickr upload and in fact if we look at that at higher resolution what do you see there it's a map of London there are the major brought bridges crossing River Thames you can see the major thoroughfares you can see these densities here every one of those points is a Flickr geocode photograph and of course obligingly people who take those photographs have been busy tagging those photographs as well so when I get this freely opened a available data from Flickr which I can do and download it this is one of John Kline birth students did it comes already marked up with the top most frequently photographed and labeled tourist destinations in the city now that level of immediate intelligence rendered off a very low level data is a world that I think has huge possibilities and opportunities for us and I haven't touched government data per se interesting to think though of the range of datasets that can become available for us to use and exploit my other example I often use is this well-known example of a many people have still not still still it's news to them this is a map an open-source product called OpenStreetMaps map of the port-au-prince the Haitian capital before the earthquake there was no map of that capital city bad news when your capital city has been destroyed and you've got to work out where to put relief they actually crowd-sourced a construction of an incredible high-resolution map for this here it is in 12 days 12 days because people were on the ground with GPS receivers and laptops uploading those data coordinates to an open source platform with open data formats open licenses and when you see that happen you realize that we can truly crowdsource in which the way the same way we're hearing earlier remarkable intelligence around city cities and environments we live in so the power of open I believe is very profound indeed and the exciting thing is that we're applying that now to government data itself this is the state of affairs in about November 2009 when Tim berners-lee and I were asked by the prime minister to start opening up government data in the UK we produce what we called the postcode paper here's a postcode we published at the Guardian newspaper headquarters we took all sorts of local data public data nationally government and local government generated data and made it into a newspaper with respect to that postcode the problem was that 80% of the content of that newspaper was illegally reproduced illegally reproduced even the post codes we weren't allowed to use in that form thus we'd have had to pay or Ordnance Survey for the privilege of recording and using that piece of information so there was a lot to shift but the dial has been turned and in fact in three months we had our first portal data gov dot UK up and running it was you can open source software it does something rather heretical in terms of government IT it was a beta site in constant development and in just 24 months we were actually we have this site here David of the UK where you put in your postcode chillie access the data sets that are available for that particular region postcodes about 812 residential addresses you can now find out data about the crimes occurring in that area the educational attainment Raceway the bus stop saw a bunch of stuff okay and that has been happening because we've had a real sea change in the whole approach to data release and publication we had some friendly competition along the way the u.s. in particular began this work back in 2000 and the Obama administration's released in 2009 first executive order just about on openness said update gov we followed suit a little later in 2009 we now have were over 8,000 data sets 8,000 data sets available on daily gov of course the granularity with the egg sets an object a much friendly competition we count entire maps of the UK as one data set if you parcel them up we can get a very good score on the mounted a key making available much to say about that the interesting thing about our support for open data in government is that it's been led from the top from middle out civil servants who are engaged in this and from activists the top level political support we've had has been really important nearly kroy's here the vice president of the European Commission don't get the hang of this guy she was actually extolling the virtues of a European open data just a few months ago I'd be very interested to see how much we actually materially get released because despite all of this goodness there are challenges around open government data that I want to come on and address the reasons for doing this or it's a powerful idea whether it's mapping a capital city that has no detailed maps or finding out what the state of public health is more looking for snow falls and working out what the fixing streetlights there are many examples this is a photograph of cholera bacteria so famously when a particular surgeon in the 19th century mapped death rates on a map of London they discovered that people died from cholera we're all clustering around particular water well you know they didn't know that cholera was a waterborne disease at that point it changed the whole perception of public health similarly this is a picture of mrs a this is the hospital acquired infection that does for a good number of people up and down the country certainly used to do for a lot more and then we started to publish infection rates and death rates in hospitals as a leak table and of course that data led to a rather dramatic change in behavior at those hospitals and it was one of the major instruments that led to a sharp decline in hospital acquired infections that and deep cleaning and other other actual policy actions the deep cleaning of course were that people were seeing very clearly the effect an impact of this sort of information and actually we talk about transparency and accountability improving public service delivery improved efficiency these are all reasons why you would want to release open government data there are these and we again heard them in in previous talk around engagement citizen engagement but also we get data improvement governments data is no better than many corporate datasets when we published bus stop data where the bus stops in the UK were finally got the UK to publish those 360,000 bus top positions 17,000 of them work where the government thought they were you know which is a tedious if you're trying to build an app or turn up for a bus it very soon after that was published a crowdsource site was developed where people could enter the actual positions so now a challenge for government is how it does open government to point naught how do you write back data in a way that it becomes in a sense official data data that has a provenance that is both backed by the crowd and by government but also we're seeing it in terms of of economic value and societal value and I'll come on to that in a moment so open the data and people's experience is that the applications do flow whether they're flowing fast enough or whether they're making the difference is of course a question we're now asking ourselves two years into the experiment so all these good sustainable citizen engagement tools are these tools to help us manage understanding of how a city is function or a nation state or a region how do we drive both demand for the data utilization of the data build the ecosystem around open data and maybe we're going to discover that actually the data releases that data like everything else in this new economy has a long tail and that some datasets are highly reused by very very large numbers of apps and people and some data has a bit of interest to a very small constituency but remember the lesson of the long tail is that an awful lot of utility and use lives under the bottom of the tail distribution okay so just seeing that your data set is the most used does not mean that substantial amounts of data don't have utility and in fact the assumption we have in doing this work is presume to publish make publishing the default and then unanticipated reuse makes much of the rest of the magic that we observe on the web a fact for open data so we get data at all scales it's not just City as its regions and it's not just yet nation states its regions and cities that are releasing and here we've got examples of Redbridge a Regional Council in London London's data store itself all good stuff and increasing numbers of countries from Singapore I just returned from Singapore this this last weekend looking at their data Kenya Chile the english-speaking democracies a whole range of open data efforts now growing up and we achieved a lot we can say I think that we have seen significant data sets released that the licenses that are essential to this certainly one of the lessons from the UK data release is you've got to allow your licenses to be unrestrictive not surrounded by minor terms and conditions I go and see lots of data sites that claim to be open and somewhere in the background of a particular chunk of data there's a little restrictive covenant you shouldn't use it to do this or you Shawn use it to do that so we can use it but you can't use it in a commercial reuse context open is open look we've seen developer communities grow up and we've seen a degree of international collaboration start to emerge all good things and there's something particularly compelling about the city or than or the or the urban conurbation as a data user a lot of the cities get open data and have been some of the earliest advocates and exponents many of your best apps are urban rather irritatingly the apps are good but then they kind of run out when you pass the city limit you we've got some great examples in transportation in the UK which work great in London because the mayor and TfL had the mandate and authority to get the data out there get across the city line and your immediate boss find a best route boss finder app Forster pieces okay so urban conurbations have a kind of a coherence though such that if you're there it's still good news for you because they have authority over their data and there's a network effect all data sets have a network effect but as we saw again in the previous talk around transportation utilities education public service provision data sets tend to supplement and support one another if you're trying to work out where you want to live buy a house you'd like to know about the crime rates at how effective transportation is where the actual schools are how what are they doing people can make decisions both at the governance level and in terms of an individual citizens choice because of the interconnected nature of much city data and it always comes down to location location location so it turns out that geographic geospatial open geospatial data is a lynchpin and whenever we think we've got enough data openly available there's some other data set that people want and the only ongoing ruckus at the moment in the UK is for a comprehensive address file that will give you the actual register that not the people who live at the addresses but the addresses of all the businesses and all the people who would be be visited or submit a census form for example a there has never been a comprehensive list and be currently the proposals are that you can charge for this will charge for it but the amount of location-based specific services that will be empowered by a release of comprehensive addressing data I believe would be would be very large indeed so although we've achieved a lot in the UK there's always more to go for in my opinion and these are some of the products that the open that the Ordnance Survey now support for mapping and good they are I mean we're in it we're in a very much better place than we were just a couple of years ago and these get routinely used in a range of open data applications so looking at London again here we have a rather good illustration using the open OS open data mapping product and what we can see here is essentially thicker lines are more journeys by by hired bicycles and the red blotches you can see and you can see this inspect this on the high-resolution our pollution levels measured by LED emissions okay now this has been put together by a team at a spatial analytics Research Unit at UCL they're doing this on a weekly basis people looking at new kinds of information mashup that will have a direct interest to you the rider of a bicycle in London or you the public health consultant this is a similar example and both of these very recently made available just in January this year this is a map of what is called multiple indexes of deprivation basically an indication of how wealthy or affluent or not so affluent a region or an area is now Charles booth in the 19th century actually built a wonderful map of urban deprivation in London literally visiting every household doing a survey much of the same insights can be derived from data that is now held and now is openly openly published these become important policy tools important planning tools important tools to mobilize a community and this is this is data on London's daytime population the remarkable thing about this just taken from the London data stored undertaken by a researcher in Sheffield the daytime density of the City of London is 350,000 people per square kilometre okay extraordinary about 11,000 people live in that area or registered as living there but you start to see these peaks and flows these ebbs and flows this kind of sense of what you can learn from the statistics made available and in a way the one that is perhaps most about most most impressive because this holds politicians feet to the fire we've had spending data published in the UK at a very low level of detail 500 pounds every month in excess of published by every regional authority 360 of them gives you an exquisite picture of what's being paid for by local authorities what's being spent whether one authorities paying more for its fleet higher than another for example but this is giving you by crime types by street level every month reported crimes in the UK for England and Wales for England and Wales those are the Constabulary –zz that have signed up to this you type in a Scottish postcode you get nothing back ok which is an interesting issue I think if you're a Scottish citizen because what does this tell you well it tells you this is actually an application my group built in Southampton this is a heat map essentially I've taken the excel this is the H EE 16 one a a which is the postcode folk for the Excel Centre and I'm visualizing here lohi it's a heat map reported antisocial behavior okay this is a months worth of data this was the first set of data published in December 2010 and you have a bit of a filmic experience and I'm just going to scroll through that's December January February March April can you see a certain constancy in the location of anti-social behavior and where it's occurring and what that might do to your sense of what you police or pay attention to if you're a resident who you complain to or who you try and get a sense of what's happening here why antisocial behavior is this if you actually knew exactly when that was reported you would find because we know this exists exquisite temporal periodicity Friday night's particular time you'll see a bunch of so antisocial behavior in a bunch of particular places that are associated with of course checkout times at the local pubs or entry times at local nightclubs some of this stuff isn't so surprising but as a tool and I could have visualized burglaries or vehicle crime shoplifting this is a tool for empowerment but it's also a tool suppose you're an insurance company what are you going to make of this data what we would start to think about of course if you're then a campaigning group for for the digitally disenfranchised you start to ask yourself but you know if we start to have postcode insurance premiums how do those who don't have a voice get their voice heard but the data tells you the story very clearly and other countries are doing this of the states Singapore as I say don't have everything solved you'll be glad to know in the in the world's intelligence city an awful lot of their data is not available on the unrestricted licenses and a lot of it is simply national statistics and if I look at their crime data all I can find are sets of numbers by month across a huge swathe of the cities so I'm no real insight as to what's happening there and he did there's great stuff in the US but there's no federal equivalent there's no coverage across across the country so complex this is it's good we've been trying to work in the UK to improve the quality of data not just in terms of what's there but how it's linked together data can be linked and place and space are good places to do it so our geography allows us to if you can represent the data in the latest open formats used on the web for linking data we can begin to link other datasets together much more easily this is the ambition of so called linked data approaches on the way talk more about that perhaps in the session but it does allow us to produce now visualizations this is a particular post code in Southampton and we're just looking here at the post code this is the immediately surrounding post goes to the north and south and east and west and then the sets around those concentric post codes we can look at crimes crime types we can look at transportation access points we can look at educational attainment absenteeism from schools we can begin to do a range of information integration that was only ever available if it was asked for by policy makers within our statistics officers now we can argue about whether we're making the right interpretations around this we need new cadre of data literacy but it allows us to have the discussion and it allows us to powerfully think about how we might exploit it so this does amount to a gray revolution and in the UK the process is continuing we have significant datasets in transport and weather believe it or not in the UK you didn't have open access to weather data the predictions four days five days out every three hours the Met Office publishers for 5000 points in the UK three early predictive weather now you can look it up on it on their website as a picture but you couldn't get the raw data if I get the raw data I can build services around secondary insurance for rain insurance or events planning as a million things I could do that don't require me now just to go through one the third point of access the Met Office we're going to see rather dramatically releases of health data everything from what GPS are prescribing every month that drugs they're prescribing through to the outcomes they're detecting how does that vary by postcode how does that vary by maternal but by multiple deprivation indices this is powerful stuff and most recently particular for Tim berners-lee myself in our role in this work we've had announced an open data Institute to be funded based in Shoreditch not just very far from here at all to look at the commercial potential and exploitation of open data so how can we take those micro businesses those startups and and help build businesses based around these kinds of data releases and drive more data out of government how can we use the experience we have to get public services in the public sector to deliver its data more effectively for for reuse and how can we educate and help developers in corporations large and small to live in this open data environment that's so fast evolving and again speaking back to the original keynote this morning transparency and data open data to possible important components for capitalism to point naught and I think it really is an interesting challenge to ourselves is that the case thank you very much you