How Pakistan’s cricket superstar became prime minister

March 25th 1992 was a big day for
Pakistan the national cricket team beat England to win the world Imran Khan was the face of victory the
Pakistani captain was already a global celebrity and he had a reputation for
being a handsome bachelor but almost 30 years later Khan’s public identity has
completely changed he is now Pakistan’s new prime minister So how did
Pakistan’s cricket superstar become its new leader and will he be the one to
bring change in a country that has long been controlled by its powerful military Oh
from a young age imran khan was exposed to foreign influences he grew up in
lahore where he attended british prep schools and eventually went on to Oxford
University where he sharpened his cricket skills living in England Khan
started gaining popularity as a cricketer he embraced his life in the
West and became a staple of celebrity culture his athletic career lasted more
than two decades after winning the World Cup in 1992 he retired from the game
initially he stayed away from politics I am NOT meant to be a politician there
not everyone becomes the prime minister to help his country in 1994 he opened
the first specialized Cancer Hospital in Pakistan around the same time he started
shedding his ladies-man image and re-engaged with religion he married his
first wife of three British heiress Jemima Goldsmith’s
who converted to Islam after they settled in Pakistan where he further
distanced himself from his life in the West in 1996 Khan created his own
political party the PTI he promised to build an Islamic welfare state that
would take care of the poor and hold the people in power accountable only few
people are held accountable the rest who unknown crooks get away with it come
back to fight another nation he had a strong anti-corruption message and
positioned himself as the alternative to Pakistan’s two political dynasties the
sherrif’s and the Bhutto’s who had been trading off power and corruption charges
for decades at first Khan’s party had little success failing to win a single
parliamentary seat in the 1997 elections but several years later in 2013 Khan’s
party won control of a northwestern province bordering Afghanistan his
anti-corruption agenda has started gaining ground especially among young
Pakistanis and it was working on a national level he went from being the
longshot to a strong political contender in the election for prime minister he
lost in a wash to wreath of the Sharif dynasty but was now a key political
player in Pakistan as a cricketer Imran Khan was a reliable
performer but as a politician he has taken some unexpected turns in 2013
Khan’s party called for a review of Pakistan’s controversial blasphemy law
which carries a death penalty for insulting Islam they said religion was
being misused to attain power in the majority Muslim country now five years
later Khan has been criticized for defending the same law earlier as part
of his anti-corruption stance Khan denounced opponents Sharif’s party but
later he recruited candidates from the same party to boost his own Khan has
also been criticized for his leniency with the Taliban in 2012 after 14 year
old Malala yousufzai was shot in Pakistan by the Taliban for championing
education for girls Khan showed support for the militant group at large calling
their fight a justified holy war. Khan blames the US for the rise of extremism in the region. He has long been a critic of US military intervention in Afghanistan
particularly the drone strikes along the Pakistan border this anti-american
sentiment resonated with large parts of the Pakistani population that see the
US as an enemy his own solution for the Taliban is
centered on peace talks a push that has earned him the nickname Taliban common
so you’re basically recommending a strategy of negotiation with the Taliban
and a complete elimination of the drones if I hear you properly it is the only
way believe me it is the only way what makes khan’s tolerance of the
Taliban interesting is that it seems to align with the interest of the Pakistani
military the military’s power can be traced back to 1947 when British India
was divided into two countries a Muslim majority Pakistan and Hindu majority
India as people migrated to the country of their religion intense violence broke
out the Pakistani military stepped in to settle conflict at the border becoming a
symbol of national identity and the establishment that held a new country
together since then the military has controlled all national security and
foreign policy matters one of their main concerns is the war in Afghanistan which
benefits them in two ways on one hand the US has paid the Pakistani military
billions in exchange for routes to the country to continue their fight with the
Taliban at the same time the military supports the Taliban because the
instability in Afghanistan keeps the country isolated from Pakistan’s rivals
especially India the military has also interfered with
the democratic process within Pakistan since independence it has either ruled
the country directly or controlled it indirectly Pakistan has had 22 prime
ministers and none of them has ever completed a full term
they either resigned they were terminated they finished a term they
didn’t start or they were assassinated there were also three successful
military coups because of Pakistan’s tense political past the election was
high stakes in the months leading up to the vote religious extremist groups try
to destabilize the electoral process by killing at least 200 people in a
string of attacks including a polling station bombing on Election Day that
killed 31 people just weeks before the 2018 election Khan’s opponent former
Prime Minister Sharif was convicted of corruption and sentenced to 10 years in
jail the military was accused of engineering Sharif’s downfall and
clearing the wafer Khan Khan went on to win against bilawal Bhutto and Shahbaz
Sharif the new candidates from Pakistan’s political dynasties his win
was followed by protests and accusations of election fraud which he said he would
investigate and on August 18th Imran Khan was sworn in as the Prime
Minister of Pakistan since the victory his corruption message has remained
front and center: But his anti-american stance seems to be
shifting: Whether leader will bring about the change he promised is still uncertain the only certainty is that his leadership will be
shaped by his relationship with Pakistan’s most powerful authority: the

Crossing The Border to Pakistan & Eating Beef (+ Hindi Fails)

Today, I’m at Wagah border because we are going to Pakistan. And I know people in India will be thinking… And that’s what everybody is saying to me in the West as well. So my Pakistani friends said the same thing to me about going to India. They said, in Pakistan there is a saying.. “you go to India by bus and you come back on the newspaper’. So there’s that fear about going to each other’s countries on both sides of the border. Why am I visiting Pakistan? Well, I’m on a mission to visit every single state and union territory in India. and India before partition. So that includes Bangladesh and Pakistan. I also want to go because everyone’s telling me not to go and when people tell me not to do something, it really makes me want to do it. This is the queue of people waiting to cross the border into Pakistan. Buses, trucks, motorcycles And this is the border right here where we are gonna cross now. The process of getting through the Indian border is really easy. It’s basically like a small airport you pass through. You have to go through security, you have to go through immigration and you go through customs. Then they put you on this bus which takes you over to the Pakistan border side to do the same thing again. I couldn’t film back there around immigration because of these signs and guards preventing it. They even have the buses’ windows covered so you can’t see outside. So we just got off this bus and it has taken us to the area where they have the closing of the border ceremony every night at 4 pm. And on one side sits the Indian and then on the other side, across this border here, where the Pakistanis sit. So we are just walking up to the border now, the Pakistani border. and this is the very borderline right here. So now we are across the border in Pakistan right now. Karl: IT. Computers. Officer: Why have you come to Pakistan? Karl: Travel. Officer: Travel, tourist? Karl: Yeah, tourism. Salaam! Officer: Welcome to Pakistan. New Zealand? Officer: You can speak Urdu also? Officer: Is that a camera? You’re in Pakistan for how many days? So now we are gonna go through Pakistani Passenger Immigration and Customs Salaam Pakistan! I’m here. So now I’m just walking to the bus. It’s about 1 km from the border and we are gonna go get some food in Pakistan, man! Been waiting to have some Lahori food. Driver: What’s your problem? Driver: Which place in Lahore? Speaking Urdu is good. Very nice. Which place in Lahore? Karl: No, it’s okay. I don’t need auto rickshaw. I’m going by bus. Driver: Where are you going? Which place in Lahore? Karl: Doesn’t matter na. Driver: You don’t know? Driver: Which place? What’s your name? Karl: I’ll go by bus. Thank you. Wow, so just off the entry in Pakistan, within like a couple hundred meters, I had this rickshaw driver hassling me to come with him asking me what my problem was when I told him I was going by bus. And then a guy pulled over and offered me a ride so… that was really sweet of that guy but I thought about taking it but I just got here and I’m gonna kind of learn the ropes here first before I take any rides from strangers. So I’ve got across the border and there’s no money exchange like people were saying online there was. So I’m gonna take a taxi and stop at an ATM to get some cash out so I can pay someone, pay a driver, and get us more money to get on a bus. I’m going Lahore now. So the first thing you have to do when you’re in Lahore is eat. So we are gonna have my favorite food right now: Beef Haleem. I’ve written about it on my blog before and what haleem is is it’s dal, lentils.. it’s meat and it’s all mixed down and stirred around for five or six hours and it turns into this kind of meat soup. It doesn’t look good but it tastes amazing. This is the mighty beef haleem. It’s been cooked since morning in a big steel pot as you can see behind me. It comes with these Pakistani style naans and a bunch of condiments that go on top. You add a ton of coriander, fried onions, lemon and it’s the greatest tasting soup you can ever have.

Indian Election Update | Patriot Act with Hasan Minhaj | Netflix

Did you see the results? -Yeah.
-Landslide victory for… Modi, Modi, Modi. I told you.
I said, “Don’t do Indian elections.” Why can’t I talk about Indian politics?
I’m Indian. You’re Indian? You didn’t even live there. How do you call yourself an Indian? My family’s from there. People think that you’re American.
You’re a white washed. No, I’m not. You know me
and uncle are brown, you know that. How? But you don’t behave like a brown. -What does that even mean?
-You think that you’re a smart white dude. Sorry, you’re not. If you don’t want me
to talk about politics, -what do you want me to talk about?
-Go ahead with Bollywood. -I’m not talking about Bollywood.
-You should. -I’m not talking about Bollywood.
-No, Indian food. -The spicy Indian food.
-Oh, yeah. Biryani. -You want me to do 26 minutes…
-Oh, yes. on biryani? Yeah, you can do an hour. You could do an hour. Okay. What if I just do the update
on what happened? -Apology is the only update you can give.
-Only update you can do. Maybe you can put it as… “Patriot Act:
Apology Regarding Indian Elections.” You want me to do “Patriot Act:
Apology About Indian Elections?” -Yes.
-“Sorry, I Didn’t Listen.” Hello. Thank you so much! Thank you. Hello, how are you? Hi! Welcome to Patriot Act. I’m Hasan Minhaj.
Thank you guys so much for coming out. Oh, man. Now, look. India just wrapped up
its general election, and we have to talk about it. I mean, can you imagine if we didn’t? Like every white person would be like,
“Is Hasan okay?” And every Indian person would be like,
“Good, he learned.” So here’s a quick update. This election
pretty much came down to two parties. The BJP,
a right-wing Hindu Nationalist group led by incumbent Prime Minister,
Narendra Modi, and the Congress Party,
led by Rahul Gandhi. And the results were stunning. Prime Minister Narendra Modi
is celebrating a sweeping victory Narendra Modi now set for
a second five-year term as prime minister of the world’s biggest democracy. Ladies and gentlemen, India has spoken, and India has spoken decisively. Okay, that’s Navika Kumar, and we featured her the last time
we talked about the elections. So she hit me up on Twitter and invited me to come on her show
for a debate. And I said… “Hell no.”
That show is way too intense. I would get destroyed like King’s Landing. Make your point! All right, make your point! Respond to the basic issues. Can you just calm down? Why are you getting personal? I think you suffer from amnesia. Stop playing the victim card. You did not make
the political point that you should have. Do they just slap everyone
right before they put them on air? Also, how do they fit so many people
on that show? It’s like they mapped the population
of India onto their news shows. Now, look. We know this. It’s not a huge surprise
that the BJP won. It was the size of their victory
that was shocking. Modi’s BJP Party won 303 out of 542 seats in the lower House of Parliament.
It’s well beyond the simple majority a party in India needs
to form a government. The BJP took so many seats, they won a majority on their own. They pulled it off
by expanding beyond the Hindi Belt, which sounds like something
Gucci got in trouble for selling. But… the Hindi Belt is actually a region that’s made up entirely
of Hindi-speaking states. In this election,
the BJP managed to expand into every part of India. They are now 56%
of the lower House of Parliament. Meanwhile, the Congress Party ended
this election with 52 seats. That’s not even 10% of the lower house. And if you think things couldn’t get
any worse for Rahul Gandhi, you’re very wrong. And one of the highlights
of the BJP’s amazing victory is Amethi, where the party’s Smriti Irani
defeated Congress President Rahul Gandhi. An event that has led
to even more humiliation for the congress. I would like to say Smriti Irani has won. I want to congratulate her.
The citizens of a Amethi have decided. I respect their decision. Okay, Rahul couldn’t even win
his own district, which his family held for decades. He lost to a BJP candidate
named Smriti Irani, who’s a former soap opera star. And trust me, she does not fuck around. Okay, why did they film this entire show
on Google Street View? It feels like the director
is like, “Wait. I’m just looking for a brunch spot.
Let me just… let me just get my Matrix on.” Killing the competition
isn’t just a metaphor. The BJP ran some wild candidates. Like Anantkumar Hegde who said, “As long as we have Islam in the world,
there will be no end to terrorism,” which kind of sounds like
Stephen Miller’s wedding vows. Or Sakshi Maharaj, who has
34 criminal cases against him, including robbery and murder, but by far the craziest BJP candidate
was Pragya Thakur, who won in Bhopal. Now, she recently pissed off
pretty much all of India. Sadhvi Pragya has proved to be
the biggest embarrassment for the BJP. She has called Mahatma Gandhi’s assassin
a patriot. You can’t say that. That’s like calling Ted Bundy
a ladies man. Now, Pragya eventually apologized. But this isn’t the first time she’s run
into trouble. Last year, a terrorism charge
was laid against her as a suspect in a 2008 mosque bombing
that killed six people. Visiting a Bhopal Hindu temple
for a cleansing ceremony, she adamantly maintains her innocence
in the case. I am 100% innocent. Okay, technically… Pragya is out on bail
because she has cancer. But she’s also been accused
of plotting a deadly bomb attack. So, I just don’t know how to do this joke. You know what I mean?
‘Cause, like, what was her Make-A-Wish? You know what I mean? They were like,
“Hey, do you want to meet The Rock?” And then she was like,
“Can he help me blow up a mosque?” I told you it was fucked up. Now look, it’s easy to reduce
the BJP’s popularity to one issue, whether you look Pragya
and think Hindu nationalism or you look at Congress and you think
of corruption and incompetence. But don’t forget one
of the biggest reasons the BJP won is Narendra Modi himself. Voters wanted him
to be the face of India. So even though he’s known
for not taking questions from the press, the stakes of this election were so high,
even he had to sit down for an interview with one of the most feared journalists
in India, Bollywood star Akshay Kumar. The fashion statement you make
is very interesting. Have you styled it yourself? This is a good question. I want to know if you eat mangoes. I eat mangoes,
and I enjoy it very much. Okay, that sounds like a five-year-old
interviewing their doll. Akshay’s like, “Do you like mangoes? I like mangoes. Would you like some more tea?” He’s so charming, I almost forgot
about the Rafale scandal. Now, I totally get why Indians love Modi. He’s so Indian.
The day before voting ended, he climbed the Himalayan Mountains
and meditated in a shrine for 18 hours. He basically did what Americans think
Indians do all the time. Look, you may not agree with his politics,
but the man knows a good photo op. He’s like, “Look, I want to meditate.
Get the cameras ready.” THERE’S– FUCK– THIS IS A THREE CAMERA SHOOT! Look what they’re cutting. They had to cut wide on the walk.
They’re getting his lineup. They got his lineup! We have multiple angles inside
of a cave, you guys. The point is Modi is savvy and revered, and I know this because Indian trolls
are blowing up my mentions. They don’t like my sweater.
They don’t like my hand motions. This person just wants me to know
that I’m a son of a bitch. I love how he wrote, “Just so you know.” He’s like, “Hey, just FYI. You’re a son of a bitch.” But I picked up on a general theme. Modi supporters think I was trying
to swing the election. “Let me take this time
to thank Hasan Minhaj, who helped us elect
a right-wing government in India. Thank you.” Okay, let me make this very clear. Comedians can’t swing elections. This is insane. George W. Bush won twice
when Jon Stewart was on the air. We’re talking peak Stewart, you guys. He had black hair.
He had the shoulder pads. He took down Crossfire. Everyone was like,
“I get my news from J-Stew. He’s the truth-teller.” Meanwhile, Bush went back-to-back.
Comedians don’t do shit. But… I can’t go online without Desi trolls telling me
I ruined democracy. So clearly,
I didn’t need to go to Navika’s show. Navika’s show came to me. I think he made Modi win. Why is he talking about
Indian politics anyway? He has no clue about Narendra Modi.
He has no clue about BJP. This guy’s an anti-Indian. You are my least favorite
Daily Show correspondent. -Not funny.
-Excuse me. That is not the point.
Can I make my point? -Can I make my point?
-Make your point! It’s only Modi, Modi, Modi for him. I tried to tell him not
to talk about this, and he never listened to me. He’s a complete idiot and a buffoon. Why are you getting personal? Why are you getting personal? I’m sorry. I’m sorry. Let’s not get personal. Hasan Minhaj is a son of a bitch!

Pre-Islamic history of the Middle East

In the 14th century a muslim historian named Ibn Khaldun wrote about the ancient empires and how the first civilizations emerged along Major Rivers. The Huang Ho Valley in China, Indus River in Pakistan and more famously the Nile River in Egypt. The Historian wrote how these rivers allowed easy access to trade and commerce and from there grew into major cities and then to civilizations. But more interestingly, Ibn Khaldun wrote about the Pattern of history; Farmers would build irrigation system supporting villages and towns, later on some warrior would bring these towns under his rule and form a united political entity, like a kingdom or an empire. Then a tribe of Nomads would come along and conquer this kingdom and seize all the holdings and settle in their place and further expand the new empire. As time went by the nomads would assimilate and become soft city dwellers exactly the kind of people they had conquered before and at this point another tribe of Nomads would come along and conquer them and take their empire. Conquest, consolidation, expansion, degeneration and conquest. This was the Pattern Ibn Khaldun wrote about. The first civilization was the land between the rivers of Tigris and Euphrates, later known as Mesopotamia and Babylon. Less known are the Sumerians who started it all. They united the cities near the river of Euphrates into a single network called Sumer. They invented writing, the wheel, the cart, etc. Later, the Akkadians, a mountainous people to the north, conquered Sumer and their leader Sargon (of) Akkad became the first conqueror known by name. At the time this was the largest kingdom and Sargon famously said, “Now, any king who wants to call himself my equal, wherever I went, let him go” He basically said, let’s see anyone conquer as much as I have. His kingdom was smaller than Serbia. Later the Acadians were conquered by another nomadic tribe and the newcomers were then conquered by others and so it went on… the Gutians, Hurrians, Amorites, they all conquered, settled, expanded a little and then assimilated from warrior to city folk. But every conquest left something behind The Amorites founded the city of Babylon and from the City emerged the first Babylonian Empire. The Babylonians were pioneers in astronomy and mathematics. Then the Assyrian tribe to the North took it over and founded the Assyrian Empire. Their capital Nineveh is considered one of the greatest cities in antiquity. The assyrians made a number of innovations and improvements They erected the first library and used paved roads. They even came up with the first kind of imperial administration in which subject nations and vassals reported to a central authority. But the Assyrian Rulers also gained a reputation as merciless tyrants. Now, it’s hard to say if they were really worse than the other rulers in their time, but one of their strategies to keep the realm stable was by moving whole populations to other places. After a while the Assyrians lost their power to other tribes like the Sumerian descendants, Babylonians, Kassitites. These tribes fought each other for about two centuries until the Assyrians came back and re-established their empire and returned to their divide and rule strategy. Eventually the Assyrians fell to one of their subject nations, The Chaldeans. They rebuilt the second Babylonian Empire, and they’re well known for their achievements in astronomy, medicine, architecture and mathematics. In fact it was the Chaldeans who built the hanging gardens of Babylon one of the ancient seven world wonders. But the Chaldeans followed the same strategy as the Assyrians had by uprooting whole populations in order to divide and rule. It was the Chaldean King of Babylonia, Nebuchadnezzar who first smashed Jerusalem and dragged the Hebrews into captivity. Then came the invasion by the highland people to the east, the Persians and the Medes. The Babylonians were defeated and their infrastructure and political system was used to found the Persian Empire. The Persian emperor Cyrus the Great Had conquered the known world. His realm extended from the Nile to the Indus river. But the Persians are best known for their political reforms. They followed the opposite strategy of the Assyrians. They set the Hebrews free from captivity and resettled populations to their native lands. The Persians pursued a policy of multiculturalism. People were allowed to live however they saw fit and worship whatever gods they wanted, as long as they paid their taxes to the central authority. They issued a common currency and built a vast network of roads throughout the empire. The Persian libraries were so large that there is in fact more information about this period, 3,000 years ago than there is in Europe 1200 years ago. The Persian Empire also had its own unique religion. Zoroastrianism was founded in the region of Azerbaijan, meaning the land of fire. Zoroastrianism is often misunderstood for fire worshiping But the fire is a mere symbol for purity. The Zoroastrians basically believed in good and evil. That there was a heaven, and there was a hell. It was one of the earliest monotheistic religions. In the later era of the Persian Empire, They came in contact with the Greeks. The Greeks Supported revolts in the Persian Empire and this provoked the Persian emperor, Darius to punish the Greeks. Darius formed one of the largest armies ever but the size was more a liability than an advantage. There was no real effective way to direct so many men at such a distance. In the end it was the greeks who taught the Persians a lesson. But the lesson was quickly forgotten. Darius’ son Xerxes decided to Avenge his father by going after the greeks again. This is the war that involved the famous 300 Spartans. Darius repeated his father’s mistake and lost the war. 150 years later Alexander of Macedonia took the Battle the other way. He crippled the Persian army and quickly conquered all of Persia and thereby effectively conquered the known world. Alexander left a controversial mark, cities that had surrendered to him were left unharmed, but cities that resisted were pillaged. When he had conquered the Persian capital and the palace he burned it to the ground. Now this was one of the most prestigious buildings in the world. But on the other hand he built the lighthouse of Alexandria, one of the ancient seven world wonders. Alexander was planning to name Babylon his new capital and he also planned to fuse the greek and Persian cultures into one. He recommended his generals to take Persian wives but he died before he could implement this policy. And upon his death, his generals asked him, “Who should succeed you?” Alexander Replied, “The strongest”. His Empire broke in pieces among the Greek generals controlling it. Then the Greeks fought each other. Eventually the kingdoms weakened and the greek influence diminished. Persian identity resurfaced and another Empire was formed, Parthia. They didn’t exactly occupy the same size as the earlier Persian Empire but the Parthians use the existing political structure and established an empire. They later on assimilated into the Persian language and over time became Persians. The Parthians made no significant contribution to art and culture. Simply because they didn’t care for it. The Parthian were after all a nomadic warrior people. But what they lacked in culture they made up in warfare. They were the first to use cataphract, a knight in full metal armour riding an armoured horse. This would later on influence the Roman empire’s horsemen and from there, European feudal knights. But the Parthians also used light cavalry who would pretend to flee in the middle of a battle. This tricked the other army to break rank and chase after them. Then the Parthian Horsemen would suddenly turn wheel around and fire into their disorganised opponents. This would later be called the Parthian shot. They used these tactics and battled the roman empire to a standstill. When Christianity started to spread the Parthians didn’t care because they favoured Zoroastrianism. In the 3rd Century, a provincial rebel overthrew the last of the Parthians and founded the Sassanid Dynasty. And they too Quickly expanded and occupied the same territory as the Parthians had. The Sassanids reformed the Empire and erased the last traces of greek influence. They built enormous monuments, buildings and cities. Zoroastrianism became the official religion. In the same Era the Roman Empire was falling apart. The Roman Emperor split the Empire in two for administrative purposes but all the wealth was in the east and when the germanic tribes moved into the western parts of the empire, the government shrank, law and order broke down, trade decayed and eventually the western part of the Roman Empire collapsed and Europe entered the dark ages. But the Eastern part of the Roman Empire still lived on however the identity Between Roman and Greek was so vague that historians gave it a new name, The Byzantine Empire. The Byzantinians kept the Roman culture but didn’t improve on it. For example, most people can name Roman and Greek poets and philosophers like Plato, Aristotle, Julius Caesar, Augustus, etc. But few people can name two Byzantinian poets. This empire lasted more than a thousand years but few people can name five events that took place in the empire. Still Byzantium was a superpower back then, the other being the Persian empire. They fought each other in multiple Wars which generally ended in a stalemate. But both these empires neglected the developments to their Southern neighbours. The Arabian peninsula which was about to awaken. This was a Caspian report by me Shiron. Thank you for watching. Salut!

China’s trillion dollar plan to dominate global trade

There’s a new highway in Pakistan. And a new rail terminal in Kazakhstan. A sea port in Sri Lanka recently opened. As well as this bridge in rural Laos. What’s interesting is that they’re all
part of one country’s project that spans 3 continents and touches over 60% of the world’s
population. If you connect the dots, it’s not hard to
see which country that is. This is China’s Belt and Road Initiative — the
most ambitious infrastructure project in modern history that’s designed to reroute global
trade. It’s how China plans to become the world’s
next superpower. It’s 2013 and Chinese president, Xi Jinping is giving a speech in Kazakhstan where he
mentions the Ancient Silk Road: A network of trade routes that spread goods,
ideas, and culture across Europe, the Middle East, and China as far back as 200 BC. He then says: “we should take an innovative approach and
jointly build an economic belt along the Silk Road”
A month later, Xi is in Indonesia: “The two sides should work together to build a maritime silk road for the 21st century” These two phrases were the first mentions
of Xi’s legacy project, the multi-trillion dollar Belt and Road Initiative, or BRI. They’re also the two components of the plan. There’s an overland Economic Belt of 6 corridors
that serves as new routes to get goods in and out of China. Like this railroad connecting China to London. And these gas pipelines from the Caspian sea to
China And a high-speed train network in South East
Asia. Then there’s the maritime silk road — a
chain of seaports stretching from the South China Sea to Africa that also directs trade
to and from China. The BRI also includes oil refineries, industrial
parks, power plants, mines, and fiber-optic networks – all designed to make it easier
for the world to trade with China. So far, over 60 countries have reportedly
signed agreements for these projects. And the list is growing, because China promotes
it as a win-win for everyone. Take, for example, the BRI’s flagship project:
Pakistan. Pause for Pakistan
Like many countries in Central and South Asia, Pakistan has a stagnant economy, and a corruption
problem. It wasn’t a popular place for foreign investment,
that is until China came along. In 2001, China offered to build a brand new
port in the small fishing town of Gwadar. By 2018, the port as well as highway and railway
networks became a $62 billion dollar Corridor within the BRI. It’s where the Economic Belt meets the Maritime
Silk Road. And it seemed to benefit both countries. Pakistan saw its highest GDP growth in 8 years
and forged a tight relationship with a major world power. China, on the other hand, secured a new alternative
route for goods, especially, oil and gas from the Middle East. Through projects like these, it also found
a way to boost its economy. Chinese construction companies that had fewer
opportunities within their own country saw a huge boost from BRI contracts — 7 out
of the 10 biggest construction firms in the world are now Chinese. What tips the balance in China’s favor even
more is a requirement that it be involved in building these projects. In Pakistan for example, Chinese workers have
directly built projects, like this highway here, and a Chinese firm has worked with locals
on a railway here in Serbia. China’s involvement is one of its very few
demands and that’s set these deals apart so far. See, typically, to get investment from the
West, countries have to meet strict ethical standards. But China’s offered billions of dollars
— mostly in loans — with far fewer conditions. So, it’s no surprise the BRI has been a
big hit with the less-democratic countries in the region. China has signed agreements with Authoritarian
governments Military regimes. And some of the most corrupt countries in
the world. It’s even affiliated with, Afghanistan,
Ukraine, Yemen, and Iraq; all currently splintered by conflict. Because of China’s willingness to loan money
to unreliable countries, many experts have called the BRI a risky plan. Eventually, these countries will have to pay
China back — but corruption and conflict make that payback unlikely. A recent report found that many countries
indebted to China are vulnerable, including 8 that are at high risk of being unable to
pay. So why does China keep lending? Because there’s more to the BRI than just
economics: In Sri Lanka, China loaned about 1.5 billion dollars for a new deep-water port. It was a key stop on the Maritime Silk Road. But by 2017 it was clear Sri Lanka couldn’t
pay back the loan, so instead, they gave China control of the port as part of a 99-year lease. China also controls the strategic port in
Pakistan – where it has a 40-year lease, It’s pushing for a similar agreement in Myanmar,
and it just opened an actual Chinese naval base in Djibouti. These are all signs of what’s called the
String of Pearls theory. It predicts that China is trying to establish
a string of naval bases in the Indian Ocean that will allow it to station ships and guard
shipping routes that move through the region. So while China’s not getting its money back,
its still achieving some very important strategic goals. China’s growing influence challenges the
status of the US, which has been the world’s lone super-power for the last several decades. Isolation is trending in the US meaning it’s
investing less and therefore losing influence around the world. The BRI is China’s way of leveraging power
to become a global leader. By building relationships and taking control
of global trade, China is well on its way.

Pakistan | Wikipedia audio article

Pakistan (Urdu: پاکِستان‬‎), officially
the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (Urdu: اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان‬‎), is
a country in South Asia. It is the sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding
212,742,631 people. In area, it is the 33rd-largest country, spanning 881,913 square kilometres
(340,509 square miles). Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre (650-mile) coastline along the Arabian Sea
and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west,
Iran to the southwest, and China in the far northeast. It is separated narrowly from Tajikistan
by Afghanistan’s Wakhan Corridor in the northwest, and also shares a maritime border with Oman.
The territory that now constitutes Pakistan was the site of several ancient cultures and
intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent. The ancient history involves
the Neolithic site of Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation, and was later
home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including Hindus, Indo-Greeks,
Muslims, Turco-Mongols, Afghans, and Sikhs. The area has been ruled by numerous empires
and dynasties, including the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander III of Macedon, the Seleucid
Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, the Gupta Empire, the Arab Umayyad Caliphate, the Delhi
Sultanate, the Mongol Empire, the Mughal Empire, the Afghan Durrani Empire, the Sikh Empire
(partially), and, most recently, the British Empire.
Pakistan is the only country to have been created in the name of Islam. As a result
of the Pakistan Movement led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah and the Indian subcontinent’s struggle
for independence, the sovereign state of Pakistan was created in 1947 as an independent homeland
for Indian Muslims. It is an ethnically and linguistically diverse country, with a similarly
diverse geography and wildlife. Initially a dominion, Pakistan adopted a constitution
in 1956, becoming an Islamic republic. An ethnic civil war in 1971 resulted in the secession
of East Pakistan as the new country of Bangladesh. In 1973 Pakistan adopted a new constitution
establishing, alongside its pre-existing parliamentary republic status, a federal government based
in Islamabad consisting of four provinces and three federal territories. The new constitution
also stipulated that all laws are to conform to the injunctions of Islam as laid down in
the Quran and Sunnah.A regional and middle power, Pakistan has the sixth-largest standing
armed forces in the world and is also a nuclear power as well as a declared nuclear-weapons
state, the second in South Asia and the only nation in the Muslim world to have that status.
Pakistan has a semi-industrialised economy with a well-integrated agriculture sector
and a growing services sector. The Pakistani economy is the 24th-largest in the world in
terms of purchasing power and the 41st-largest in terms of nominal GDP (World Bank). It is
ranked among the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world, and is backed by one
of the world’s largest and fastest-growing middle class.Pakistan’s political history
since independence has been characterized by periods of military rule, political instability
and conflicts with India. The country continues to face challenging problems, including overpopulation,
terrorism, poverty, illiteracy, and corruption. Pakistan is a member of the United Nations,
the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Organisation of
Islamic Cooperation, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Economic Cooperation Organisation, the
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, the Asia–Europe Meeting, the Developing
Eight, and the G20 developing nations, Group of 24, Group of 77, and ECOSOC. It is also
an associate member of CERN. Pakistan is a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol, the Paris
Agreement, and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.==Etymology==The name Pakistan literally means “land of
the pure” in Urdu and Persian. It alludes to the word pāk meaning pure in Persian and
Pashto. The suffix ـستان (-stān) is a Persian word meaning the place of, and also
recalls the synonymous (and cognate) Sanskrit word sthāna स्थान.The name of the
country was coined in 1933 as Pakstan by Choudhry Rahmat Ali, a Pakistan Movement activist,
who published it in his pamphlet Now or Never, using it as an acronym (“thirty million Muslim
brethren who live in PAKSTAN”) referring to the names of the five northern regions of
British India: Punjab, Afghania, Kashmir, Sindh, and Baluchistan. The letter i was incorporated
to ease pronunciation.==History=====
Early and medieval age===Some of the earliest ancient human civilisations
in South Asia originated from areas encompassing present-day Pakistan. The earliest known inhabitants
in the region were Soanian during the Lower Paleolithic, of whom stone tools have been
found in the Soan Valley of Punjab. The Indus region, which covers most of present day Pakistan,
was the site of several successive ancient cultures including the Neolithic Mehrgarh
and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation (2,800–1,800 BCE) at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro. The Vedic period (1500–500 BCE) was characterised
by an Indo-Aryan culture; during this period the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated
with Hinduism, were composed, and this culture later became well established in the region.
Multan was an important Hindu pilgrimage centre. The Vedic civilisation flourished in the ancient
Gandhāran city of Takṣaśilā, now Taxila in the Punjab, which was founded around 1000
BCE. Successive ancient empires and kingdoms ruled the region: the Persian Achaemenid Empire
(around 519 BCE), Alexander the Great’s empire in 326 BCE and the Maurya Empire, founded
by Chandragupta Maurya and extended by Ashoka the Great, until 185 BCE. The Indo-Greek Kingdom
founded by Demetrius of Bactria (180–165 BCE) included Gandhara and Punjab and reached
its greatest extent under Menander (165–150 BCE), prospering the Greco-Buddhist culture
in the region. Taxila had one of the earliest universities and centres of higher education
in the world, which was established during the late Vedic period in 6th century BCE.
The school consisted of several monasteries without large dormitories or lecture halls
where the religious instruction was provided on an individualistic basis. The ancient university
was documented by the invading forces of Alexander the Great, “the like of which had not been
seen in Greece,” and was also recorded by Chinese pilgrims in the 4th or 5th century
CE.At its zenith, the Rai Dynasty (489–632 CE) of Sindh ruled this region and the surrounding
territories. The Pala Dynasty was the last Buddhist empire, which, under Dharmapala and
Devapala, stretched across South Asia from what is now Bangladesh through Northern India
to Pakistan. The Arab conqueror Muhammad bin Qasim conquered
Sindh in 711 CE. The Pakistan government’s official chronology claims this as the time
when the foundation of Pakistan was laid but the concept of Pakistan came in 19th century.The
Early Medieval period (642–1219 CE) witnessed the spread of Islam in the region. During
this period, Sufi missionaries played a pivotal role in converting a majority of the regional
Buddhist and Hindu population to Islam. These developments set the stage for the rule of
several successive Muslim empires in the region, including the Ghaznavid Empire (975–1187
CE), the Ghorid Kingdom, and the Delhi Sultanate (1206–1526 CE). The Lodi dynasty, the last
of the Delhi Sultanate, was replaced by the Mughal Empire (1526–1857 CE). The Mughals introduced Persian literature
and high culture, establishing the roots of Indo-Persian culture in the region. From the
region of modern-day Pakistan, key cities during the Mughal rule were Lahore and Thatta,
both of which were chosen as the site of impressive Mughal buildings. In the early 16th century,
the region remained under the Mughal Empire ruled by Muslim emperors. By the early 18th
century, increasing European influence contributed to the slow disintegration of the Mughal Empire
as the lines between commercial and political dominance became increasingly blurred.During
this time, the English East India Company had established coastal outposts. Control
over the seas, greater resources, technology, and British military protection led the Company
to increasingly flex its military muscle, allowing the Company to gain control over
the subcontinent by 1765 and sideline European competitors. Expanding access beyond Bengal
and the subsequent increased strength and size of its army enabled it to annex or subdue
most of region by the 1820s. Many historians see this as the start of the region’s colonial
period. By this time, with its economic power severely curtailed by the British parliament
and itself effectively made an arm of British administration, the Company began more deliberately
to enter non-economic arenas such as education, social reform, and culture. Such reforms included
the enforcement of the English Education Act in 1835 and the introduction of the Indian
Civil Service (ICS). Traditional madrasahs—primary institutions of higher learning for Muslims
in the subcontinent—were no longer supported by the English Crown, and nearly all of the
madrasahs lost their financial endowment.===Colonial period===The gradual decline of the Mughal Empire in
the early 18th century enabled the Sikh Empire to control larger areas until the British
East India Company gained ascendancy over South Asia. A rebellion in 1857 called the
Sepoy mutiny of Bengal was the region’s major armed struggle against the British Empire
and Queen Victoria. Divergence in the relationship between Hinduism and Islam created a major
rift in British India that led to motivated religious violence in British India. The language
controversy further escalated the tensions between Hindus and Muslims. The Hindu renaissance
witnessed an awakening of intellectualism in traditional Hinduism and saw the emergence
of more assertive influence in the social and political spheres in British India. An
intellectual movement to counter the Hindu renaissance was led by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan,
who helped found the All-India Muslim League in 1901 and envisioned, as well as advocated
for, the two-nation theory. In contrast to the Indian National Congress’s anti-British
efforts, the Muslim League was a pro-British movement whose political program inherited
the British values that would shape Pakistan’s future civil society. In events during World
War I, British Intelligence foiled an anti-English conspiracy involving the nexus of Congress
and the German Empire. The largely non-violent independence struggle led by the Indian Congress
engaged millions of protesters in mass campaigns of civil disobedience in the 1920s and 1930s
against the British Empire.The Muslim League slowly rose to mass popularity in the 1930s
amid fears of under-representation and neglect of British Muslims in politics. In his presidential
address of 29 December 1930, Allama Iqbal called for “the amalgamation of North-West
Muslim-majority Indian states” consisting of Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, Sind,
and Baluchistan. The perceived neglect of Muslim interests by Congress led British provincial
governments during the period of 1937–39 convinced Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder
of Pakistan to espouse the two-nation theory and led the Muslim League to adopt the Lahore
Resolution of 1940 presented by Sher-e-Bangla A.K. Fazlul Haque, popularly known as the
Pakistan Resolution. In World War II, Jinnah and British-educated founding fathers in the
Muslim League supported the United Kingdom’s war efforts, countering opposition against
it whilst working towards Sir Syed’s vision.===Pakistan Movement===The 1946 elections resulted in the Muslim
League winning 90 percent of the seats reserved for Muslims. Thus, the 1946 election was effectively
a plebiscite in which the Indian Muslims were to vote on the creation of Pakistan, a plebiscite
won by the Muslim League. This victory was assisted by the support given to the Muslim
League by the support of the landowners of Sindh and Punjab. The Congress, which initially
denied the Muslim League’s claim of being the sole representative of Indian Muslims,
was now forced to recognise the fact. The British had no alternative except to take
Jinnah’s views into account as he had emerged as the sole spokesperson of the
Entire British India’s Muslims. However, the British did not want British India to be partitioned,
and in one last effort to prevent it they devised the Cabinet Mission plan.As the cabinet
mission failed, the British government announced its intention to end the British Rule in 1946–47.
Nationalists in British India—including Jawaharlal Nehru and Abul Kalam Azad of Congress,
Jinnah of the All-India Muslim League, and Master Tara Singh representing the Sikhs—agreed
to the proposed terms of transfer of power and independence in June 1947 with the Viceroy
of India, Lord Mountbatten of Burma. As the United Kingdom agreed to the partitioning
of India in 1947, the modern state of Pakistan was established on 14 August 1947 (27th of
Ramadan in 1366 of the Islamic Calendar), amalgamating the Muslim-majority eastern and
northwestern regions of British India. It comprised the provinces of Balochistan, East
Bengal, the North-West Frontier Province, West Punjab, and Sindh.In the riots that accompanied
the partition in Punjab Province, it is believed that between 200,000 and 2,000,000 people
were killed in what some have described as a retributive genocide between the religions
while 50,000 Muslim women were abducted and raped by Hindu and Sikh men and 33,000 Hindu
and Sikh women also experienced the same fate at the hands of Muslims. Around 6.5 million
Muslims moved from India to West Pakistan and 4.7 million Hindus and Sikhs moved from
West Pakistan to India. It was the largest mass migration in human history. Dispute over
Jammu and Kashmir led to the First Kashmir War in 1948.===Independence and modern Pakistan===After independence in 1947, Jinnah, the President
of the Muslim League, became the nation’s first Governor-General as well as the first
President-Speaker of the Parliament, but he died of tuberculosis on 11 September 1948.
Meanwhile, Pakistan’s founding fathers agreed to appoint Liaquat Ali Khan, the secretary-general
of the party, the nation’s first Prime Minister. With dominion status in the Commonwealth of
Nations, independent Pakistan had two British monarchs before it became a republic.The creation
of Pakistan was never fully accepted by many British leaders, among them Lord Mountbatten.
Mountbatten clearly expressed his lack of support and faith in the Muslim League’s idea
of Pakistan. Jinnah refused Mountbatten’s offer to serve as Governor-General of Pakistan.
When Mountbatten was asked by Collins and Lapierre if he would have sabotaged Pakistan
had he known that Jinnah was dying of tuberculosis, he replied ‘most probably’.Maulana Shabbir
Ahmad Usmani, a respected Deobandi alim (scholar) who occupied the position of Shaykh al-Islam
in Pakistan in 1949, and Maulana Mawdudi of Jamaat-i-Islami played a pivotal role in the
demand for an Islamic constitution. Mawdudi demanded that the Constituent Assembly make
an explicit declaration affirming the “supreme sovereignty of God” and the supremacy of the
shariah in Pakistan.A significant result of the efforts of the Jamaat-i-Islami and the
ulama was the passage of the Objectives Resolution in March 1949. The Objectives Resolution,
which Liaquat Ali Khan called the second most important step in Pakistan’s history, declared
that “sovereignty over the entire universe belongs to God Almighty alone and the authority
which He has delegated to the State of Pakistan through its people for being exercised within
the limits prescribed by Him is a sacred trust”. The Objectives Resolution has been incorporated
as a preamble to the constitutions of 1956, 1962, and 1973.Democracy was stalled by the
martial law that had been enforced by President Iskander Mirza, who was replaced by army chief,
General Ayub Khan. After adopting a presidential system in 1962, the country experienced exceptional
growth until a second war with India in 1965 that led to an economic downturn and wide-scale
public disapproval in 1967. Consolidating control from Ayub Khan in 1969, President
Yahya Khan had to deal with a devastating cyclone that caused 500,000 deaths in East
Pakistan. In 1970 Pakistan held its first democratic
elections since independence, meant to mark a transition from military rule to democracy,
but after the East Pakistani Awami League won against the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP),
Yahya Khan and the military establishment refused to hand over power. Operation Searchlight,
a military crackdown on the Bengali nationalist movement, led to a declaration of independence
and the waging of a war of liberation by the Bengali Mukti Bahini forces in East Pakistan.
However, in West Pakistan the conflict was described as a civil war as opposed to a war
of liberation.Independent researchers estimate that between 300,000 and 500,000 civilians
died during this period while the Bangladesh government puts the number of dead at three
million, a figure that is now nearly universally regarded as excessively inflated. Some academics
such as Rudolph Rummel and Rounaq Jahan say both sides committed genocide; others such
as Richard Sisson and Leo E. Rose believe there was no genocide. In response to India’s
support for the insurgency in East Pakistan, preemptive strikes on India by Pakistan’s
air force, navy, and marines sparked a conventional war in 1971 that resulted in an Indian victory
and East Pakistan gaining independence as Bangladesh.With Pakistan surrendering in the
war, Yahya Khan was replaced by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto as president; the country worked towards
promulgating its constitution and putting the country on the road to democracy. Democratic
rule resumed from 1972 to 1977—an era of self-consciousness, intellectual leftism,
nationalism, and nationwide reconstruction. In 1972 Pakistan embarked on an ambitious
plan to develop its nuclear deterrence capability with the goal of preventing any foreign invasion;
the country’s first nuclear power plant was inaugurated in that same year. Accelerated
in response to India’s first nuclear test in 1974, this crash program was completed
in 1979.Democracy ended with a military coup in 1977 against the leftist PPP, which saw
General Zia-ul-Haq become the president in 1978. From 1977 to 1988, President Zia’s corporatisation
and economic Islamisation initiatives led to Pakistan becoming one of the fastest-growing
economies in South Asia. While building up the country’s nuclear program, increasing
Islamisation, and the rise of a homegrown conservative philosophy, Pakistan helped subsidise
and distribute US resources to factions of the mujahideen against the USSR’s intervention
in communist Afghanistan. Pakistan’s North-West Frontier Province became a base for the anti-Soviet
Afghan fighters, with the province’s influential Deobandi ulama playing a significant role
in encouraging and organising the ‘jihad’.President Zia died in a plane crash in 1988, and Benazir
Bhutto, daughter of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, was elected as the country’s first female Prime
Minister. The PPP was followed by conservative Pakistan Muslim League (N), and over the next
decade the leaders of the two parties fought for power, alternating in office while the
country’s situation worsened; economic indicators fell sharply, in contrast to the 1980s. This
period is marked by prolonged stagflation, instability, corruption, nationalism, geopolitical
rivalry with India, and the clash of left wing-right wing ideologies. As PML(N) secured
a supermajority in elections in 1997, Sharif authorised nuclear testings (See:Chagai-I
and Chagai-II), as a retaliation to the second nuclear tests ordered by India, led by Prime
Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee in May 1998. Military tension between the two countries
in the Kargil district led to the Kargil War of 1999, and turmoil in civic-military relations
allowed General Pervez Musharraf to take over through a bloodless coup d’état. Musharraf
governed Pakistan as chief executive from 1999 to 2001 and as President from 2001 to
2008—a period of enlightenment, social liberalism, extensive economic reforms, and direct involvement
in the US-led war on terrorism. When the National Assembly historically completed its first
full five-year term on 15 November 2007, the new elections were called by the Election
Commission.After the assassination of Benazir Bhutto in 2007, the PPP secured the most votes
in the elections of 2008, appointing party member Yousaf Raza Gillani as Prime Minister.
Threatened with impeachment, President Musharraf resigned on 18 August 2008, and was succeeded
by Asif Ali Zardari. Clashes with the judicature prompted Gillani’s disqualification from the
Parliament and as the Prime Minister in June 2012. By its own financial calculations, Pakistan’s
involvement in the war on terrorism has cost up to ~$118 billion, sixty thousand casualties
and more than 1.8 million displaced civilians. The general election held in 2013 saw the
PML(N) almost achieve a supermajority, following which Nawaz Sharif was elected as the Prime
Minister, returning to the post for the third time in fourteen years, in a democratic transition.
In 2018, Imran Khan (the chairman of PTI) won the Pakistan general election, 2018 with
116 general seats and became the 22nd Prime Minister of Pakistan in election of National
Assembly of Pakistan for Prime Minister by getting 176 votes against Shehbaz Sharif (the
chairman of PMLN) who got 96 votes.==Role of Islam in Pakistan==The idea of Pakistan, which had received overwhelming
popular support among Indian Muslims, especially those in the provinces of British India where
Muslims were in a minority such as the United Provinces., was articulated in terms of an
Islamic state by the Muslim League leadership, the ulama (Islamic clergy) and Jinnah. Jinnah
had developed a close association with the ulama and upon his death was described by
one such alim, Maulana Shabbir Ahmad Usmani, as the greatest Muslim after Aurangzeb and
as someone who desired to unite the Muslims of the world under the banner of Islam.The
Objectives Resolution in March 1949, which declared God as the sole sovereign over the
entire universe, represented the first formal step to transform Pakistan into an Islamic
state. Muslim League leader Chaudhry Khaliquzzaman asserted that Pakistan could only truly become
an Islamic state after bringing all believers of Islam into a single political unit. Keith
Callard, one of the earliest scholars on Pakistani politics, observed that Pakistanis believed
in the essential unity of purpose and outlook in the Muslim world and assumed that Muslim
from other countries would share their views on the relationship between religion and nationality. However, Pakistan’s pan-Islamist sentiments
for a united Islamic bloc called Islamistan were not shared by other Muslim governments,
although Islamists such as the Grand Mufti of Palestine, Al-Haj Amin al-Husseini, and
leaders of the Muslim Brotherhood, became drawn to the country. Pakistan’s desire for
an international organization of Muslim countries was fulfilled in the 1970s when the Organization
of Islamic Conference (OIC) was formed.The strongest opposition to the Islamist ideological
paradigm being imposed on the state came from the Bengali Muslims of East Pakistan whose
educated class, according to a survey by social scientist Nasim Ahmad Jawed, preferred secularism
and focused on ethnic identity unlike educated West Pakistanis who tended to prefer an Islamic
identity. The Islamist party Jamaat-e-Islami considered Pakistan to be an Islamic state
and believed Bengali nationalism to be unacceptable. In the 1971 conflict over East Pakistan the
Jamaat-e-Islami fought the Bengali nationalists on the Pakistan Army’s side.After Pakistan’s
first ever general elections the 1973 Constitution was created by an elected Parliament. The
Constitution declared Pakistan an Islamic Republic and Islam as the state religion.
It also stated that all laws would have to be brought into accordance with the injunctions
of Islam as laid down in the Quran and Sunnah and that no law repugnant to such injunctions
could be enacted. The 1973 Constitution also created certain institutions such as the Shariat
Court and the Council of Islamic Ideology to channel the interpretation and application
of Islam.Pakistan’s leftist Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto faced vigorous opposition
which coalesced into a movement united under the revivalist banner of Nizam-e-Mustafa (“Rule
of the prophet”) which aimed to establish an Islamic state based on Sharia laws. Bhutto
agreed to some Islamist demands before being overthrown in a coup.In 1977 after taking
power from Bhutto in a coup de’tat, General Zia-ul-Haq, who came from a religious background,
committed himself to establishing an Islamic state and enforcing sharia law. Zia established
separate Shariat judicial courts and court benches to judge legal cases using Islamic
doctrine. Zia bolstered the influence of the ulama (Islamic clergy) and the Islamic parties.
Zia-ul-Haq forged a strong alliance between the military and Deobandi institutions and
even though most Barelvi ulama and only a few Deobandi scholars had supported Pakistan’s
creation, Islamic state politics came to be mostly in favour of Deobandi (and later Ahl-e-Hadith/Salafi)
institutions instead of Barelvi. Sectarian tensions increased with Zia’s anti-Shia policies.According
to a PEW opinion poll a majority of Pakistanis support making Sharia the official law of
the land. In a survey of several Muslim countries, the PEW Research Centre also found that Pakistanis
tend to identify with their religion more than their nationality in contrast to Muslims
in other nations such as Egypt, Indonesia and Jordan.==Geography, environment and climate==The geography and climate of Pakistan are
extremely diverse, and the country is home to a wide variety of wildlife. Pakistan covers
an area of 881,913 km2 (340,509 sq mi), approximately equal to the combined land areas of France
and the United Kingdom. It is the 33rd-largest nation by total area, although this ranking
varies depending on how the disputed territory of Kashmir is counted. Pakistan has a 1,046
km (650 mi) coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and land
borders of 6,774 km (4,209 mi) in total: 2,430 km (1,510 mi) with Afghanistan, 523 km (325
mi) with China, 2,912 km (1,809 mi) with India and 909 km (565 mi) with Iran. It shares a
marine border with Oman, and is separated from Tajikistan by the cold, narrow Wakhan
Corridor. Pakistan occupies a geopolitically important location at the crossroads of South
Asia, the Middle East, and Central Asia.Geologically, Pakistan is located in the Indus–Tsangpo
Suture Zone and overlaps the Indian tectonic plate in its Sindh and Punjab provinces; Balochistan
and most of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa are within the Eurasian plate, mainly on the Iranian
plateau. Gilgit–Baltistan and Azad Kashmir lie along the edge of the Indian plate and
hence are prone to violent earthquakes. This region has the highest rates of seismicity
and largest earthquakes in the Himalaya region. Ranging from the coastal areas of the south
to the glaciated mountains of the north, Pakistan’s landscapes vary from plains to deserts, forests,
hills, and plateaus. Pakistan is divided into three major geographic
areas: the northern highlands, the Indus River plain, and the Balochistan Plateau. The northern
highlands contain the Karakoram, Hindu Kush, and Pamir mountain ranges (see mountains of
Pakistan), which contain some of the world’s highest peaks, including five of the fourteen
eight-thousanders (mountain peaks over 8,000 metres or 26,250 feet), which attract adventurers
and mountaineers from all over the world, notably K2 (8,611 m or 28,251 ft) and Nanga
Parbat (8,126 m or 26,660 ft). The Balochistan Plateau lies in the west and the Thar Desert
in the east. The 1,609 km (1,000 mi) Indus River and its tributaries flow through the
country from the Kashmir region to the Arabian Sea. There is an expanse of alluvial plains
along it in the Punjab and Sindh.The climate varies from tropical to temperate, with arid
conditions in the coastal south. There is a monsoon season with frequent flooding due
to heavy rainfall, and a dry season with significantly less rainfall or none at all. There are four
distinct seasons in Pakistan: a cool, dry winter from December through February; a hot,
dry spring from March through May; the summer rainy season, or southwest monsoon period,
from June through September; and the retreating monsoon period of October and November. Rainfall
varies greatly from year to year, and patterns of alternate flooding and drought are common.===Flora and fauna===The diversity of the landscape and climate
in Pakistan allows a wide variety of trees and plants to flourish. The forests range
from coniferous alpine and subalpine trees such as spruce, pine, and deodar cedar in
the extreme northern mountains to deciduous trees in most of the country (for example,
the mulberry-like shisham found in the Sulaiman Mountains), to palms such as coconut and date
in the southern Punjab, southern Balochistan, and all of Sindh. The western hills are home
to juniper, tamarisk, coarse grasses, and scrub plants. Mangrove forests form much of
the coastal wetlands along the coast in the south.Coniferous forests are found at altitudes
ranging from 1,000 to 4,000 metres (3,300 to 13,100 feet) in most of the northern and
northwestern highlands. In the xeric regions of Balochistan, date palm and Ephedra are
common. In most of the Punjab and Sindh, the Indus plains support tropical and subtropical
dry and moist broadleaf forest as well as tropical and xeric shrublands. These forests
are mostly of mulberry, acacia, and eucalyptus. About 2.2% or 1,687,000 hectares (16,870 km2)
of Pakistan was forested in 2010. The fauna of Pakistan also reflects the country’s
varied climate. Around 668 bird species are found there, including crows, sparrows, mynas,
hawks, falcons, and eagles. Palas, Kohistan, has a significant population of western tragopan.
Many birds sighted in Pakistan are migratory, coming from Europe, Central Asia, and India.The
southern plains are home to mongooses, small Indian civet, hares, the Asiatic jackal, the
Indian pangolin, the jungle cat, and the desert cat. There are mugger crocodiles in the Indus,
and wild boar, deer, porcupines, and small rodents in the surrounding areas. The sandy
scrublands of central Pakistan are home to Asiatic jackals, striped hyenas, wildcats,
and leopards. The lack of vegetative cover, the severe climate, and the impact of grazing
on the deserts have left wild animals in a precarious position. The chinkara is the only
animal that can still be found in significant numbers in Cholistan. A small number of nilgai
are found along the Pakistan–India border and in some parts of Cholistan. A wide variety
of animals live in the mountainous north, including the Marco Polo sheep, the urial
(a subspecies of wild sheep), the markhor goat, the ibex goat, the Asian black bear,
and the Himalayan brown bear. Among the rare animals found in the area are the snow leopard
and the blind Indus river dolphin, of which there are believed to be about 1,100 remaining,
protected at the Indus River Dolphin Reserve in Sindh. In total, 174 mammals, 177 reptiles,
22 amphibians, 198 freshwater fish species and 5,000 species of invertebrates (including
insects) have been recorded in Pakistan.The flora and fauna of Pakistan suffer from a
number of problems. Pakistan has the second-highest rate of deforestation in the world, which,
along with hunting and pollution, has had adverse effects on the ecosystem. The government
has established a large number of protected areas, wildlife sanctuaries, and game reserves
to address these issues.==Government and politics==Pakistan’s political experience is essentially
related to the struggle of Indian Muslims to regain the power they lost to British colonisation.
Pakistan is a democratic parliamentary federal republic, with Islam as the state religion.
The first constitution was adopted in 1956 but suspended by Ayub Khan in 1958, who replaced
it with the second constitution in 1962. A complete and comprehensive constitution was
adopted in 1973—it was suspended by Zia-ul-Haq in 1977 but reinstated in 1985—is the country’s
most important document, laying the foundations of the current government. The Pakistani military
establishment has played an influential role in mainstream politics throughout Pakistan’s
political history. The periods 1958–1971, 1977–1988, and 1999–2008 saw military
coups that resulted in the imposition of martial law and military commanders who governed as
de facto presidents. Today Pakistan has a multi-party parliamentary system with clear
division of powers and checks and balances among the branches of government. The first
successful democratic transition occurred in May 2013. Politics in Pakistan is centred
on, and dominated by, a homegrown social philosophy comprising a blend of ideas from socialism,
conservatism, and the third way. As of the general elections held in 2013, the three
main political parties in the country are: the centre-right conservative Pakistan Muslim
League-N; the centre-left socialist PPP; and the centrist and third-way Pakistan Movement
for Justice (PTI). Head of State: The President, who is elected
by an Electoral College is the ceremonial head of the state and is the civilian commander-in-chief
of the Pakistan Armed Forces (with the Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee as principal
military adviser), but military appointments and key confirmations in the armed forces
are made by the Prime Minister after reviewing the reports on candidates’ merit and performance.
Almost all appointed officers in the judicature, military, the chairman joint chiefs, joint
staff, and legislature require the executive confirmation from the Prime Minister, whom
the President must consult by law. However, the powers to pardon and grant clemency lie
with the President of Pakistan. Legislative: The bicameral legislature comprises
a 104-member Senate (upper house) and a 342-member National Assembly (lower house). Members of
the National Assembly are elected through the first-past-the-post system under universal
adult suffrage, representing electoral districts known as National Assembly constituencies.
According to the constitution, the 70 seats reserved for women and religious minorities
are allocated to the political parties according to their proportional representation. Senate
members are elected by provincial legislators, with all the provinces having equal representation.
Executive: The Prime Minister is usually the leader of the majority rule party or a coalition
in the National Assembly— the lower house. The Prime Minister serves as the head of government
and is designated to exercise as the country’s chief executive. The Prime Minister is responsible
for appointing a cabinet consisting of ministers and advisers as well as running the government
operations, taking and authorising executive decisions, appointments and recommendations
of senior civil servants that require executive confirmation of the Prime Minister.
Provincial governments: Each of the four province has a similar system of government, with a
directly elected Provincial Assembly in which the leader of the largest party or coalition
is elected Chief Minister. Chief Ministers oversee the provincial governments and head
the provincial cabinet. It is common in Pakistan to have different ruling parties or coalitions
in each of the provinces. The provincial bureaucracy is headed by the Chief Secretary, who is appointed
by the Prime Minister. The provincial assemblies have power to make laws and approve the provincial
budget which is commonly presented by the provincial finance minister every fiscal year.
Provincial governors who are the ceremonial heads of the provinces are appointed by the
President. Judicature: The judiciary of Pakistan is a
hierarchical system with two classes of courts: the superior (or higher) judiciary and the
subordinate (or lower) judiciary. The Chief Justice of Pakistan is the chief judge who
oversees the judicature’s court system at all levels of command. The superior judiciary
is composed of the Supreme Court of Pakistan, the Federal Shariat Court and five High Courts,
with the Supreme Court at the apex. The Constitution of Pakistan entrusts the superior judiciary
with the obligation to preserve, protect and defend the constitution. Neither the Supreme
Court nor a High Court may exercise jurisdiction in relation to Tribal Areas, except otherwise
provided for. The disputed regions of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit–Baltistan have separate
court systems.===Foreign relations===As the Muslim world’s second most populous
nation-state (after Indonesia) and its only nuclear power state, Pakistan has an important
role in the international community. With a semi-agricultural and semi-industrialized
economy, its foreign policy determines its standard of interactions for its organisations,
corporations, and individual citizens. Its geostrategic intentions were explained by
Jinnah in a broadcast message in 1947, which is featured in a prominent quotation on the
homepage of Pakistan’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs website: “The foundation of our foreign
policy is friendship with all nations across the globe.”Since Independence, Pakistan has
attempted to balance its relations with foreign nations. Pakistan is a strong ally of China,
with both countries placing considerable importance on the maintenance of an extremely close and
supportive special relationship. It is also a major non-NATO ally of the United States
in the war against terrorism—a status achieved in 2004. Pakistan’s foreign policy and geostrategy
mainly focus on the economy and security against threats to its national identity and territorial
integrity, and on the cultivation of close relations with other Muslim countries.The
Kashmir conflict remains the major point of contention between Pakistan and India; three
of their four wars were fought over this territory. Due partly to difficulties in relations with
its geopolitical rival India, Pakistan maintains close political relations with Turkey and
Iran, and both countries have been a focal point in Pakistan’s foreign policy. Saudi
Arabia also maintains a respected position in Pakistan’s foreign policy.
A non-signatory party of the Treaty on Nuclear Non-Proliferation, Pakistan is an influential
member of the IAEA. In recent events, Pakistan has blocked an international treaty to limit
fissile material, arguing that the “treaty would target Pakistan specifically”. In the
20th century, Pakistan’s nuclear deterrence program focused on countering India’s nuclear
ambitions in the region, and nuclear tests by India eventually led Pakistan to reciprocate
to maintain a geopolitical balance as becoming a nuclear power. Currently, Pakistan maintains
a policy of credible minimum deterrence, calling its program vital nuclear deterrence against
foreign aggression.Located in the strategic and geopolitical corridor of the world’s major
maritime oil supply lines and communication fibre optics, Pakistan has proximity to the
natural resources of Central Asian countries. Briefing on the country’s foreign policy in
2004, a Pakistani senator reportedly explained: “Pakistan highlights sovereign equality of
states, bilateralism, mutuality of interests, and non-interference in each other’s domestic
affairs as the cardinal features of its foreign policy.” Pakistan is an active member of the
United Nations and has a Permanent Representative to represent Pakistan’s positions in international
politics. Pakistan has lobbied for the concept of “enlightened moderation” in the Muslim
world. Pakistan is also a member of Commonwealth of Nations, the South Asian Association for
Regional Cooperation (SAARC), the Economic Cooperation Organisation (ECO), and the G20
developing nations.Because of ideological differences, Pakistan opposed the Soviet Union
in the 1950s, and during the Soviet–Afghan War in the 1980s, Pakistan was one of the
closest allies of the United States. Relations between Pakistan and Russia have greatly improved
since 1999, and co-operation in various sectors has increased. Pakistan has had an “on-and-off”
relationship with the United States. A close ally of the United States during the Cold
war, Pakistan’s relationship with the United States soured in the 1990s when the US imposed
sanctions because of Pakistan’s secretive nuclear development. Since 9/11, Pakistan
has been a close ally of the United States on the issue of counter-terrorism in the regions
of the Middle East and South Asia, with the US supporting Pakistan with aid money and
weapons. Initially, the United States-led war on terrorism led to an improvement in
the relationship, but it was strained by a divergence of interests and resulting mistrust
during the war in Afghanistan and by issues related to terrorism.Pakistan does not have
diplomatic relations with Israel; nonetheless, some Israeli citizens have visited the country
on tourist visas. However, an exchange took place between the two countries using Turkey
as a communication conduit. Despite Pakistan being the only country in the world that has
not established diplomatic relations with Armenia, an Armenian community still resides
in Pakistan. Pakistan had warm relations with Bangladesh, despite some initial strains in
their relationship.====Relations with China====Pakistan was the first country to have established
formal diplomatic relations with the People’s Republic of China, and the relationship continues
to be warm since China’s war with India in 1962, forming a special relationship. In the
1960s to 1980s, Pakistan greatly helped China in reaching out to the world’s major countries
and helped facilitate US President Nixon’s state visit to China. Despite the change of
governments in Pakistan and fluctuations in the regional and global situation, China policy
in Pakistan continues to be a dominant factor at all times. In return, China is Pakistan’s
largest trading partner, and economic co-operation has flourished, with substantial Chinese investment
in Pakistan’s infrastructural expansion such as the Pakistani deep-water port at Gwadar.
Sino-Pakistani friendly relations touched new heights as both the countries signed 51
agreements and Memorandums of Understanding (MoUs) in 2015 for co-operation in different
areas. Both countries signed a Free Trade Agreement in the 2000s, and Pakistan continues
to serve as China’s communication bridge to the Muslim world. In 2016 China announced
that it will set up an anti-terrorism alliance with Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan.====Emphasis on relations with Muslim world
====After Independence, Pakistan vigorously pursued
bilateral relations with other Muslim countries and made an active bid for leadership of the
Muslim world, or at least for leadership in efforts to achieve unity. The Ali brothers
had sought to project Pakistan as the natural leader of the Islamic world, in part due to
its large manpower and military strength. A top-ranking Muslim League leader, Khaliquzzaman,
declared that Pakistan would bring together all Muslim countries into Islamistan—a pan-Islamic
entity.Such developments (along with Pakistan’s creation) did not get American approval, and
British Prime Minister Clement Attlee voiced international opinion at the time by stating
that he wished that India and Pakistan would re-unite. Since most of the Arab world was
undergoing a nationalist awakening at the time, there was little attraction to Pakistan’s
Pan-Islamic aspirations. Some of the Arab countries saw the ‘Islamistan’ project as
a Pakistani attempt to dominate other Muslim states.Pakistan vigorously championed the
right of self-determination for Muslims around the world. Pakistan’s efforts for the independence
movements of Indonesia, Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, and Eritrea were significant and
initially led to close ties between these countries and Pakistan. However, Pakistan
also masterminded an attack on the Afghan city of Jalalabad during the Afghan Civil
War to establish an Islamic government there. Pakistan had wished to foment an ‘Islamic
Revolution’ that would transcend national borders, covering Pakistan, Afghanistan, and
Central Asia.On the other hand, Pakistan’s relations with Iran have been strained at
times due to sectarian tensions. Iran and Saudi Arabia used Pakistan as a battleground
for their proxy sectarian war, and by the 1990s Pakistan’s support for the Sunni Taliban
organisation in Afghanistan became a problem for Shia Iran, which opposed a Taliban-controlled
Afghanistan. Tensions between Iran and Pakistan intensified in 1998 when Iran accused Pakistan
of war crimes after Pakistani warplanes had bombarded Afghanistan’s last Shia stronghold
in support of the Taliban.Pakistan is an influential and founding member of the Organisation of
Islamic Cooperation (OIC). Maintaining cultural, political, social, and economic relations
with the Arab world and other countries in the Muslim world is a vital factor in Pakistan’s
foreign policy.===Administrative divisions===A federal parliamentary republic state, Pakistan
is a federation that comprises four provinces: Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh, and Balochistan
and three territories: Islamabad Capital Territory, Gilgit–Baltistan, and Azad Kashmir. The
Government of Pakistan exercises the de facto jurisdiction over the Frontier Regions and
the western parts of the Kashmir Regions, which are organised into the separate political
entities Azad Kashmir and Gilgit–Baltistan (formerly Northern Areas). In 2009, the constitutional
assignment (the Gilgit–Baltistan Empowerment and Self-Governance Order) awarded the Gilgit–Baltistan
a semi-provincial status, giving it self-government.The local government system consists of a three-tier
system of districts, tehsils, and union councils, with an elected body at each tier. There are
about 130 districts altogether, of which Azad Kashmir has ten and Gilgit–Baltistan seven.
The Tribal Areas comprise seven tribal agencies and six small frontier regions detached from
neighbouring districts. Law enforcement is carried out by a joint
network of the intelligence community with jurisdiction limited to the relevant province
or territory. The National Intelligence Directorate coordinates the information intelligence at
both federal and provincial level; including the FIA, IB, Motorway Police, and paramilitary
forces such as the Pakistan Rangers and the Frontier Corps.Pakistan’s “premier” intelligence
agency, the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), was formed just within a year after the Independence
of Pakistan in 1947. Pakistan’s ISI was ranked as the top intelligence agency in the world
in 2011 by the International Business Times UK. ABC News Point in 2014 also reported that
the ISI was ranked as the top intelligence agency in the world while Zee News reported
the ISI as ranking fifth among the world’s most powerful intelligence agencies.The court
system is organised as a hierarchy, with the Supreme Court at the apex, below which are
High Courts, Federal Shariat Courts (one in each province and one in the federal capital),
District Courts (one in each district), Judicial Magistrate Courts (in every town and city),
Executive Magistrate Courts, and civil courts. The Penal code has limited jurisdiction in
the Tribal Areas, where law is largely derived from tribal customs.===Kashmir conflict===The Kashmir—the most northwesterly region
of South Asia—is a major territorial dispute that has hindered relations between India
and Pakistan. The two nations have fought at least three large-scale conventional wars
in successive years in 1947, 1965, and 1971. The conflict in 1971 witnessed Pakistan’s
unconditional surrender and a treaty that subsequently led to the independence of Bangladesh.
Other serious military engagements and skirmishes have included the armed contacts in Siachen
Glacier (1984) and Kargil (1999). Approximately 45.1% of the Kashmir region is controlled
by India, which also claims the entire state of Jammu and Kashmir, including most of Jammu,
the Kashmir Valley, Ladakh, and the Siachen. The claim is contested by Pakistan, which
controls approximately 38.2% of the Kashmir region, an area known as the Azad Kashmir
and Gilgit–Baltistan. India claims the Kashmir on the basis of the
Instrument of Accession—a legal agreement with Kashmir’s leaders executed by Maharaja
Hari Singh, who agreed to cede the area to India. Pakistan claims Kashmir on the basis
of a Muslim majority and of geography, the same principles that were applied for the
creation of the two independent states. India referred the dispute to the United Nations
on 1 January 1948. In a resolution passed in 1948, the UN’s General Assembly asked Pakistan
to remove most of its troops as a plebiscite would then be held. However, Pakistan failed
to vacate the region and a ceasefire was reached in 1949 establishing a Line of Control (LoC)
that divided Kashmir between the two nations. India, fearful that the Muslim majority populace
of Kashmir would secede from India, did not allow a plebiscite to take place in the region.
This was confirmed in a statement by India’s Defense Minister, Krishna Menon, who said:
“Kashmir would vote to join Pakistan and no Indian Government responsible for agreeing
to plebiscite would survive.”Pakistan claims that its position is for the right of the
people of Jammu and Kashmir to determine their future through impartial elections as mandated
by the United Nations, while India has stated that Kashmir is an integral part of India,
referring to the Simla Agreement (1972) and to the fact that elections take place regularly.
In recent developments, certain Kashmiri independence groups believe that Kashmir should be independent
of both India and Pakistan.===Law enforcement===The law enforcement in Pakistan is carried
out by joint network of several federal and provincial police agencies. The four provinces
and the Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT) each have a civilian police force with jurisdiction
extending only to the relevant province or territory. At the federal level, there are
a number of civilian intelligence agencies with nationwide jurisdictions including the
Federal Investigation Agency (FIA), Intelligence Bureau (IB), and the Motorway Patrol, as well
as several paramilitary forces such as the National Guards (Northern Areas), the Rangers
(Punjab and Sindh), and the Frontier Corps (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan).
The most senior officers of all the civilian police forces also form part of the Police
Service, which is a component of the civil service of Pakistan. Namely, there are four
provincial police service including the Punjab Police, Sindh Police, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Police,
and the Balochistan Police; all headed by the appointed senior Inspector-Generals. The
ICT has its own police component, the Capital Police, to maintain law and order in the capital.
The CID bureaus are the crime investigation unit and forms a vital part in each provincial
police service. The law enforcement in Pakistan also has a
Motorway Patrol which is responsible for enforcement of traffic and safety laws, security and recovery
on Pakistan’s inter-provincial motorway network. In each of provincial Police Service, it also
maintains a respective Elite Police units led by the NACTA—a counter-terrorism police
unit as well as providing VIP escorts. In the Punjab and Sindh, the Pakistan Rangers
are an internal security force with the prime objective to provide and maintain security
in war zones and areas of conflict as well as maintaining law and order which includes
providing assistance to the police. The Frontier Corps serves the similar purpose in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa,
and the Balochistan.==Military==The armed forces of Pakistan are the eighth
largest in the world in terms of numbers in full-time service, with about 617,000 personnel
on active duty and 513,000 reservists, as of tentative estimates in 2010. They came
into existence after independence in 1947, and the military establishment has frequently
influenced in the national politics ever since. Chain of command of the military is kept under
the control of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee; all of the branches joint works, co-ordination,
military logistics, and joint missions are under the Joint Staff HQ. The Joint Staff
HQ is composed of the Air HQ, Navy HQ, and Army GHQ in the vicinity of the Rawalpindi
Military District.The Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee is the highest principle
staff officer in the armed forces, and the chief military adviser to the civilian government
though the chairman has no authority over the three branches of armed forces. The Chairman
joint chiefs controls the military from the JS HQ and maintains strategic communications
between the military and the civilian government. As of 2018, the CJCSC is General Zubair Hayat
alongside chief of army staff General Qamar Javed Bajwa, chief of naval staff Admiral
Muhammad Zaka, and chief of air staff Air Chief Marshal Mujahid Anwar Khan. The main
branches are the Army–Air Force–Navy–Marines, which are supported by the number of paramilitary
forces in the country. Control over the strategic arsenals, deployment, employment, development,
military computers and command and control is a responsibility vested under the National
Command Authority which oversaw the work on the nuclear policy as part of the credible
minimum deterrence.The United States, Turkey, and China maintain close military relations
and regularly export military equipment and technology transfer to Pakistan. Joint logistics
and major war games are occasionally carried out by the militaries of China and Turkey.
Philosophical basis for the military draft is introduced by the Constitution in times
of emergency, but it has never been imposed.===Military history===
Since 1947 Pakistan has been involved in four conventional wars, the first war occurred
in Kashmir with Pakistan gaining control of Western Kashmir, (Azad Kashmir and Gilgit–Baltistan),
and India retaining Eastern Kashmir (Jammu and Kashmir). Territorial problems eventually
led to another conventional war in 1965; over the issue of Bengali refugees that led to
another war in 1971 which resulted in Pakistan’s unconditional surrender in East Pakistan.
Tensions in Kargil brought the two countries at the brink of war. Since 1947 the unresolved
territorial problems with Afghanistan saw border skirmishes which was kept mostly at
the mountainous border. In 1961, the military and intelligence community repelled the Afghan
incursion in the Bajaur Agency near the Durand Line border.Rising tensions with neighbouring
USSR in their involvement in Afghanistan, Pakistani intelligence community, mostly the
ISI, systematically coordinated the US resources to the Afghan mujahideen and foreign fighters
against the Soviet Union’s presence in the region. Military reports indicated that the
PAF was in engagement with the Soviet Air Force, supported by the Afghan Air Force during
the course of the conflict; one of which belonged to Alexander Rutskoy. Apart from its own conflicts,
Pakistan has been an active participant in United Nations peacekeeping missions. It played
a major role in rescuing trapped American soldiers from Mogadishu, Somalia, in 1993
in Operation Gothic Serpent. According to UN reports, the Pakistani military are the
third largest troop contributors to UN peacekeeping missions after Ethiopia and India.Pakistan
has deployed its military in some Arab countries, providing defence, training, and playing advisory
roles. The PAF and Navy’s fighter pilots have voluntarily served in Arab nations’ militaries
against Israel in the Six-Day War (1967) and in the Yom Kippur War (1973). Pakistan’s fighter
pilots shot down ten Israeli planes in the Six-Day War. In the 1973 war one of the PAF
pilots, Flt. Lt. Sattar Alvi (flying a MiG-21), shot down an Israeli Air Force Mirage and
was honoured by the Syrian government. Requested by the Saudi monarchy in 1979, Pakistan’s
special forces units, operatives, and commandos were rushed to assist Saudi forces in Mecca
to lead the operation of the Grand Mosque. For almost two weeks Saudi Special Forces
and Pakistani commandos fought the insurgents who had occupied the Grand Mosque’s compound.
In 1991 Pakistan got involved with the Gulf War and sent 5,000 troops as part of a US-led
coalition, specifically for the defence of Saudi Arabia.Despite the UN arms embargo on
Bosnia, General Javed Nasir of the ISI airlifted anti-tank weapons and missiles to Bosnian
mujahideen which turned the tide in favour of Bosnian Muslims and forced the Serbs to
lift the siege. Under Nasir’s leadership the ISI was also involved in supporting Chinese
Muslims in Xinjiang Province, rebel Muslim groups in the Philippines, and some religious
groups in Central Asia.Since 2004 the military has been engaged in a war in North-West Pakistan,
mainly against the homegrown Taliban factions. Major operations undertaken by the army include
Operation Black Thunderstorm, Operation Rah-e-Nijat and Operation Zarb-e-Azb.According to SIPRI,
Pakistan was the 9th largest recipient and importer of arms between 2012–2016.==Economy=====
Overview===Economists estimate that Pakistan was part
of the wealthiest region of the world throughout the first millennium CE, with the largest
economy by GDP. This advantage was lost in the 18th century as other regions such as
China and Western Europe edged forward. Pakistan is considered a developing country and is
one of the Next Eleven, a group of eleven countries that, along with the BRICs, have
a high potential to become the world’s largest economies in the 21st century.
In recent years, after decades of social instability, as of 2013, serious deficiencies in macromanagement
and unbalanced macroeconomics in basic services such as rail transportation and electrical
energy generation have developed. The economy is considered to be semi-industrialized, with
centres of growth along the Indus River. The diversified economies of Karachi and Punjab’s
urban centres coexist with less-developed areas in other parts of the country, particularly
in Balochistan. According to the Economic complexity index, Pakistan is the 67th-largest
export economy in the world and the 106th most complex economy. During the fiscal year
2015–16, Pakistan’s exports stood at US$20.81 billion and imports at US$44.76 billion, resulting
in a negative trade balance of US$23.96 billion. As of 2016 Pakistan’s estimated nominal GDP
is US$271 billion. The GDP by PPP is US$946,667 million. The estimated nominal per capita
GDP is US$1,561, the GDP (PPP)/capita is US$5,010 (international dollars), and the debt-to-GDP
ratio is 66.50%. According to the World Bank, Pakistan has important strategic endowments
and development potential. The increasing proportion of Pakistan’s youth provides the
country with both a potential demographic dividend and a challenge to provide adequate
services and employment. 21.04% of the population live below the international poverty line
of US$1.25 a day. The unemployment rate among the aged 15 and over population is 5.5%. Pakistan
has an estimated 40 million middle class citizens, projected to increase to 100 million by 2050.
A 2015 report published by the World Bank ranked Pakistan’s economy at 24th-largest
in the world by purchasing power and 41st-largest in absolute terms. It is South Asia’s second-largest
economy, representing about 15.0% of regional GDP.
Pakistan’s economic growth since its inception has been varied. It has been slow during periods
of democratic transition, but robust during the three periods of martial law, although
the foundation for sustainable and equitable growth was not formed. The early to middle
2000s was a period of rapid economic reforms; the government raised development spending,
which reduced poverty levels by 10% and increased GDP by 3%. The economy cooled again from 2007.
Inflation reached 25.0% in 2008, and Pakistan had to depend on a fiscal policy backed by
the International Monetary Fund to avoid possible bankruptcy. A year later, the Asian Development
Bank reported that Pakistan’s economic crisis was easing. The inflation rate for the fiscal
year 2010–11 was 14.1%. Since 2013, as part of an International Monetary Fund program,
Pakistan’s economic growth has picked up. In 2014 Goldman Sachs predicted that Pakistan’s
economy would grow 15 times in the next 35 years to become the 18th-largest economy in
the world by 2050. In his 2016 book, The Rise and Fall of Nations, Ruchir Sharma termed
Pakistan’s economy as at a ‘take-off’ stage and the future outlook until 2020 has been
termed ‘Very Good’. Sharma termed it possible to transform Pakistan from a “low-income to
a middle-income country during the next five years”.
Pakistan is one of the largest producers of natural commodities, and its labour market
is the 10th-largest in the world. The 7-million–strong Pakistani diaspora contributed US$19.9 billion
to the economy in 2015–16. The major source countries of remittances to Pakistan are:
the UAE; the United States; Saudi Arabia; the Gulf states (Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, and
Oman); Australia; Canada; Japan; the United Kingdom; Norway; and Switzerland. According
to the World Trade Organization, Pakistan’s share of overall world exports is declining;
it contributed only 0.128% in 2007.===Agriculture and primary sector===The structure of the Pakistani economy has
changed from a mainly agricultural to a strong service base. Agriculture as of 2015 accounts
for only 20.9% of the GDP. Even so, according to the United Nations Food and Agriculture
Organization, Pakistan produced 21,591,400 metric tons of wheat in 2005, more than all
of Africa (20,304,585 metric tons) and nearly as much as all of South America (24,557,784
metric tons). Majority of the population, directly or indirectly, is dependent on this
sector. It accounts for 43.5% of employed labour force and is the largest source of
foreign exchange earnings.A large portion of the country’s manufactured exports are
dependent on raw materials such as cotton and hides that are part of the agriculture
sector, while supply shortages and market disruptions in farm products do push up inflationary
pressures. The country is also the fifth-largest producer of cotton, with cotton production
of 14 million bales from a modest beginning of 1.7 million bales in the early 1950s; is
self-sufficient in sugarcane; and is the fourth-largest producer in the world of milk. Land and water
resources have not risen proportionately, but the increases have taken place mainly
due to gains in labour and agriculture productivity. The major breakthrough in crop production
took place in the late 1960s and 1970s due to the Green Revolution that made a significant
contribution to land and yield increases of wheat and rice. Private tube wells led to
a 50 percent increase in the cropping intensity which was augmented by tractor cultivation.
While the tube wells raised crop yields by 50 percent, the High Yielding Varieties (HYVs)
of wheat and rice led to a 50–60 percent higher yield. Meat industry accounts for 1.4
percent of overall GDP.===Industry===Industry is the third-largest sector of the
economy, accounting for 20.3% of gross domestic product (GDP), and 13 percent of total employment.
Large-scale manufacturing (LSM), at 12.2% of GDP, dominates the overall sector, accounting
for 66% of the sectoral share, followed by small-scale manufacturing, which accounts
for 4.9% of total GDP. Pakistan’s cement industry is also fast growing mainly because of demand
from Afghanistan and from the domestic real estate sector. In 2013 Pakistan exported 7,708,557
metric tons of cement. Pakistan has an installed capacity of 44,768,250 metric tons of cement
and 42,636,428 metric tons of clinker. In 2012 and 2013, the cement industry in Pakistan
became the most profitable sector of the economy.The textile industry has a pivotal position in
the manufacturing sector of Pakistan. In Asia, Pakistan is the eighth-largest exporter of
textile products, contributing 9.5% to the GDP and providing employment to around 15
million people (some 30% of the 49 million people in the workforce). Pakistan is the
fourth-largest producer of cotton with the third-largest spinning capacity in Asia after
China and India, contributing 5% to the global spinning capacity. China is the second largest
buyer of Pakistani textiles, importing US$1.527 billion of textiles last fiscal. Unlike the
US, where mostly value-added textiles are imported, China buys only cotton yarn and
cotton fabric from Pakistan. In 2012, Pakistani textile products accounted for 3.3% or US$1.07bn
of all UK textile imports, 12.4% or $4.61bn of total Chinese textile imports, 2.98% or
$2.98b of all US textile imports, 1.6% or $0.88bn of total German textile imports and
0.7% or $0.888bn of total Indian textile imports.===Services===Services sector has 58.8% share in GDP and
has emerged as the main driver of economic growth. Pakistani society like other developing
countries is a consumption oriented society, having a high marginal propensity to consume.
The growth rate of services sector is higher than the growth rate of agriculture and industrial
sector. Services sector accounts for 54 percent of GDP in 2014 and little over one-third of
total employment. Services sector has strong linkages with other sectors of economy; it
provides essential inputs to agriculture sector and manufacturing sector. Pakistan’s I.T sector
is regarded as among the fastest growing sector’s in Pakistan. The World Economic Forum, assessing
the development of Information and Communication Technology in the country ranked Pakistan
110th among 139 countries on the ‘Networked Readiness Index 2016′.As of 2016, Pakistan
has over 35 million Internet users and is ranked as one of the top countries that have
registered a high growth rate in Internet penetration. Overall, it has the 20th-largest
population of Internet users in the world. The current growth rate and employment trend
indicate that Pakistan’s Information Communication Technology (ICT) industry will exceed the
$10-billion mark by 2020. The sector employees 12,000 and count’s among top five freelancing
nations. The country has also improved its export performance in telecom, computer and
information services, as the share of their exports surged from 8.2pc in 2005–06 to
12.6pc in 2012–13. This growth is much better than that of China, whose share in services
exports was 3pc and 7.7pc for the same period respectively.==Infrastructure=====
Nuclear power and energy===By the end of 2016, nuclear power was provided
by four licensed commercial nuclear power plants. The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission
(PAEC) is solely responsible for operating these power plants, while the Pakistan Nuclear
Regulatory Authority regulates safe usage of the nuclear energy. The electricity generated
by commercial nuclear power plants constitutes roughly 5.8% of Pakistan’s electrical energy,
compared to 64.2% from fossil fuels (crude oil and natural gas), 29.9% from hydroelectric
power, and 0.1% from coal. Pakistan is one of the four nuclear armed states (along with
India, Israel, and North Korea) that is not a party to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty,
but it is a member in good standing of the International Atomic Energy Agency.
The KANUPP-I, a Candu-type nuclear reactor, was supplied by Canada in 1971—the country’s
first commercial nuclear power plant. The Sino-Pakistani nuclear cooperation began in
the early 1980s. After a Sino-Pakistani nuclear cooperation agreement in 1986, China provided
Pakistan with a nuclear reactor dubbed CHASNUPP-I for energy and industrial growth of the country.
In 2005 both countries proposed working on a joint energy security plan, calling for
a huge increase in generation capacity to more than 160,000 MWe by 2030. Under its Nuclear
Energy Vision 2050, the Pakistani government plans to increase nuclear power generation
capacity to 40,000 MWe, 8,900 MWe of it by 2030. In June 2008 the nuclear commercial
complex was expanded with the ground work of installing and operationalising the Chashma-III
and Chashma–IV reactors at Chashma, Punjab Province, each with 325–340 MWe and costing
₨ 129 billion,; from which the ₨ 80 billion came from international sources, principally
China. A further agreement for China’s help with the project was signed in October 2008,
and given prominence as a counter to the US–India agreement that shortly preceded it. The cost
quoted then was US$1.7 billion, with a foreign loan component of US$1.07 billion. In 2013
Pakistan established a second commercial nuclear complex in Karachi with plans of additional
reactors, similar to the one in Chashma. The electrical energy is generated by various
energy corporations and evenly distributed by the National Electric Power Regulatory
Authority (NEPRA) among the four provinces. However, the Karachi-based K-Electric and
the Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) generates much of the electrical energy
used in Pakistan in addition to gathering revenue nationwide. As of 2014 Pakistan has
an installed electricity generation capacity of ~22,797MWt.===Tourism===With its diverse cultures, people, and landscapes,
Pakistan attracted around 1 million foreign tourists in 2014, contributing PKR 94.8 billion
to the country’s economy, which represented a significant decline since the 1970s when
the country received unprecedented numbers of foreign tourists due to the popular Hippie
trail. The trail attracted thousands of Europeans and Americans in the 1960s and 1970s who travelled
via land through Turkey and Iran into India through Pakistan. The main destinations of
choice for these tourists were the Khyber Pass, Peshawar, Karachi, Lahore, Swat and
Rawalpindi. The numbers following the trail declined after the Iranian Revolution and
the Soviet–Afghan War.The country continues to attract an estimated 500,000 foreign tourists
annually. Pakistan’s tourist attractions range from the mangroves in the south to the Himalayan
hill stations in the north-east. The country’s tourist destinations range from the Buddhist
ruins of Takht-i-Bahi and Taxila, to the 5,000-year-old cities of the Indus Valley Civilization such
as Mohenjo-daro and Harappa. Pakistan is home to several mountain peaks over 7,000 metres
(23,000 feet). The northern part of Pakistan has many old fortresses, examples of ancient
architecture, and the Hunza and Chitral valleys, home to the small pre-Islamic Kalasha community
claiming descent from Alexander the Great. Pakistan’s cultural capital, Lahore, contains
many examples of Mughal architecture such as the Badshahi Masjid, the Shalimar Gardens,
the Tomb of Jahangir, and the Lahore Fort. In October 2006, just one year after the 2005
Kashmir earthquake, The Guardian released what it described as “The top five tourist
sites in Pakistan” in order to help the country’s tourism industry. The five sites included
Taxila, Lahore, the Karakoram Highway, Karimabad, and Lake Saiful Muluk. To promote Pakistan’s
unique cultural heritage, the government organizes various festivals throughout the year. In
2015 the World Economic Forum’s Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report ranked Pakistan 125
out of 141 countries.===Transport===
The transport industry accounts for ~10.5% of the nation’s GDP. Pakistan’s motorway infrastructure
is better than those of India, Bangladesh, and Indonesia, but the train system lags behind
those of India and China, and aviation infrastructure also needs improvement. There is scarcely
any inland water transportation system, and coastal shipping only meets minor local requirements.
Highways form the backbone of Pakistan’s transport system; a total road length of 263,942 kilometres
(164,006 miles) accounts for 92% of passenger and 96% of inland freight traffic. Road transport
services are largely in the hands of the private sector. The National Highway Authority is
responsible for the maintenance of national highways and motorways. The highway and motorway
system depends mainly on north–south links connecting the southern ports to the populous
provinces of Punjab and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa. Although this network only accounts for 4.59%
of total road length, it carries 85% of the country’s traffic.The Pakistan Railways, under
the Ministry of Railways (MoR), operates the railroad system. From 1947 until the 1970s
the train system was the primary means of transport until the nationwide constructions
of the national highways and the economic boom of the automotive industry. Beginning
in the 1990s there was a marked shift in traffic from rail to highways; dependence grew on
roads after the introduction of vehicles in the country. Now the railway’s share of inland
traffic is below 8% for passengers and 4% for freight traffic. As personal transportation
began to be dominated by the automobile, total rail track decreased from 8,775 kilometres
(5,453 miles) in 1990–91 to 7,791 kilometres (4,841 miles) in 2011. Pakistan expects to
use the rail service to boost foreign trade with China, Iran, and Turkey.There are an
estimated 139 airports and airfields in Pakistan—including both the military and the mostly publicly
owned civilian airports. Although Jinnah International Airport is the principal international gateway
to Pakistan, the international airports in Lahore, Islamabad, Peshawar, Quetta, Faisalabad,
Sialkot, and Multan also handle significant amounts of traffic. The civil aviation industry
is mixed with public and private sectors, which was deregulated in 1993. While the state-owned
Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) is the major and dominant air carrier that carries
about 73% of domestic passengers and all domestic freight, the private airlines such as airBlue,
Shaheen Air International, and Air Indus, also provide similar services at a low cost.
Major seaports are in Karachi, Sindh (the Karachi port, and Port Qasim). Since the 1990s
some seaport operations have been moved to Balochistan with the construction of Gwadar
Port and Gadani Port. According to the WEF’s Global Competitiveness Report, quality ratings
of Pakistan’s port infrastructure increased from 3.7 to 4.1 between 2007 and 2016.===Science and technology===Developments in science and technology have
played an important role in Pakistan’s infrastructure and helped the country connect to the rest
of the world. Every year, scientists from around the world are invited by the Pakistan
Academy of Sciences and the Pakistan Government to participate in the International Nathiagali
Summer College on Physics. Pakistan hosted an international seminar on “Physics in Developing
Countries” for the International Year of Physics 2005. Pakistani theoretical physicist Abdus
Salam won a Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the electroweak interaction. Influential
publications and critical scientific work in the advancement of mathematics, biology,
economics, computer science, and genetics have been produced by Pakistani scientists
at both the domestic and international levels.In chemistry, Salimuzzaman Siddiqui was the first
Pakistani scientist to bring the therapeutic constituents of the neem tree to the attention
of natural products chemists. Pakistani neurosurgeon Ayub Ommaya invented the Ommaya reservoir,
a system for treatment of brain tumours and other brain conditions. Scientific research
and development plays a pivotal role in Pakistani universities, government- sponsored national
laboratories, science parks, and the industry. Abdul Qadeer Khan, regarded as the founder
of the HEU-based gas-centrifuge uranium enrichment program for Pakistan’s integrated atomic bomb
project. He founded and established the Kahuta Research Laboratories (KRL) in 1976, serving
as both its senior scientist and the Director-General until his retirement in 2001, and he was an
early and vital figure in other science projects. Apart from participating in Pakistan’s atomic
bomb project, he made major contributions in molecular morphology, physical martensite,
and its integrated applications in condensed and material physics.In 2010 Pakistan was
ranked 43rd in the world in terms of published scientific papers. The Pakistan Academy of
Sciences, a strong scientific community, plays an influential and vital role in formulating
recommendations regarding science policies for the government.
The 1960s saw the emergence of an active space program led by SUPARCO that produced advances
in domestic rocketry, electronics, and aeronomy. The space program recorded a few notable feats
and achievements. The successful launch of its first rocket into space made Pakistan
the first South Asian country to have achieved such a task. Successfully producing and launching
the nation’s first space satellite in 1990, Pakistan became the first Muslim country and
second South Asian country to put a satellite into space.As an aftermath of the 1971 war
with India, the clandestine crash program developed atomic weapons partly motivated
by fear and to prevent any foreign intervention, while ushering in the atomic age in the post
cold war era. Competition with India and tensions eventually led to Pakistan’s decision to conduct
underground nuclear tests in 1998, thus becoming the seventh country in the world to successfully
develop nuclear weapons.Pakistan is the first and only Muslim country that maintains an
active research presence in Antarctica. Since 1991 Pakistan has maintained two summer research
stations and one weather observatory on the continent and plans to open another full-fledged
permanent base in Antarctica.Energy consumption by computers and usage has grown since the
1990s when PCs were introduced; Pakistan has about 30 million Internet users and is ranked
as one of the top countries that have registered a high growth rate in Internet penetration
as of 2013. Key publications have been produced by Pakistan, and domestic software development
has gained considerable international praise.Overall, it has the 20th-largest population of Internet
users in the world. Since the 2000s Pakistan has made a significant amount of progress
in supercomputing, and various institutions offer research opportunities in parallel computing.
The Pakistan government reportedly spends ₨ 4.6 billion on information technology
projects, with emphasis on e-government, human resources, and infrastructure development.===Education===The constitution of Pakistan requires the
state to provide free primary and secondary education.At the time of the establishment
of Pakistan as a state, the country had only one university, Punjab University in Lahore.
Very soon the Pakistan government established public universities in each of the four provinces,
including Sindh University (1949), Peshawar University (1950), Karachi University (1953),
and Balochistan University (1970). Pakistan has a large network of both public and private
universities, which includes collaboration between the universities aimed at providing
research and higher education opportunities in the country, although there is concern
about the low quality of teaching in many of the newer schools. It is estimated that
there are 3,193 technical and vocational institutions in Pakistan, and there are also madrassahs
that provide free Islamic education and offer free board and lodging to students, who come
mainly from the poorer strata of society. Strong public pressure and popular criticism
over extremists’ usage of madrassahs for recruitment, the Pakistan government has made repeated
efforts to regulate and monitor the quality of education in the madrassahs. Education in Pakistan is divided into six
main levels: nursery (preparatory classes); primary (grades one through five); middle
(grades six through eight); matriculation (grades nine and ten, leading to the secondary
certificate); intermediate (grades eleven and twelve, leading to a higher secondary
certificate); and university programmes leading to graduate and postgraduate degrees. There
is a network of private schools that constitutes a parallel secondary education system based
on a curriculum set and administered by the Cambridge International Examinations of the
United Kingdom. Some students choose to take the O-level and A level exams conducted by
the British Council. According to the International Schools Consultancy, Pakistan has 439 international
schools.As a result of initiatives taken in 2007, the English medium education has been
made compulsory in all schools across the country. Additional reforms enacted in 2013
required all educational institutions in Sindh to begin offering Chinese language courses,
reflecting China’s growing role as a superpower and its increasing influence in Pakistan.
The literacy rate of the population is ~58 %. The rate of male literacy is ~70.2% while
the rate of female literacy is 46.3%. Literacy rates vary by region and particularly by sex;
as one example, female literacy in tribal areas is 3.0%. With the advent of computer
literacy in 1995, the government launched a nationwide initiative in 1998 with the aim
of eradicating illiteracy and providing a basic education to all children. Through various
educational reforms, by 2015 the Ministry of Education expected to attain 100.00% enrolment
levels among children of primary school age and a literacy rate of ~86% among people aged
over 10. Pakistan is currently spending 2.2 percent of its GDP on education; which according
to the Institute of Social and Policy Sciences is one of the lowest in South Asia.==Demographics==According to Provisional results of 2017 Census
in Pakistan, the total population in Pakistan was 207.8 million, representing a 57% increase
in 19 years. which is equivalent to 2.57% of the world population. Pakistan’s census
provisional results exclude data from Gilgit-Baltistan and Azad Kashmir, which is likely to be included
in the final report. Noted as the sixth most populated country in the world, its growth
rate in 2016 was reported to be 1.45%, which is the highest of the SAARC nations, though
this growth rate has been decreasing in recent years. The population is projected to reach
210.13 million by 2020. At the time of the partition in 1947, Pakistan
had a population of 32.5 million; the population increased by ~57.2% between the years 1990
and 2009. By 2030 Pakistan is expected to surpass Indonesia as the largest Muslim-majority
country in the world. Pakistan is classified as a “young nation”, with a median age of
23.4 in 2016; about 104 million people were under the age of 30 in 2010. In 2016 Pakistan’s
fertility rate was estimated to be 2.68, higher than its neighbour India (2.45). Around 35%
of the people are under 15. The vast majority of those residing in southern Pakistan live
along the Indus River, with Karachi being the most populous commercial city in the south.
In eastern, western, and northern Pakistan, most of the population lives in an arc formed
by the cities of Lahore, Faisalabad, Rawalpindi, Sargodha, Islamabad, Gujranwala, Sialkot,
Gujrat, Jhelum, Sheikhupura, Nowshera, Mardan, and Peshawar. During 1990–2008, city dwellers
made up 36% of Pakistan’s population, making it the most urbanised nation in South Asia,
which increased to 38% by 2013. Furthermore, 50% of Pakistanis live in towns of 5,000 people
or more.Expenditure on healthcare was ~2.8% of GDP in 2013. Life expectancy at birth was
67 years for females and 65 years for males in 2013. The private sector accounts for about
80% of outpatient visits. Approximately 19% of the population and 30% of children under
five are malnourished. Mortality of the under-fives was 86 per 1,000 live births in 2012.===Languages===More than sixty languages are spoken in Pakistan,
including a number of provincial languages. Urdu—the lingua franca and a symbol of Muslim
identity and national unity—is the national language understood by over 75% of Pakistanis.
It is the main medium of communication in the country but the primary language of only
8% of Pakistan’s population. Urdu and English are the official languages of Pakistan, with
English primarily used in official business and government, and in legal contracts; the
local variety is known as Pakistani English. The Punjabi language, the most common in Pakistan
and the first language of 44.15% of Pakistan’s population, is mostly spoken in the Punjab.
Saraiki, mainly spoken in South Punjab and Hindko, is predominant in the Hazara region
of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Pashto is the provincial language of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and is well
understood in Sindh and Balochistan. The Sindhi language is commonly spoken in Sindh while
the Balochi language is dominant in Balochistan. Brahui, a Dravidian language, is spoken by
the Brahui people who live in Balochistan. Gujarati community leaders in Pakistan claim
that there are 3 million Gujarati speakers in Karachi. Marwari, a Rajasthani language,
is also spoken in parts of Sindh. Various languages such as Shina, Balti, and Burushaski
are spoken in Gilgit-Baltistan, whilst languages such as Pahari, Gojri, and Kashmiri are spoken
by many in Azad Kashmir. The Arabic language is officially recognised
by the constitution of Pakistan. It declares in article 31 No. 2 that “The State shall
endeavour, as respects the Muslims of Pakistan (a) to make the teaching of the Holy Quran
and Islamiat compulsory, to encourage and facilitate the learning of Arabic language
Immigration===Even after partition in 1947, Indian Muslims
continued to migrate to Pakistan throughout the 1950s and 1960s, and these migrants settled
mainly in Karachi and other towns of Sindh province. The wars in neighboring Afghanistan
during the 1980s and 1990s also forced millions of Afghan refugees into Pakistan. The Pakistan
Census excludes the 1.41 million registered refugees from Afghanistan, who are found mainly
in the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa and tribal belt, with small numbers residing in Karachi and
Quetta. Pakistan is home to one of the world’s largest refugee populations. In addition to
Afghans, around 2 million Bangladeshis and half a million other undocumented people live
in Pakistan. They are claimed to be from other areas such as Myanmar, Iran, Iraq, and Africa.Experts
say that the migration of both Bengalis and Burmese (Rohingya) to Pakistan started in
the 1980s and continued until 1998. Shaikh Muhammad Feroze, the chairman of the Pakistani
Bengali Action Committee, claims that there are 200 settlements of Bengali-speaking people
in Pakistan, of which 132 are in Karachi. They are also found in various other areas
of Pakistan such as Thatta, Badin, Hyderabad, Tando Adam, and Lahore. Large-scale Rohingya
migration to Karachi made that city one of the largest population centres of Rohingyas
in the world after Myanmar. The Burmese community of Karachi is spread out over 60 of the city’s
slums such as the Burmi Colony in Korangi, Arakanabad, Machchar colony, Bilal colony,
Ziaul Haq Colony, and Godhra Camp.Thousands of Uyghur Muslims have also migrated to the
Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan, fleeing religious and cultural persecution in Xinjiang,
China. Since 1989 thousands of Kashmiri Muslim refugees have sought refuge in Pakistan, complaining
that many of the refugee women had been raped by Indian soldiers and that they were forced
out of their homes by the soldiers.===Ethnic groups===The population is dominated by four main ethnic
groups: Punjabis, Pashtuns (Pathans), Sindhis, and Balochs. Rough accounts from 2009 indicate
that the Punjabis dominate with 78.7 million (~45%) while the Pashtuns are the second-largest
group with ~29.3 million (15.42%). The number of Sindhis is estimated at 24.8 million (14.1%),
with the number of Seraikis (a sub-group of Punjabis) estimated at 14.8 million (8.4%).
The number of Urdu-speaking Muhajirs (the Indian emigrants) stands at ~13.3 million
(7.57%) while the number of Balochs is estimated at 6.3 million (3.57%)—the smallest group
in terms of population. The remaining 11.1 million (4.66%) consist of various ethnic
minorities such as the Brahuis, the Hindkowans, the various peoples of Gilgit-Baltistan, the
Kashmiris, the Sheedis (who are of African descent), and the Hazaras. There is also a
large Pakistani diaspora worldwide, numbering over seven million, which has been recorded
as the sixth largest diaspora in the world.===Urbanisation===Since achieving independence as a result of
the partition of India, the urbanisation has increased exponentially, with several different
causes. The majority of the population in the south resides along the Indus River, with
Karachi the most populous commercial city. In the east, west, and north, most of the
population lives in an arc formed by the cities of Lahore, Faisalabad, Rawalpindi, Islamabad,
Sargodha, Gujranwala, Sialkot, Gujrat, Jhelum, Sheikhupura, Nowshera, Mardan, and Peshawar.
During the period 1990–2008, city dwellers made up 36.0% of Pakistan’s population, making
it the most urbanised nation in South Asia. Furthermore, more than 50% of Pakistanis live
in towns of 5,000 people or more. Immigration, from both within and outside the country,
is regarded as one of the main factors contributing to urbanisation in Pakistan. One analysis
of the 1998 national census highlighted the significance of the partition of India in
the 1940s as it relates to urban change in Pakistan.
During and after the independence period, Urdu speaking Muslims from India migrated
in large numbers to Pakistan, especially to the port city of Karachi, which is today the
largest metropolis in Pakistan. Migration from other countries, mainly from those nearby,
has further accelerated the process of urbanisation in Pakistani cities. Inevitably, the rapid
urbanisation caused by these large population movements has also created new political and
socio-economic challenges. In addition to immigration, economic trends such as the green
revolution and political developments, among a host of other factors, are also important
causes of urbanisation.===Religion===The state religion in Pakistan is Sunni Islam.
Freedom of religion is guaranteed by the Constitution of Pakistan, which provides all its citizens
the right to profess, practice and propagate their religion subject to law, public order,
and morality.The population of Pakistan follow different religions. Most of Pakistanis are
Muslims (96.4%) followed by Hindus (1.5%) and Christians (1.5%). There are also people
in Pakistan who follow other religions, such as Sikhism, Buddhism, Jainism and the minority
of Parsi (who follow Zoroastrianism). In addition, some Pakistanis also do not profess
any faith (such as atheists and agnostics) in Pakistan. According to the 1998 census,
people who did not state their religion accounted for 0.5% of the population.====Islam====About 96.4% of Pakistanis are Muslim. Pakistan
has the second-largest number of Muslims in the world after Indonesia. The majority of
them are Sunni (estimated between 75 and 95%) while Shias represent between 5–20%. Pakistan,
like India, is said to have at least 16 million Shias. A PEW survey in 2012 found that only
6% of Pakistani Muslims were Shia.The Ahmadis, a small minority representing 0.22–2% of
Pakistan’s population, are officially considered non-Muslims by virtue of the constitutional
amendment. The Ahmadis are particularly persecuted, especially since 1974 when they were banned
from calling themselves Muslims. In 1984, Ahmadiyya places of worship were banned from
being called “mosques”. As of 2012, 12% of Pakistani Muslims self-identify as non-denominational
Muslims. There are also several Quraniyoon communities.Sufism, a mystical Islamic tradition,
has a long history and a large following among the Sunni Muslims in Pakistan, at both the
academic and popular levels. Popular Sufi culture is centered around gatherings and
celebrations at the shrines of saints and annual festivals that feature Sufi music and
dance. Two Sufis whose shrines receive much national attention are Ali Hajweri in Lahore
(c. 12th century) and Shahbaz Qalander in Sehwan, Sindh (c. 12th century).There are
two levels of Sufism in Pakistan. The first is the ‘populist’ Sufism of the rural population.
This level of Sufism involves belief in intercession through saints, veneration of their shrines,
and forming bonds with a pir (saint). Many rural Pakistani Muslims associate with pirs
and seek their intercession. The second level of Sufism in Pakistan is ‘intellectual Sufism’,
which is growing among the urban and educated population. They are influenced by the writings
of Sufis such as the medieval theologian al-Ghazali, the Sufi reformer Shaykh Aḥmad Sirhindi,
and Shah Wali Allah. Contemporary Islamic fundamentalists criticise Sufism’s popular
character, which in their view does not accurately reflect the teachings and practice of Muhammad
and his companions.====Hinduism====Hinduism is the second-largest religion in
Pakistan after Islam, according to the 1998 census. As of 2010, Pakistan had the fifth-largest
Hindu population in the world. In the 1998 census the Hindu (jati) population was found
to be 2,111,271 while the Hindu (scheduled castes) numbered an additional 332,343. Hindus
are found in all provinces of Pakistan but are mostly concentrated in Sindh. They speak
a variety of languages such as Sindhi, Seraiki, Aer, Dhatki, Gera, Goaria, Gurgula, Jandavra,
Kabutra, Koli, Loarki, Marwari, Sansi, Vaghri, and Gujarati.
At the time of Pakistan’s creation the ‘hostage theory’ gained currency. According to this
theory, the Hindu minority in Pakistan was to be given a fair deal in Pakistan in order
to ensure the protection of the Muslim minority in India. However, Khawaja Nazimuddin, the
second Prime Minister of Pakistan, stated:I do not agree that religion is a private affair
of the individual nor do I agree that in an Islamic state every citizen has identical
rights, no matter what his caste, creed or faith be. Some Hindus in Pakistan feel that
they are treated as second-class citizens and many have continued to migrate to India.
Pakistani Hindus faced riots after the Babri Masjid demolition, endured a massacre (in
2005) by security forces in Balochistan, and have experienced other attacks, forced conversions,
and abductions.====Christianity and other religions====
Christians formed the next largest religious minority, after Hindus, with a population
of 2,092,902, according to the 1998 census. They were followed by the Bahá’í Faith,
which had a following of 30,000, then Sikhism, Buddhism, and Zoroastrianism, each back then
claiming 20,000 adherents, and a very small community of Jains. There is a Roman Catholic
community in Karachi that was established by Goan and Tamil migrants when Karachi’s
infrastructure was being developed by the British during the colonial administration
between World War I and World War II. The influence of atheism is very small, with 1.0%
of the population identifying as atheist in 2005. However, the figure rose to 2.0% in
2012 according to Gallup.==Culture and society==Civil society in Pakistan is largely hierarchical,
emphasising local cultural etiquette and traditional Islamic values that govern personal and political
life. The basic family unit is the extended family, although for socio-economic reasons
there has been a growing trend towards nuclear families. The traditional dress for both men
and women is the Shalwar Kameez; trousers, jeans, and shirts are also popular among men.
In recent decades, the middle class has increased to around 35 million and the upper and upper-middle
classes to around 17 million, and power is shifting from rural landowners to the urbanised
elites. Pakistani festivals, including Eid-ul-Fitr, Eid-ul-Azha, Ramazan, Christmas, Easter, Holi,
and Diwali, are mostly religious in origin. Increasing globalisation has resulted in Pakistan
ranking 56th on the A.T. Kearney/FP Globalization Index.===Clothing, arts, and fashion===The Shalwar Kameez is the national dress of
Pakistan and is worn by both men and women in all four provinces: Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan,
and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa as well as in FATA and Azad Kashmir. Each province has its own
style of Shalwar Kameez. Pakistanis wear clothes in a range of exquisite colours and designs
and in type of fabric (silk, chiffon, cotton, etc.). Besides the national dress, domestically
tailored suits and neckties are often worn by men, and are customary in offices, schools,
and social gatherings.The fashion industry has flourished in the changing environment
of the fashion world. Since Pakistan came into being, its fashion has evolved in different
phases and developed a unique identity. Today, Pakistani fashion is a combination of traditional
and modern dress and has become a mark of Pakistani culture. Despite modern trends,
regional and traditional forms of dress have developed their own significance as a symbol
of native tradition. This regional fashion continues to evolve into both more modern
and purer forms. The Pakistan Fashion Design Council based in Lahore organizes PFDC Fashion
Week and the Fashion Pakistan Council based in Karachi organizes Fashion Pakistan Week.
Pakistan’s first fashion week was held in November 2009.===Media and entertainment===The private print media, state-owned Pakistan
Television Corporation (PTV), and Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation (PBC) for radio were
the dominant media outlets until the beginning of the 21st century. Pakistan now has a large
network of domestic, privately owned 24-hour news media and television channels. A 2016
report by the Reporters Without Borders ranked Pakistan 147th on the Press Freedom Index,
while at the same time terming the Pakistani media “among the freest in Asia when it comes
to covering the squabbling among politicians.” BBC calls the Pakistani media “among the most
outspoken in South Asia”. Pakistani media has also played a vital role in exposing corruption.The
Lollywood, Kariwood, Punjabi, and Pashto film industry is based in Karachi, Lahore, and
Peshawar. While Bollywood films were banned from public cinemas from 1965 until 2008,
they have remained an important part of popular culture. In contrast to the ailing Pakistani
film industry, Urdu televised dramas and theatrical performances continue to be popular, as many
entertainment media outlets air them regularly. Urdu dramas dominate the television entertainment
industry, which has launched critically acclaimed miniseries and featured popular actors and
actresses since the 1990s. In the 1960s–1970s, pop music and disco (1970s) dominated the
country’s music industry. In the 1980s–1990s, British influenced rock music appeared and
jolted the country’s entertainment industry. In the 2000s, heavy metal music gained popular
and critical acclaim.Pakistani music ranges from diverse forms of provincial folk music
and traditional styles such as Qawwali and Ghazal Gayaki to modern musical forms that
fuse traditional and western music. Pakistan has many famous folk singers. The arrival
of Afghan refugees in the western provinces has stimulated interest in Pashto music, although
there has been intolerance of it in some places.===Diaspora===
According to the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Pakistan has the sixth-largest
diaspora in the world. Statistics gathered by the Pakistani government show that there
are around 7 million Pakistanis residing abroad, with the vast majority living in the Middle
East, Europe, and North America. Pakistan ranks 10th in the world for remittances sent
home. The largest inflow of remittances, as of 2016, is from Saudi Arabia, amounting to
$5.9 billion. The term Overseas Pakistani is officially recognised by the Government
of Pakistan. The Ministry of Overseas Pakistanis was established in 2008 to deal exclusively
with all matters of overseas Pakistanis such as attending to their needs and problems,
developing projects for their welfare, and working for resolution of their problems and
issues. Overseas Pakistanis are the second-largest source of foreign exchange remittances to
Pakistan after exports. Over the last several years, home remittances have maintained a
steadily rising trend, with a more than 100% increase from US$8.9 billion in 2009–10
to US$19.9 billion in 2015–16.The Overseas Pakistani Division (OPD) was created in September
2004 within the Ministry of Labour (MoL). It has since recognised the importance of
overseas Pakistanis and their contribution to the nation’s economy. Together with Community
Welfare Attaches (CWAs) and the Overseas Pakistanis Foundation (OPF), the OPD is making efforts
to improve the welfare of Pakistanis who reside abroad. The division aims to provide better
services through improved facilities at airports, and suitable schemes for housing, education,
and health care. It also facilitates the reintegration into society of returning overseas Pakistanis.
Notable members of the Pakistani diaspora include London Mayor Sadiq Khan, UK Cabinet
Member Sajid Javid, former UK Conservative Party Chair Baroness Warsi, singers Zayn Malik
and Nadia Ali, MIT Physics Professor Dr. Nergis Mavalvala, actors Riz Ahmed and Kumail Nanjiani,
businessmen Shahid Khan and Sir Anwar Pervez, Boston University professors Adil Najam and
Hamid Nawab, Texas A&M Professor Muhammad Suhail Zubairy, Yale Professor Sara Suleri,
UC San Diego Professor Farooq Azam, and historian Ayesha Jalal.===Literature and philosophy===Pakistan has literature in Urdu, Sindhi, Punjabi,
Pashto, Baluchi, Persian, English, and many other languages. The Pakistan Academy of Letters
is a large literary community that promotes literature and poetry in Pakistan and abroad.
The National Library publishes and promotes literature in the country. Before the 19th
century, Pakistani literature consisted mainly of lyric and religious poetry and mystical
and folkloric works. During the colonial period, native literary figures were influenced by
western literary realism and took up increasingly varied topics and narrative forms. Prose fiction
is now very popular. The national poet of Pakistan, Muhammad Iqbal,
wrote poetry in Urdu and Persian. He was a strong proponent of the political and spiritual
revival of Islamic civilisation and encouraged Muslims all over the world to bring about
a successful revolution. Well-known figures in contemporary Pakistani Urdu literature
include Josh Malihabadi Faiz Ahmed Faiz and Saadat Hasan Manto. Sadequain and Gulgee are
known for their calligraphy and paintings. The Sufi poets Shah Abdul Latif, Bulleh Shah,
Mian Muhammad Bakhsh, and Khawaja Farid enjoy considerable popularity in Pakistan. Mirza
Kalich Beg has been termed the father of modern Sindhi prose. Historically, philosophical
development in the country was dominated by Muhammad Iqbal, Sir Syed, Muhammad Asad, Maududi,
and Mohammad Ali Johar.Ideas from British and American philosophy greatly shaped philosophical
development in Pakistan. Analysts such as M. M. Sharif and Zafar Hassan established
the first major Pakistani philosophical movement in 1947. After the 1971 war, philosophers
such as Jalaludin Abdur Rahim, Gianchandani, and Malik Khalid incorporated Marxism into
Pakistan’s philosophical thinking. Influential work by Manzoor Ahmad, Jon Elia, Hasan Askari
Rizvi, and Abdul Khaliq brought mainstream social, political, and analytical philosophy
to the fore in academia. Works by Noam Chomsky have influenced philosophical ideas in various
fields of social and political philosophy.===Architecture===Four periods are recognised in Pakistani architecture:
pre-Islamic, Islamic, colonial, and post-colonial. With the beginning of the Indus civilization
around the middle of the 3rd millennium BCE, an advanced urban culture developed for the
first time in the region, with large buildings, some of which survive to this day. Mohenjo
Daro, Harappa, and Kot Diji are among the pre-Islamic settlements that are now tourist
attractions. The rise of Buddhism and the influence of Greek civilisation led to the
development of a Greco-Buddhist style, starting from the 1st century CE. The high point of
this era was the Gandhara style. An example of Buddhist architecture is the ruins of the
Buddhist monastery Takht-i-Bahi in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa. The arrival of Islam in what is today Pakistan
meant the sudden end of Buddhist architecture in the area and a smooth transition to the
predominantly pictureless Islamic architecture. The most important Indo-Islamic-style building
still standing is the tomb of the Shah Rukn-i-Alam in Multan. During the Mughal era, design elements
of Persian-Islamic architecture were fused with and often produced playful forms of Hindustani
art. Lahore, as the occasional residence of Mughal rulers, contains many important buildings
from the empire. Most prominent among them are the Badshahi Mosque, the fortress of Lahore
with the famous Alamgiri Gate, the colourful, Mughal-style Wazir Khan Mosque, the Shalimar
Gardens in Lahore, and the Shahjahan Mosque in Thatta. In the British colonial period,
predominantly functional buildings of the Indo-European representative style developed
from a mixture of European and Indian-Islamic components. Post-colonial national identity
is expressed in modern structures such as the Faisal Mosque, the Minar-e-Pakistan, and
the Mazar-e-Quaid. Several examples of architectural infrastructure demonstrating the influence
of British design can be found in Lahore, Peshawar, and Karachi.===Food and drink===Pakistani cuisine is similar to that of other
regions of South Asia, with some of it being originated from the royal kitchens of 16th-century
Mughal emperors. Most of those dishes have their roots in British, Indian, Central Asian
and Middle Eastern cuisine. Unlike Middle Eastern cuisine, Pakistani cooking uses large
quantities of spices, herbs, and seasoning. Garlic, ginger, turmeric, red chili, and garam
masala are used in most dishes, and home cooking regularly includes curry, roti, a thin flatbread
made from wheat, is a staple food, usually served with curry, meat, vegetables, and lentils.
Rice is also common; it is served plain, fried with spices, and in sweet dishes.Lassi is
a traditional drink in the Punjab region. Black tea with milk and sugar is popular throughout
Pakistan and is consumed daily by most of the population. Sohan halwa is a popular sweet
dish from the southern region of Punjab province and is enjoyed all over Pakistan.===Sports===Most sports played in Pakistan originated
and were substantially developed by athletes and sports fans from the United Kingdom who
introduced them during the British Raj. Field hockey is the national sport of Pakistan;
it has won three gold medals in the Olympic Games held in 1960, 1968, and 1984. Pakistan
has also won the Hockey World Cup a record four times, held in 1971, 1978, 1982, and
1994.Cricket, however, is the most popular game across the country. The country has had
an array of success in the sport over the years, and has the distinct achievement of
having won each of the major ICC international cricket tournaments: ICC Cricket World Cup,
ICC World Twenty20, and ICC Champions Trophy; as well as the ICC Test Championship. The
cricket team (known as Shaheen) won the Cricket World Cup held in 1992; it was runner-up once,
in 1999. Pakistan was runner-up in the inaugural World Twenty20 (2007) in South Africa and
won the World Twenty20 in England in 2009. In March 2009, militants attacked the touring
Sri Lankan cricket team, after which no international cricket was played in Pakistan until May 2015,
when the Zimbabwean team agreed to a tour. Pakistan also won the 2017 ICC Champions Trophy
by defeating arch-rivals India in the final. Association Football is the second most played
sports in Pakistan and it is organised and regulated by the Pakistan Football Federation.
Football in Pakistan is as old as the country itself. Shortly after the creation of Pakistan
in 1947, the Pakistan Football Federation (PFF) was created, and Muhammad Ali Jinnah
became its first Patron-in-Chief. The highest football division in Pakistan is the Pakistan
Premier League. Pakistan is known as one of the best manufacturer of the official FIFA
World Cup ball. The best football players to play for Pakistan are Kaleemullah, Zesh
Rehman, Muhammad Essa, Haroon Yousaf, and Muhammad Adil.
Pakistan has hosted or co-hosted several international sporting events: the 1989 and 2004 South Asian
Games; the 1984, 1993, 1996 and 2003 World Squash Championships; the 1987 and 1996 Cricket
World Cup; and the 1990 Hockey World Cup.==See also==Index of Pakistan-related articles
Outline of Pakistan Pakistan – Wikipedia book==Notes====References====Bibliography====External links=====Government===
Official website Pakistan Public Policies & Researches===General information===
“Pakistan”. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
Pakistan from UCB Libraries GovPubs Pakistan at Curlie
Pakistan from the BBC News Pakistan at Encyclopædia Britannica
Wikimedia Atlas of Pakistan Key Development Forecasts for Pakistan from
International Futures Geographic data related to Pakistan at OpenStreetMap

5 Countries That Have Fallen into China’s Debt Trap

On this episode of China Uncensored, it’s a trap! HI, Welcome to China Uncensored. I’m your host, Chris Chappell. If you’ve noticed that China seems to be
coming up a lot more often in the news lately, well, you would be right. Chinese officials are eager to make China
a superpower. And they’re doing it with the help of an ancient Chinese Communist Party secret: Lots and lots of money. Yes, money. The key to a successful communist regime. The Party has over the last few years lent huge sums of money to cash-strapped countries, and then leveraged that debt to get what it
wants. A lot of this is tied to a trillion dollar
plan to build infrastructure around the world and then use it to create wealth, mostly for Chinese companies, move goods, mostly from China, and gain influence, mostly for the Chinese Communist Party. This project is the Belt and Road Initiative. Also known as One Belt, One Road. Let’s get together and feel alright. Now it’s nothing new for countries with
money to spare to help out their needy neighbors by offering them a loan. Plenty of countries do it, including the US. But the Chinese Communist Party does it, as they like to put it, “with Chinese characteristics” “This stands in stark contrast to China’s
approach, which encourages dependency using opaque contracts, predatory loan practices, and corrupt deals that mire nations in debt and undercut their
sovereignty, denying them their long-term, self-sustaining
growth.” As you might guess, some of the countries who have made these deals with China aren’t feeling so alright anymore. On today’s episode, we’ll look at five countries gripped by the Chinese regime’s debt trap. Number 5: Sri Lanka The first port of call is Sri Lanka. In 2010, Sri Lanka got a 1.5 billion dollar
Chinese loan to build a giant port in the town of Hambantota. Which would be great— except it has barely any shipping traffic. Without traffic through the port, Sri Lanka realized it couldn’t pay back
its debt to China. So instead, it signed away the entire port
with a 99-year lease. The China Merchants Port Holdings got a 70% controlling stake Hambantota port. “With this agreement, we have started to
pay back the loans,” the Prime Minister of Sri Lanka told Parliament, and talked about there being more money for
economic development. But critics say the cure might be worse than
the disease. Some see the deal as a precedent for countries
that owe money to China to accept deals that involve signing
over of territory. Territory that the Chinese regime might want
to eventually use for military purposes. “There is concern that the Chinese will
transform its 99-year lease of the Sri Lankan port of
Hambantota into another naval base, the exact ‘debt-trap’ method the Chinese
used in Djibouti.” And a Chinese naval base in Hambantota would be uncomfortably close to India. Which might be one reason India might be considering a deal with Sri Lanka to run what’s been
called the emptiest airport in the world. Sure, there may not be much air traffic, in fact, there is currently no air traffic
at all, but it is pretty close to the now-Chinese
port. That airport, by the way, was also built with the help of huge loans
from China. Speaking of uncomfortably close to India… Number 4: Pakistan With an overall lending pipeline of over 40
billion dollars for the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor,
or CPEC, which is a big part of the Belt and Road, Pakistan already owes China more than 6 billion
dollars. That kind of debt gives China some leverage. First, China took control of the strategic deep-sea port of Gwadar… …and will get to call the shots for 40 years
thanks to a lease. And now, the Chinese military is building
a joint naval and air force base for Chinese troops. And it’s just a short distance up the coast
from Gwadar. According to this report, Pakistan not only owes a ton of money to China, but it’s paying high interest rates on those
loans as well— with some loans as high as 5%. In other cases, Chinese investors were promised crazy high returns on these infrastructure
projects— like 34 percent each year, guaranteed by Pakistan’s government for
30 years. But there are signs that Pakistan isn’t
all that comfortable being so heavily indebted to China. Back in November, Pakistan announced it would not seek Chinese
funding for a new large-scale development. They said China’s conditions for financing
the long-delayed $14 billion Diamer-Basha dam on the Indus
River “were not doable and against our interest” Pakistan is also heading toward a debt crisis. That means they might have to get bailed out by the International Monetary Fund. Which would not only be embarrassing for Pakistan
and China, but also would probably limit future Chinese
investment. Plus, after a recent election, it’s not clear how the new prime minister is going to treat these ongoing deals with
China. Has Pakistan learned its lesson after being
forced to let China open a military base on its soil? Who knows? But certainly it’s not enough of a lesson
to stop… Number 3: Montenegro What’s Montenegro? It’s one of those Eastern European countries that’s approximately the size of Yankee
Stadium, and is located here. No wait, it’s here. It’s also the only country in Europe without
a highway. That’s not a joke. But then the Chinese Communist Party offered to help Montenegro build one. The Montenegro government calls “the construction
of the century and a pathway to the modern world.” It would be 100-mile highway with massive
bridges that cut through difficult mountains and valleys. But Montenegro only has 630,000 people. Which is fewer people than my small neighborhood
in Queens. So you might wonder why it has spent 950 million dollars on a highway. Especially since no one even knows where Montenegro
is, so are they really trying to get there on
a highway? There were two feasibility studies done in
2006 and 2012. Both of them suggested that their proposed
highway would not have enough traffic to justify the
cost. But fortunately, the Chinese Communist Party was there to help
with that. So construction has begun. And surprise! China got a pretty sweet deal. 70 percent of the workers building the highway
are from China, and in case of any legal dispute, an arbitration court in China has jurisdiction. And we all know the Chinese justice system is a model of fairness and rule of law, right? A European Union official, who asked to remain anonymous, is a little less enthusiastic, saying that Montenegro has run out of money. “They have strangled themselves. And for the time being this is a highway to
nowhere,” the official says. Hmmm. Highway to the Nowhere Zone doesn’t sound
as cool, does it? What’s worse, the road is only partly done. They need another 1.2 billion dollars to finish
it, which the International Monetary Fund says Montenegro can’t afford to borrow. With a debt to GDP ratio expected to hit 80%
soon, Montenegro’s government has already had
to raise taxes, freeze public sector wages and cut social
spending. But Montenegro’s Prime Minister has vowed to finish the highway “at any cost” and promises “to deepen cooperation with
China in other areas, including hydropower and tourism.” And that’s exactly the kind of commitment Chinese officials want. Number 2: The Maldives! Ah, the Maldives! A tropical paradise located in…ok, I had to look this one up, too. It’s here, in the Indian Ocean. Gorgeous weather, secluded beaches, and what’s this? The China Maldives Friendship Bridge?? It’s a 225 million dollar bridge that’s
funded mainly through a grant and a loan from, you guessed it, China. The loan is the tough part. With the funding of this bridge, it puts the Maldives’ debt to GDP ratio
at nearly 100%— meaning it owes as much in debt as its entire
economy generates in one year. Sounds kind of like my student loan debt. And take it from me, that’s not healthy. But the Maldives is already dealing with being swallowed up by rising sea levels, and could be underwater in 60 years. So really, does it matter if they’re also financially underwater from debt to China? They’re like, “Yeah, China, why don’t you try to collect your money
from the ocean.” Well, the problem of course, is that before the Maldives becomes the next
Atlantis, the Chinese Communist Party could still force
them to, say, give up land for a Chinese military base, which would just so happen to be in an excellent strategic location near India. But don’t worry, the Chinese Ambassador said in a recent speech that Chinese investments in the Maldives are
totally normal, and that “The allegations of ‘land grabbing’ and ‘debt trap’ are totally groundless.” Not that anyone asked, but… it’s better to get out ahead of these things. Sometimes. And that brings us to… Number 1: Djibouti. If you don’t know where Djibouti is, you’ve got a problem. Because I’ve talked about it so many times
on China Uncensored. The African country of Djibouti is home to
China’s first, but definitely not last, overseas military
base. Also, it’s just a few miles down the road from an American military base. Giving rise to a shocking incident where Chinese
personnel allegedly pointed lasers at US pilots. Well the joke’s on them, because the US military had already stopped
using cats as pilots. But childish laser games are the least of
America’s worries. The Washington Post recently asked, “Can the Trump administration stop China from taking over a key African port?” Why would it want to? Well, ever since the government of Djibouti seized control of the Doraleh Container Terminal from a Dubai-based company in February, there have been reports that it plans to strike
a deal with a Chinese-state-controlled firm to run
the facility. And it just so happens that the port is the
main access point for American, French, Italian and Japanese
bases in Djibouti, and is critical to launching anti-terrorism
missions in parts of Africa and the Middle East. The U.S. military is now warning that if a Chinese-state-run company gains
control of the port, “U.S. national security interests will be
put at risk.” Meanwhile, officials warn that Djibouti has
been growing closer to, and is increasingly indebted to, the Chinese government. If only someone could shine a light on this
problem. Some kind of bright, single-color beam of
light. So what do you think of the debt traps some countries have fallen into with China? Leave your comments below. And before we go, it’s time to answer a
question from a fan who supports China Uncensored on the crowd funding website Patreon. David Michael White Chris, which flavor of tea would you highly recommend for others to taste? This is probably the most important question I’ve ever answered on the show. I take tea very seriously. Years before I started China Uncensored, I worked at a Chinese tea house. So I know a thing or two. First of all, if you ever see some kind of
blended tea, like strawberry samurai green tea matcha latte, run the other way. Get some high quality, loose leaf tea, and learn how to brew it. Boiling water and green tea do not mix. Start with some cheaper teas to develop your
palate and gradually work your way up to more expensive
tea. My favorite type is Phoenix Oolong teas. And my personal favorite Phoenix Oolong tea is one called Ya Shi Xiang. Which means the fragrance of duck…poop. To use the more–polite–translation. The story goes the tea got that name because
it was so good, locals didn’t want to share it with outsiders
so they gave it a less than appealing name. And that’s the lesson. Jealously hoard your tea. Tea’s no joke. Thanks for the question! And remember, China Uncensored is supported by viewers like
you. So I’d like to ask you if you can, please support the show on the crowdfunding
website Patreon with a dollar or more per episode. Link is below. As a way of saying thanks, you can submit questions you have for me and I’ll answer them at the end of each
episode. Thanks for watching this episode of China Uncensored. Once again, I’m your host, Chris Chappell. See you next time. Have you been watching China Uncensored religiously for years because it’s the best and greatest
source for China-related infotainment? Of course you have! So support us where it counts. Contribute a dollar or more per episode by clicking this orange button. We have a crowdfunding website called Patreon, where you can get cool rewards. Click now.

President Obama Addresses United Nations For First Time-Full Video

good morning mr. president mr. secretary general fellow delegates ladies and gentlemen it is my honor to address you for the first time as the 44th President of the United States I come before you humbled by the responsibility that the American people have placed upon me mindful of the enormous challenges of our moment in history and determined to act boldly and collectively on behalf of justice and prosperity at home and abroad I have been in office for just nine months though some days it seems a lot longer I am well aware of the expectations that accompany my presidency around the world and these expectations are not about me rather they are rooted I believe in a discontent with a status quo that has allowed us to be increasingly defined by our differences and outpaced by our problems but they are also rooted in hope the hope that real change is possible and the hope that America will be a leader in bringing about such change I took office at a time when many around the world had come to view America with skepticism and distrust a part of this was due to misperceptions and misinformation about my country part of this was due to opposition to specific policies and a belief that on certain critical issues America had acted unilaterally without regard for the interests of others and this has fed an almost reflexive anti Americanism which too often has served as an excuse for collective inaction now like all of you my responsibility is to act in the interests of my nation and my people and I will never apologize for defending those interests but it is my deeply held belief that in the year 2009 more than at any point in human history the interests of nations and people our shared the religious convictions that we hold in our hearts can forge new bonds among people or they can tear us apart the technology we harness can light the path to peace or forever darken it the energy we use can sustain our planet or destroy it what happens to the hope of a single child anywhere can enrich our world or impoverishing in this hall we come from many places but we share a common future no longer do we have the luxury of indulging our differences to the exclusion of the work that we must do together I have carried this message from London to Ankara from Porto Spain to Moscow from Accra to Cairo and it is what I will speak about today because the time has come for the world to move in a new direction we must embrace a new era of engagement based on mutual interest and mutual respect and our work must begin now we know the future will be forged by deeds and not simply words speeches alone will not solve our problems it will take persistent action so for those who question the character and cause of my nation I ask you to look at the concrete actions we have taken in just nine months on my first day in office I prohibited without exception or equivocation the use of torture by the United States of America I ordered the prison at Guantanamo Bay closed and we are doing the hard work of forging a framework to combat extremism within the rule of law every nation must know America will live its values and we will lead by example we have set a clear and focused goal to work with all members of this body to disrupt dismantle and defeat Al Qaeda and it's extremist allies a network that has killed thousands of people of many faiths and nations and that plotted to blow up this very building in Afghanistan and Pakistan we and many nations here are helping these governments develop the capacity to take the lead in this effort while working to advance opportunity and security for their people in Iraq we are responsibly ending a war we have removed American combat brigades from Iraqi cities and set a deadline of next August to remove all our combat brigades from Iraqi territory and I have made clear that we will help Iraqis transition to full responsibility for their future and keep our commitment to remove all American troops by the end of 2011 I have outlined a comprehensive agenda to seek the goal of a world without nuclear weapons in Moscow the United States and Russia announced that we would pursue substantial reductions in our strategic warheads and launchers at the conference on Disarmament we agreed on a work plan to negotiate an end to the production of fissile materials for nuclear weapons and this week my Secretary of State will become the first senior American representative to the annual members Conference of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty upon taking office I appointed a special envoy for Middle East peace and America has worked steadily and aggressively to advance the cause of two states Israel and Palestine in which peace and security take root and the rights of both Israelis and Palestinians are respecting to confront climate change we have invested 80 billion dollars in clean air we have substantially increased our fuel efficiency standards we have provided new incentives for conservation launched an energy partnership across the Americas and moved from a bystander to a leader in international climate negotiations to overcome an economic crisis that touches every corner of the world we worked with the g20 nations to forge a coordinated international response of over two trillion dollars in stimulus to bring the global economy back from the brink we mobilized resources that helped prevent the crisis from spreading further to developing countries and we joined with others to launch a 20 billion dollar global food security initiative that will lend a hand to those who need it most and help them build their own capacity we've also reengaged the United Nations we have paid our bills we have joined the Human Rights Council we have signed the convention of the rights of persons with disabilities we have fully embraced the Millennium Development Goals and we address our priorities here in this institution for instance through the Security Council meeting that I will chair tomorrow on nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament and through the issues that I will discuss today this is what we have already done but this is just a beginning some of our actions have yielded progress some have laid the groundwork for progress in the future but make no mistake this cannot solely be America's endeavor those who used to chastise America for acting alone in the world cannot now stand by and wait for America to solve the world's problems alone we have sought in word and deed a new era of engagement with the world and now is the time for all of us to take our share of responsibility for a global response to global challenges now if we are honest with ourselves we need to admit that we are not living up to that responsibility consider the course that we're on if we fail to confront the status quo extremists sowing terror and pockets of the world protracted conflicts that grind on and on genocide mass atrocities more nations with nuclear weapons melting IceCaps and ravaged populations persistent poverty and pandemic disease I say this not to sow fear but to State affect the magnitude of our challenges has yet to be met by the measure of our actions this body was founded on the belief that the nation's the world could solve their problems together Franklin Roosevelt who died before he could see his vision for this institution become a reality put it this way and I quote the structure of world peace cannot be the work of one man or one party or one nation it cannot be a piece of large Nations or of small Nations it must be a peace which rests on the cooperative effort of the whole world the cooperative effort of the whole world those words ring even more true today when it is not simply peace but our very health and prosperity that we hold in common yet we also know that this body is made up of sovereign states and sadly but not surprisingly this body has often become a forum for sowing discord instead of forging common ground a venue for playing politics and exploiting grievances rather than solving problems after all it is easy to walk up to this podium and point figures point fingers and stoke divisions nothing is easier than blaming others for our troubles and absolving ourselves with responsibility for our choices and our actions anybody can do that responsibility and leadership in the 21st century demand more in an era when our destiny is shared power is no longer a zero-sum game no one nation can or should try to dominate another nation no world order that elevates one nation or group of people over another will succeed no balance of power among nations will hold the traditional divisions between nations of the south and the north make no sense in an interconnected world nor do alignments of nations rooted in the cleavages of a long gone Cold War the time has come to realize that the old habits the old arguments are irrelevant to the challenges faced by our people they lead nations to act in opposition to the very goals that they claim to pursue and to vote often in this body against the interests of their own people they build up walls between us and the future that our people seek and the time has come for those walls to come down together we must build new coalition's that bridge old device coalition's of different faiths and creeds of north and south east west black white and brown the choice is ours we can be remembered as a generation that chose to drag the arguments of the 20th century into the 21st that put off hard choices refused to look ahead failed to keep pace because we define ourselves by what we were against instead of what we were for or we can be a generation that chooses to see the shoreline beyond the rough waters ahead that comes together to serve the common interests of human beings and finally gives meaning to the promise embedded in the name given to this institution that United Nations that is the future America once a future of peace and prosperity that we can only reach if we recognize all nations have rights but all nations have responsibilities as well that is the bargain that makes this work that must be the guiding principle of international cooperation today let me put forward four pillars that I believe are fundamental to the future that we want for our children non-proliferation and disarmament the promotion of peace and security the preservation of our planet and a global economy that advances opportunity for all people first we must stop the spread of nuclear weapons and seek the goal of a world without them this institution was founded at the dawn of the Atomic Age in part because man's capacity to kill had to be contained for decades we averted disaster even under the shadow of a superpower stand up but today the threat of proliferation is growing in scope and complexity if we fail to act we will invite nuclear arms races in every region and the prospect of wars and acts of terror on a scale that we can hardly imagine a fragile consensus stands in the way of this frightening outcome and that is the basic bargain that shapes the nuclear non-proliferation treaty it says that all nations have the right to peaceful nuclear energy that nations with nuclear weapons have a responsibility to move toward disarmament and those without them have the responsibility to forsake them the next 12 months could be pivotal in determining whether this compact will be strengthened or will slowly dissolve America intends to keep our end of the bargain we will pursue a new agreement with Russia to substantially reduce our strategic warheads and launchers we will move forward with ratification of the test ban treaty and work with others to bring the treaty into force so that nuclear testing is permanently prohibited we will complete a Nuclear Posture review that opens the door to deeper cuts and reduces the role of nuclear weapons and we will call upon countries to begin negotiations in January on a treaty to end the production of fissile material for weapons I will also host a summit next April that reaffirms each nations responsibility to secure nuclear material on its territory and to help those who can't because we must never allow a single nuclear device to fall into the hands of a violent extremism and we will work to strengthen the institutions and initiatives that combat nuclear smuggling and theft all of this must support efforts to strengthen the NPT those nations that refuse to live up to their obligations must face consequences let me be clear this is not about singling out individual nations it is about standing up for the rights of all nations that do live up to their responsibilities because a world in which I am spec shion's are avoided and the United Nations demands are ignored we'll leave all people less safe and all nations less secure in their actions to date the governments of North Korea and Iran threatened to take us down this dangerous slope we respect their rights as members of the community of nations I have said before and I will repeat I am committed to diplomacy that opens a path to greater prosperity and more secure peace for both nations if they live up to their obligations but if the governments of Iran and North Korea choose to ignore international standards if they put the pursuit of nuclear weapons ahead of regional stability and the security and opportunity of their own people if they are oblivious to the dangers of escalating nuclear arms races in both East Asia and the Middle and they must be held accountable the world must stand together to demonstrate that international law is not an empty promise and the treaties will be enforced we must insist that the future does not belong to fear now that brings me to the second pillar for our future the pursuit of peace the United Nations was born of the belief that the people of the world can live their lives raise their families and resolve their differences peacefully and yet we know that in too many parts of the world this ideal remains an abstraction a distant dream we can either accept that outcome is inevitable and tolerate constant and crippling conflict or we can recognize that the yearning for peace is universal and reassert our resolve to end conflicts around the world that effort must begin with an unshakable determination that the murder of innocent men women and children will never be tolerated on this no one can be disputed the violent extremists who promote conflict by distorting faith have discredited and isolated themselves they offer nothing but hatred and destruction and confronting them America will forge lasting partnerships to target terrorists share intelligence and coordinate law-enforcement and protect our people we will permit no safe haven for al Qaeda to launch attacks from Afghanistan or any other nation we will stand by our friends on the front lines as we and many nations will do in pledging support for the Pakistani people tomorrow and we will pursue positive engagement that builds bridges among faiths and new partnerships for opportunity our efforts to promote peace however cannot be limited to defeating violent extremists for the most powerful weapon in our arsenal is the hope of human beings the belief that the future belongs to those who would build and not destroy the confidence that conflicts can end and a new day can begin and that is why we will support we will and our support for effective peacekeeping while energizing our efforts to prevent conflicts before they take hold we will pursue a lasting peace in Sudan through support for the people of Darfur and the implementation of the comprehensive peace agreement so that we secure the peace that the Sudanese people deserve and in countries [Applause] and in countries ravaged by violence from Haiti to Congo to East Timor we will work with the UN and other partners to support an enduring peace I will also continue to seek a just and lasting peace between Israel Palestine and the Arab world we will continue to work on that issue yesterday I had a constructive meeting with Prime Minister Netanyahu and President Abbas we have made some progress Palestinians have strengthened their efforts on security Israelis have facilitated greater freedom of movement for the Palestinians as a result of these efforts on both sides the economy in the West Bank has begun to grow but more progress is needed we continue to call on Palestinians to end incitement against it Israel and we continue to emphasize that America does not accept the legitimacy of continued Israeli settlements the time the time has come the time has come to relaunch negotiations without preconditions that address the permanent status issues security for Israelis and Palestinians borders refugees and Jerusalem the goal is clear to states living side by side in peace and security a Jewish state of Israel with true security for all Israelis and a viable independent Palestinian state with contiguous territory that ends the occupation that began in 1967 and realizes the potential of the Palestinian people as we pursue this goal we will also pursue peace between Israel and Lebanon Israel and Syria and a broader peace between Israel and its many neighbors in pursuit of that goal we will develop regional initiatives with multilateral participation alongside bilateral negotiations now I am not naive I know this will be difficult but all of us not just the Israelis and Palestinians but all of us must decide whether we are serious about peace or whether we will only lend it lip service to break the old patterns to break the cycle of insecurity and despair all of us must say publicly what we would acknowledge in private the United States does Israel no favors when we fail to couple an unwavering commitment to its security with an insistence that Israel respect the legitimate claims and rights of the Palestinians and and nations within this body do the Palestinians no favors when they choose bitch reality attacks against Israel over constructive willingness to recognize Israel's legitimacy and its right to exist in peace and security we must remember that the greatest price of this conflict is not paid by us it's not paid by politicians it's paid by the Israeli girl and strawbe who closes her eyes in fear that a rocket will take her life in the middle of the night it's paid for by the Palestinian boy in Gaza who has no clean water and no country to call his own these are all God's children and after all the politics and all the posturing this is about the right of every human being to live with dignity and security that is a lesson embedded in the three great faiths that call one small slice of earth the Holy Land and that is why even though there will be setbacks and false starts and tough days I will not waver in my pursuit of peace third we must recognize that in the 21st century there will be no peace unless we take responsibility for the preservation of our planet and I thank the secretary-general for hosting the subject of climate change yesterday the danger posed by climate change cannot be denied our responsibility to meet it must not be deferred if we continue down our current course every member of this assembly will see irreversible changes within their borders our efforts to end conflicts will be eclipsed by wars over refugees and resources development will be devastated by drought and family land that human beings have lived on for millennia will disappear future generous generations will look back and wonder why we refuse to act why we failed to pass on and in why we failed to pass on an environment that was worthy of our inheritance and that is why the days when America dragged its feet on this issue are over we will move forward with investments to transform our energy economy while providing incentives to make clean energy the profitable kind of energy we will press ahead with deep cuts in emissions to reach the goals that we set for 2020 and eventually 2050 we will continue to promote renewable energy and efficiency and share new technologies with countries around the world and we will seize every opportunity for progress to address this threat in a cooperative effort with the entire world and those wealthy nations that did so much damage to the environment in the 20th century must accept our obligation to lead but responsibility does not end there well we must acknowledge the need for differentiated responses any effort to curb carbon emissions must include the fast-growing carbon emitters who can do more to reduce their air pollution inhibiting growth and in any effort that fails to help the poorest nations both adapt to the problems that climate change have already run and help them travel a path of Queen Development simply will not work it's hard to change something as fundamental as how we use energy I know that it's even harder to do so in the midst of a global recession certainly it will be tempting to sit back and wait for others to move first but we cannot make this journey unless we all move forward together as we head into Copenhagen let us resolve to focus on what each of us can do for the sake of our common future and this leads me to the final pillar this must fortify our future a global economy that advances opportunity for all people the world is still recovering from the worst economic crisis since the Great Depression in America we see the engine of growth beginning to churn and yet many still struggle to find a job or pay their bills across the globe we find promising signs but little certainty about what lies ahead and far too many people in far too many places live through the daily crises the challenge our humanity the despair of an empty stomach – the thirst brought on by dwindling water supplies the injustice of a child dying from a treatable disease or a mother losing her life as she gives birth in Pittsburgh we will work with the world's largest economies to chart a course for growth that is balanced and sustained that means vigilance to ensure that we do not let up until our people are back to work that means taking steps to rekindle demand so that global recovery can be sustained and that means setting new rules of the road and strengthening regulation for all financial centers so we put an end to the greed and the excess and the abuse that led us into this disaster and prevent a crisis like this from ever happening again at a time of such penance we have a moral and pragmatic interests however in broader questions of development the questions of development that existed even before this crisis happened and so America will continue our historic effort to help people feed themselves we have set aside sixty three billion dollars to carry forward the fight against hiv/aids to end deaths from tuberculosis and malaria to eradicate polio and to strengthen public health systems we are joining with other countries to contribute h1n1 vaccines to the World Health Organization we will integrate more economies into a system of global trade we will support the Millennium Development Goals and approach next year's summit with a global plan to make them a reality and we will set our sights on the eradication of extreme poverty in our time now is the time for all of us to do our part growth will not be sustained or shared unless all nations embrace their responsibilities and that means that wealthy nations must open their markets to more Goods and extend a hand to those with less while reforming international institutions to give more nations a greater voice and developing nations must root out the corruption that is an obstacle to progress for opportunity cannot thrive where individuals are oppressed and business have to pay bribes that is why we support honest police and independent judges civil society any vibrant private sector our goal is simple a global economy in which growth is sustained and opportunity is available to all now the changes that I've spoken about today will not be easy to make and they will not be realized simply by leaders like us coming together in forms like this as useful as that may be for as in any assembly of members real change can only come through the people we represent that is why we must do the hard work to lay the groundwork for progress in our own capitols that's where we will build the consensus to end conflicts and to harness technology for peaceful purposes to change the way we use energy and to promote growth that can be sustained and shared I believe that the people the world want this future for their children and that is why we must champion those principles which ensure that governments reflect the will of the people these principles cannot be afterthoughts democracy and human rights are essential to achieving each of the goals that I've discussed today because governments of the people and by the people are more likely to act in the broader interests of their own people rather than narrow interests of those in power the test of our leadership will not be the degree to which we feed the fears and old hatreds of our people true leadership will not be measured by the ability to muzzle dissent or to intimidate and harass political opponents at home the people of the world want change they will not long tolerate those who are on the wrong side of history this Assembly's Charter commits commits each of us and I quote to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights in the dignity and worth of the human person in the Equal Rights of men and women among those rights is the freedom to speak your mind and worship as you please the promise of equality of the races and the opportunity for women and girls to pursue their own potential the ability of citizens to have a say in how you are governed and to have confidence in the administration of justice for justice no nation should be forced to accept the tyranny of another nation no individual should be forced to accept the tyranny of their own people as as an african-american I will never forget that I would not be here today without the steady pursuit of a more perfect union in my country and that guides my belief that no matter how dark the day may seem transformative change can be forged by those who choose to side with justice and I pledge that America will always stand with those who stand up for their dignity and their rights for the student who seeks to learn the voter who demands to be heard the innocent who longs to be free the oppressed who yearns to be equally democracy cannot be imposed on any nation from the outside each Society must search for its own path and no path is perfect each country will pursue a path rooted in the culture of its people and in his past traditions and I admit that America has too often been selective in its promotion of democracy but that does not weaken our commitment it only reinforces it there are basic principles that are universal there are certain truths which are self-evident and the United States of America will never waver in our efforts to stand up for the right of people everywhere to determine their own destiny [Applause] sixty-five years ago a weary Franklin Roosevelt spoke to the American people in his fourth and final inaugural address after years of war he sought to sum up the lessons that could be drawn from the terrible suffering the enormous sacrifice that had taken place we have learned he said to be citizens of the world members of the human community the United Nations was built by men and women like Roosevelt from every corner of the world from Africa and Asia from Europe to the Americas these architects of international cooperation had an idealism that was anything but naive it was rooted in the hard-earned lessons of war rooted in the wisdom that nations could advance their interests by acting together instead of splitting apart now it falls to us for this institution will be what we make of it the United Nations does extraordinary good around the world feeding the hungry caring for the sick mending places that have been broken but it also struggles to enforce its will and to live up to the ideals of its family I believe that those imperfections are not a reason to walk away from this institution they are a calling to redouble our efforts the United Nations can either be a place where we bicker about outdated grievances or forge common ground a place where we focus on what drives us apart or what brings us together a place where we indulge tyranny or a source of moral authority in short the United Nations can be an institution that is disconnected from what matters in the lives of our citizens or it can be an indispensable factor in advancing the interests of the people we serve we have reached a a moment the United States stands ready to begin a new chapter of international cooperation one that recognizes the rights and responsibilities of all nations and so with confidence in our cause and with a commitment to our values we call on all nations to join us in building the future that our people so richly deserve thank you very much you