How Jay Leno Changed the Politics of Late Night

when I started hosting marijuana was illegal and you can smoke cigarettes any place you wanted I believe he did the greatest monologue ever and I think it was because of his political sensibility and the worst thing about losing this job I'm no longer cover NBC I'd have to sign up for Obamacare after 22 years as the host of The Tonight Show Jay Leno said goodbye to late night though he was no favorite of TV critics Leno held the top ratings spot for over two decades after succeeding the legendary Johnny Carson recent TV sat down with longtime Leno producer Dave Berg author of the book behind the curtain an insider's look at Jay Leno's Tonight Show to discuss lenez legacy of elevating politics and late-night talk Johnny Carson who of course is a legend the greatest there ever was he set the bar very high for all of us however Johnnie emphasized entertainers on his show I'm not saying he didn't have politico's from time to time he did but the emphasis was on entertainers well the strategy that we used to kind of expand and maybe get better ratings was to move beyond entertainers and I think that this is what distinguished Jay not only in the guests that he chose I mean basically we had every major presidential candidate from 1996 on but also in his monologue which he expanded it from Johnnie's with seven minutes and Jay expanded his to 14 minutes and added a lot of political humor he set the pace I believe he did the greatest monologue ever and I think it was because of his political Sensibility you talked about having presidential candidates the you guys were actually the first to get a sitting president when you had President Obama on can you talk a little bit about the story of how that happened five years before he became president I was watching him speak at the Democratic convention in Boston and that was in 2004 Kerry was the the Democratic candidate that year and and I had never heard of this unknown political Illinois and I thought oh my gosh this guy is the best speak I have seen since Ronald Reagan I'm not talking politics here I'm just talking about the ability to communicate and I was very impressed and the next day I started calling on his people to express an interest in getting him on the show now we did finally land him on the show as as an author the the audacity of hope' when he was a presidential candidate so when he did finally agree to appear as a president he had already been on he had already had a trust yet and it kind of a chemistry with Jay but nevertheless when he decided to appear on the show on his 59th day in office that was amazing because no other president had ever appeared on a late-night show it was actually considered unpresidential that was a huge moment and you know looking back at that why do you think it took so long for that to happen I mean do you think that politicians are kind of afraid of going on platforms like that because they're afraid of being made fun of I do and as I always told the political people actually we're much easier I'm not saying Jay didn't ask tough questions he did he certainly did but we weren't Meet the Press and Jays attitude about guests is he believed that that it was a family environment at the Tonight Show and and he actually acted as though guests were like guests in his house so he always said I'm not going to throw you a curve ball you don't have to worry I'm I will ask you a tough question I'll ask you this I'll ask you that but he never never asked gotcha questions so we were actually easier than Meet the Press it never seemed like he was really accepted among you know the comedic elite and here he is now he's going to get the Mark Twain humor award at the Kennedy Center this fall what do you think is so misunderstood about his success I think that the critics the Television Critics basically early on starting when Jay took over from Johnny Carson early on they said this guy doesn't have the chops he doesn't have what Johnny Carson has and by the way he's not cut from the same fabric as David Letterman it is so much more edgy and they are the ones that basically set the tone for for how J was perceived among if I may use the word among elitist not among the folks who live in the flyover States those wonderful flyover States but among the elitist who felt that J's humor was much too milquetoast actually I think J's approach was was exactly what it should be what you want to do is you want to tell jokes that appeal to a broad band of viewers we weren't narrowcasting we were trying to reach a wide group of people and I think J did that very successfully and I think the Mark Twain award is justification finally J gets the credit that he deserves and a lot of people you know would always try to tie a political label to him but you know because we have more of a libertarian audience do you think kind of that independent streak that he was more working-class he worked really hard I know you talked a lot about his work ethic in the book do you think that kind of came through the fact that he was just a little bit more independent and that's maybe why he broke through to such a larger audience I definitely do and again I think you could see it in his monologue jokes I think that resonated with people I really do the fact is in the last you know two three years none of the other late night hosts were doing Obama jokes well Jay felt well J happens to like President Obama but his feeling was you got to go after who's ever in power and he alone was doing jokes about Obama for a long time finally when Obamacare you know became the disaster that it was at least for a while the other host started following soon do you think that his willingness cuz I see it now with Kimmel yeah and a little bit with Fallon and Letterman they've kind of followed suit but do you think that that is kind of one of his main legacies as far as you know being an equal opportunity offender oh my gosh yes I mean I really think that distinguishes him and and yes if I understand your question properly there doesn't seem to be a healthy skepticism of those in power and that concerns me because late night is so influential especially among younger people I think yeah and you know there's also kind of this I guess you can call it a PC movement going on where you've seen a lot of comedians lately having to you know apologize for jokes do you how do you think that affects the material right or did it really come into play when he was crafting his monologue that was a big problem and I have to say that among the the comedy writers and comedians whether they were liberal a conservative they hate PC they do not like political correctness because that restricts them in their job and that was very damaging and it hurt a lot of jokes we had to sort of water down some of the jokes everybody did and and I think everyone suffers as a result you're you're missing SATA you're missing good satire when you look at who's out there now you have Kimmel you have Letterman as stepping down you have Colbert coming in now and now you have Jimmy Fallon who do you see kind of emerging as as that standard bearer of being the top dog I actually am a Jimmy Fallon guy and I like Jimmy Kimmel they're both really good I watched them both but Jimmy Fallon when he took over for Jay honestly I did not want to like him I didn't like the fact that Jay was you know being let go when he was doing so well but when I started watching a Fallon on a regular basis he won me over and I like him because he continues with that really positive upbeat attitude that that Jay represented and he has brought kind of a new perspective he has redefined late-night on his own terms now it's about comedy bits it's about performance the guests get involved they want to get involved Jimmy gets involved because he's so talented and he has done very well I would go so far as to call him the king of late-night he's going to be the guy to be that's my feeling

Georgetown on Star Wars: Decoding the Politics of Star Wars

are we are we reading too much into this I mean maybe it's maybe just Lucas doesn't know what he's talking about we probably already yes to some degree to politics and Star Wars is not realistic generally like like it seems like George Lucas doesn't know too much about Paul about how part of politics works and that itself can be a nice way of prompting you to think about how things don't work how the things despit in the movies wouldn't really work I mean one of them is that the way the Republic is depicted couldn't possibly last was a thousand years or a thousand generations a thousand generations thousand James yeah thousand years would be long would be twice as long as the Roman Republic which fell about 500 years in if the house of generations is is that's that's longer than we've had human civilization so I don't have to be a really well designed political system you know orders of magnitude more well defined that humans on this planet have ever thought up the basic set up and current Hans correct me where I get this wrong is there's a Senate which and the Senators are selected in some way from planets I believe yes and and each planet sends some fixed number of senators to the Senate the Senate seems to be able to remove the Chancellor I believe Hans can they select the chance so it seems like it's a parliamentary system there's also reference to representatives right because there's a representative bank system forces maybe there's a it's a bicameral legislature but though it's not clear how that how that plays out but it does seem like that the Senate selects a prime minister and they can you know they hold a vote of non-confidence and so you can remove the the senator that the Chancellor and replace that person it's okay that all that's all that Haarlem entry systems is of the systems we have now is a in in the world existing now is a fairly stable system so if it was a conventional parliamentary system that's a pretty stable system they were law heavily on parties though even more so than a presidential system does right because you need to have when you when you're sending your person to the Parliament you need to know they're going to choose as Chancellor we have some idea who they might choose as Chancellor right and so you have to have you know you got to know that are you voting for the you know the fifth party or the party you know what and you have to you have to know but there's no mention of this anyway right so maybe like the EU there are parties within each planet mm-hmm but in a Madisonian way really a galaxy is too big for people to organize and try to take control of the government the United States end up not being it's too big organized factions to take over but a galaxy may be writing although you know if it takes it's just it takes a while then you think a thousand generations will be long enough yeah think they have that if your equilibrium you haven't gotten there in a thousand generations you're probably not getting that probably not is it a case where they would have to be in the real world they I guess would they have developed because in the in the unit in the world in the existing earth on the existing earth people organize themselves into parties in pretty much every democracy but definitely in parliamentary systems it's sort of necessary to be able to make jitan have any kind anticipation if you imagine that you're just sending some folks to a legislature and they were going to choose a chancellor and they were just gonna do whatever they wanted to do then they you know you have no idea what you're voting for you have to just sort of really have to have a delegate model right sorry a trustee mo I believe you can trust the person's to represent your planet when you get maybe the planet that sense Jar Jar Binks really thinks he's trustworthy enough whatever jar jar's opinion is you're gonna go in yeah that's that's right there right there you're pushing ants the boundaries of logic but but I mean maybe that's the case although you know so then maybe the Republic is too big for the first you know six hundred generations but by the time you get to Lightspeed right and you can travel easily from from planet to planet you'd think they'd be able to you know work out these kinds of coordinations right the the Jedi kind of have their organization that can that influences things across all over the place they seem to travel all over the galaxy and stay in communication mm-hmm and then the four sprawl its power it doesn't seem to give them any advanced telecommunications power no no these are those that the hologram still using the Holograms yeah yeah you may be as you as you're suggesting that the Jedi are this weird side parallel group that they have some way of suppressing political organization in the in the legislature right they are the ones first they're they're providing the coordination and they're providing the focus they're identifying the things the issues that should be discussed – they say they don't meddle in politics well I mean so it gives it to a natural party to develop you could have a sip party but it is the Jedi such that they're gonna suppress some party like some parties don't exist because Jedi the Sith are sort of enemies of threat the Jedi rather than trying to take over the Republic by force thus if that just organized party right and gotten some senators elected and right is that I mean it seems like this shows you how a walk word a situation it is with the Jedi so there are they gonna I mean sort of like some countries the military if certain parties get elected they intervene and override the election I mean for a long time in Turkey yeah the military would not step in to the results of parliamentary elections except when Islamist parties we can get close Organa or get elected and then would intervene and blind so I mean you see how maybe the existence of the Jedi prevents these dark side from organizing a more legitimate political right way which does necessarily mean that they would be transformed to less malevolent ideology but they don't organize in politics and no one seems to be organized they mm-hmm in politics into coalition's with coherent philosophies and maybe one of the reasons is that I mean the Jedi don't meddle in politics but they seem to have some sort of ideology and that they favor some mm-hmm types of organizations in the galaxy and not others right it's hard to imagine that they are indifferent to who gets elected so I mean if if Palpatine imagined early in his career before he was chancellor for the parliamentary system he was a senator mm-hmm it's not depicted in them in the movies but I assume he was if he was openly a sith senator yeah what is the Jedi what are the Jedi do at that point he they apply he's hiding this mm-hmm and the reason is why if as if the Jedi don't really interfere in politics maybe there's no reason to to hide his true identity unless unless the Sith are unpopular in these local election right which were given no indication one way or another well it was a big deal for them to intervene when they finally decided that popteen was in trouble it was trouble as Chancellor that's go to Rustom that was a big deal so we probably imagine they don't learnt doing this all the time you know the one thing that we haven't talked about that I think you know as we move forward into the politics that are that extends into the the original trilogy which is of course the more fun to talk about but there's less politics there maybe there's something to that is you know the degree to which the reaction to oppression is I think fairly realistic to how things are so you know now we are living in a world where there is an empire and the citizens are on liver who are making their way around are living under the Empire and they have the have that oppressive of government and they know it's there and most of them don't really care that much Luke is like you know hey it's not that I love the Empire but it's a far long ways away I don't you know it's I'm not interested his his uncle's like forbids him from getting involved in anything don't make it messed up and even you know even Han Solo is you know doesn't want to get involved of like the Empire doesn't one but it doesn't only get involved in some sort of revolution he's just trying to make his way through and that I think is fairly realistic right that you would not have people you know rising up whenever there's an injustice right people tend to find a way to just make their live their lives underneath the cover of politics especially if the reach of the empire is not deep into your day to day lives which it appears not to be yeah I mean most of obviously most of through most of human history people were governed by political systems that were not Republican which they didn't have any say in the government and part of that reason is as depicted in with the Empire in the original three movies its Episode four five six people don't have as much military power as the government and that's one reason that that governments like that happen but the other reason right is there is a huge collective action problem most people even if they wanted to you know fight off their government it's not anyone's individual incentive to do that because unless you know you're organized with a lot of other people who have a lot of resources you're probably gonna lose so you won't help yourself and will only get killed or another or most likely get killed the possible third reason is that most people just aren't that interested in politics so most people we imagine every you think about politics you imagine everybody in relationship for their political system but most people their passions interests are something outside of politics you know maybe it's moisture farming yes it is what Luke's aunt and uncle are are in the movies depicted as doing for their business only through circumstance do these people sort of get pushed into political rebellion well and from the point of view of the Empire it's probably okay is it good to let let this people let off steam here and have some local autonomy in one way in which empires can control territories that are far away from them is to you know install governor and make sure things go the right way but otherwise let the locals rule themselves right so on Tatooine you've got the hot running things writings and you know that's that's not the Empire but they're not gonna go and mess with that unless they have to yes and you know and on you know Cloud City you've got Lando's running his own little mining operation and the Empire doesn't really care about that even says you know we're small enough we I'm really attracted their attention until he tracks their attention then they come in and okay well now we have a reason we have to mess with and take over and influence what's happening they're not afraid to do that but having that letting off steam letting people you know maybe even having some some smuggling is sort of necessary to let the system you know play out as long as it's not preventing the Empire from doing whatever its goals are which and this is where the sort of political analysis breaks down because what are the goals of the empires near as I can tell it's just advancing the evil dark side which is you know now probably not the goal of any particular politicians just right evil and this is where you get yeah that the entire political system it just isn't very well worked out in the in the movie I mean so if you I believe I've seen George Lucas interview neck then asked you know what makes the dark side bad or the Sith bad he says I called it the dark side isn't that enough like I just did right I just let us assume it's bad like and I've and I have them do bad things and what else do you want so I mean that's fine it's fine it makes this show enjoyable and that's fine we're just asked to do accept that and it does really these depicted as doing the sort of some of the sort of bad things that empires do treating local politician about I'm sorry treating local populations badly you know flying around the galaxy making arbitrary decision was like a cloud city and taking over area taking over making arbitrary decisions about local jurisdictions things like that it's it's a metaphor if anything or what you know for bad government and and sometimes this metaphor is gonna be clunky and that's fine it's still exciting and so you know plays out but I think it's something it says something that you can't tell a story about a hero who you know is gonna emerge and overcome his you know is his humble beginnings and and save the galaxy and so forth without laying out a political structure that they're fighting against you know and oftentimes it's just like some evil tyrant king kind of thing I can order the Rings or something right you just have this bad force that wants to but um you know if you want to have it happen happen you know in a more developed civilization like the Star Wars are supposed to do then you've got to start to sketch in some of the political details and you know not more not anymore than are necessary to tell a story but they're there and that makes for a you know makes for interesting cognate night conversations people who care about Paul

Politics: The Media – Civics State Exam

how do we refer to our two for two systems of Secretary of State hi and welcome back to mr. Raymond's civic COC Academy where today we're gonna be looking at the media in politics now last time we looked at candidates and the ways in which they campaign their advertising issue based platforms debates and what are known as super PACs so be sure to check that out if you haven't already and today as you can see from our benchmarks we are going to examine the impact of media as it monitors and influences the government as well as analyze media bias symbolism and what is known as propaganda and just a reminder teachers that this lesson plan and PowerPoint are available to teachers paid teachers just so from mr. Raymond Civic so you'll see Academy so what is the media well for our purposes we are gonna be looking at mass media and that includes any type of political communication that the people get from television the radio newspapers and more and more the Internet and in particular we're gonna focus on the press now the press is a term that we use to describe the people who report the news so America has a strong tradition of what is known as freedom of the press this is the ability to report the news without the government telling them what they can and cannot report we see this quote from Thomas Jefferson quote our Liberty depends on the freedom of the press and that cannot be limited without being lost in other words our freedom depends on a free press to ensure that the government does not become tyrannical remember tyranny is one of our keywords this year and this means when the people in charge abuse their power so we find freedom of the press in the First Amendment which we'll be covering in more detail soon we see up here that the First Amendment is what gives us our big freedoms freedom of speech freedom of religion freedom of assembly and petition and the freedom of the press now freedom of the press the ability to write whatever you want is something that we take for granted because it's something that Americans for the most part have enjoyed for over 200 years so we might assume that people enjoy this privilege all over the world but if you look at this map we see that the majority of the world has a press in which the government has some control over the news that gets reported and in certain countries some of the ones in black and red the government has complete control over the media and the news that gets reported so chances are they aren't going to tell the people when they're doing something wrong and in some cases they're going to straight up try to brainwash the people so at the beginning of the year we learned about the duties and responsibilities of citizenship and one of the responsibilities is to stay informed and this goes hand-in-hand with voting after all how are you going to know who to vote for and what issues are important to you if you aren't informed and this is what we turn to the media for now why is the media so important to candidates and those holding elective positions because this is the primary source of information on those candidates and the issues and this can make or break their success both for getting elected and for the direction that they will take on the issues now it is crucial for politicians to use the media they use the media to push their agendas and their campaigns and politicians grant interviews they have press conferences as a way of shaping media coverage they also take their message to the media to try to increase public opinion to put pressure on lawmakers for the things that they want to get done now because the media plays such a crucial role in deciding who we are going to elect to lead our country or state or city and how this will shape the government's response to the issues we care about the voting public must consider media bias when getting their news we discuss bias in our previous video this means having a prejudice either for or against someone or something and the media just like the people just like the voting public can be biased now in the old days like when I was young when there was only three TV stations and no internet the media had a responsibility to remain non biased and the word for that is objective now the network news and most newspapers today still try to remain objective even though they're accused of leaning either towards the Republicans or Democrats actually it seems to that they are accused more often by Republicans as being liberal which means Democrats cable news stations such as fox or MSNBC can be more biased and the Internet is just usually the center of a much more biased news coverage so Fox News is accused of being extremely conservative and I'm not sure Fox would even dispute that therefore they are usually more critical of Democrats the same is true in Reverse for MSNBC who seem to favor the Democrats over the Republicans so you must be aware of media bias to stay informed and educated it's important that you look for bias in news coverage and I would recommend trying to see both sides of every issue consider the pros and the cons and keep in mind that there are two sides to every story but the best you can do is look for that bias to make sure that you are not being influenced one way or the other and this leads to a question as to the effect that the media has on us on what is known as public opinion and our previous video on political parties we noted that the country is pretty evenly divided between Democrats Republicans and independents and independents are the ones who don't have a party affiliation they swing back and forth between the parties depending on who is perceived as doing a better job public opinion is vague phrase that we've described the way that the masses feel about the issues one thing that must be considered is the effect that the media has in shaping public opinion the media can have a huge effect on public opinion based on what they choose to cover the coverage that they give for the candidates however as people have much wider range of choices with the internet and cable TV to get their news compared with the three t v– journals i grew up with the views and different perspectives available are greatly increasing but remember a good voter should consider is hey am i being persuaded by the media coverage now in a country of 300 million people it's hard to gauge exactly which way the voting public feels about candidates or the issues so groups conduct what are known as public opinion polls a poll ask questions to hopefully a wide range of people from different backgrounds and ages to get a sense of public opinion government officials use polls to get a sense of what the people want them to do and here we see a poll about what people feel should be the policy for illegal immigration here's a poll asking Maine residents how they feel about a wind farm and here we see a poll about who they're going to vote for and polls are definitely not 100% accurate but the media and government use polls to try to get a sense of how people feel about the issues and who they're gonna vote for now Americans have looked to different forms of media over the years to get their news early on newspapers dominated as a source of news in those days most voters had never heard or seeing their politicians speak radio changed all that and became the go-to source for government officials trying to reach the voting public however politicians still enjoyed a greater sense of privacy in those days for instance Franklin D Roosevelt pictured here was almost never seen in his wheelchair so the greater voting public was almost unaware of his condition but the radio allowed people to hear their leader and FDR was great on the radio television was another game-changer for political campaigns and this was never better Illustrated than by the famous presidential debate between Richard Nixon and John F Kennedy those who had listened to it on the radio thought that Nixon had won the debate but for those who watched on TV the charismatic JFK who looked tan and youthful was the clear-cut winner so from then on the way a politician presented themselves on video became an important selling point in elections of course this Lisa the question where do most Americans turn to to get their news and what impact will this have on politics going forward we see from this graphic that most Americans still get their news from TV but if we look at the younger generations they are mostly turning to the internet for their news for this reason candidates for political office are increasingly creating a strong online presence to reach younger voters so where do you get your news from I hope it's not Instagram okay so some of the last things we need to know government officials use what is known as propaganda as a way of influencing the public now propaganda is meant to persuade the people to feel or act a certain way and we often see propaganda campaigns during times of war as some of these posters show government will play on the public's patriotic emotions to get them to accomplish certain things or feel a certain way like helping the war effort sometimes governments will use fear as a way of getting their message across such as this poster pushing the people to fear spies who might be looking for secret information loose lips might sink ships so propaganda uses images and messages to work on the public's feelings and this isn't just from the government there are different propaganda techniques that candidates will use to help their campaigns and this one is known as testimonials testimonials is where a candidate will use celebrities to show their support here we see Barack Obama with a big supporter Oprah Winfrey Katy Perry recently performed and spoke out in favor of candidate Hillary Clinton for president eyelid schwarzenegger has spoken out for several Republican candidates Gary Busey he recently gave his support for Donald Trump I'm not sure that will help that much and Donald Trump's a celebrity in his own right so these celebrities give their testimonials in favor of a candidate another propaganda technique is known as plain folks appeal and this is where a candidate will show themselves doing something that makes them look like an average Joe going to some sporting events or drinking beer they just want to be seen as plain old folks another propaganda technique is what's called the bandwagon and maybe you've heard this expression we use it a lot when we describe sports teams when they're doing really well all of a sudden you'll see a lot more fans than when they're not doing well that is similar with politics I like to describe the public as having a herd mentality when a few of the herd head in one direction the rest will follow along and candidates will sometimes exaggerate their following hoping that the people think hmm all these people like this person maybe I should too they will try to exploit opinion polls and the expression that often goes with a bandwagon is everybody's doing it so you should do now one of our last things to consider and we have another Thomas Jefferson quote here that says where the press is free and every man is able to read all is safe now what does he mean by that the press is sometimes referred to as the fourth branch of government or the Fourth Estate and this nickname speaks to the importance that the press plays in government the press not only educates the people on who to vote for and what issues they need to deal with but they also keep an eye on the government to stop them from making decisions that are going to be bad for the people it's hard for the government to do things in secret without the people knowing the press keep an eye out for government corruption which in the old days was a big problem and that's where government officials maybe take money illegally the presses also expose a lot of shady dealings with government officials breaking the law probably no bigger example than the Watergate scandal with President Nixon reporters with the Washington Post newspaper who broke the story here we see them Woodward and Bernstein now unfortunately for politicians the media also really scrutinizes their private lives as well but it's important to think of the media as the watchdog the watchdog keeps an eye on you they make sure you're not doing anything bad and if you are they will bite you all right finally one last thing we have to look at is symbolism and political communications there's a lot of symbolism that's used especially in political cartoons look for animals such as the donkey for Democrats or elephant or for Republicans Uncle Sam always represents the American government and like everything we have covered today the more you follow the news making yourself a more informed citizen the more all of these propaganda techniques and media bias and symbolism they're gonna become more familiar to you so next up we're gonna be covering interest groups here we see three the n-double a-c-p PETA United Auto Workers but before we do let's review okay so what are different types of mass media you probably are very familiar with these newspapers radio television the internet which amendment protects freedom of the press it's not the second it's the first the first amendment gives us our big freedoms politicians can gauge public opinion by looking at they conduct these in the media conducting their calls public opinion polls what type of information can be found in this image what is that look it's during times of war by bonds that is propaganda what do you call the propaganda technique when a politician gets a celebrity to give their endorsement they are testifying they are giving their testimonials Justin Bieber he favors I don't know who what do you call the propaganda technique when a politician does something to look like a regular old American regular that's plain folks appeal what do you call it when a newspaper or channel favors one candidate or party over the other we know that then they are prejudiced they are biased media bias what do you call the role of media to catch the government when they do something wrong they're keeping their eye on them they are the the watchdog all right so up next we have political interest groups be sure to subscribe people just a reminder teachers that this PowerPoint with a variety of lesson plans and activities is available at Teachers Pay Teachers just a buck 99 and please subscribe people thanks for watching

A recap of New Zealand Māori politics in 2015

now this year we've covered a wide variety of subjects from politics they are Maori sports and entertainment some stories made us laugh some made us cry sometimes we've got angry and a lot of them made us learn something new now we have our regular media commentator as I mentioned Willie Jackson who's joined by former MPs Claudette hauiti Toki Noddy and honey how do we know so let's start with a review of politics but boring they could have been 2015 in politics even two years out from a general election but it kicked off with a party fought the who's who of all parties and quickly it was Maori who are making things interesting reporter Yvonne Tirana takes a look back at the year there was politics it was a party at Shane Jones's placed this pathway he claims he wasn't to sell out but traded the ladle party for a new role with the government as a roving economic ambassador across the Pacific another Ngapuhi son went on to make his opponent look like an apprentice change representation get a voice Winston Peters galloped off with the Northland electorate helped by national for donkey's years proving you're never too old to be in the game you know I couldn't feel like the incoming it was an embarrassing loss for national who spent the year selling another likely done flying a new flag the whole process is really about engagement and people having a chance to visualize it and see whether any one of these speaks them more about the future of the country at the cost of twenty six million dollars a costly exercise there were plenty of empty seats at today's flag Hui in Auckland we counted 11 people at the start but moaning on social media got another flag added red peak is going to be such an outside contender that it's going to make the floor look kind of stupid anyway that should make that tear I see you beneficiaries got a pay rise the Jennifer Carroll who knew a haka facility catacomb edema tada it's annoying who King not here here cable Yanina fan oppa harem in the humour miniature China doctor if I later detain a toggle feature for y ho a tie here to haptic Akita Taha yeah Jerry we attack the retaining but the pain in him narrator him him a new eating like a mother we hurried him a palpable but child poverty advocate said it wasn't enough outside Sky City anti-poverty protesters were angry you know it's a bit disappointed that they're practicing because one level you think that they would they she just reflect from the fact that this is the first government to raise benefits for 43 years Auckland house prices keep skyrocketing the average rental cost for a four-bedroom home in Auckland is 617 dollars a week but increasingly Maori are turning into property developers why magia is being built by a for developers partnership including to charitable organizations the Maori trustee and Auckland 13a we nominal Fonua ultimately Mikado are on the rise Nakamura foreigner Kapoeta he heard me Runa my authority final Tony the – iterative Aki Roku guitar irritative a casino near Ottawa water hamona Keiko I hope he cannot – I irritated our money after the call here an economic penalty memoria Maori gained another MP hey haha avocado kotero puka karaoke motive was so tight suit akitoki – oh and Mohammed Davidson titolo far no Parramatta Mathura 3004 katsu Pato for me it's about being a Maori woman with a kpop America spective on political issues and while Kelvin Davis might have been flipping burgers at the beginning of the year by the end of it he was Labour's big cheese scrapping with the Prime Minister over deportees mr. Davis if you want to put yourself on the side of sex offenders go ahead my issue was the human rights abuses that are going on and the detention centers but scoring points on organized fight clubs at the surco run Mount Eden prison promotion but Calvin Stella year came at a cost in an ayah Mahuta who was stripped of her Maori development portfolio

The Politics of Equality – Part 1

women make up 51 percent of the UK population but are not fairly represented in our political institutions a fifth of parliamentarians are women and that's just not good enough British politics is dominated by white middle-class men the gender and ethnic balance in the House of Commons does not reflect the population it serves we will examine the reasons behind the lack of representation and survey how fair a political representation can be achieved for women in the house of commons you definitely feel like a minority you'd have to believe in somehow men were 30 times better at the job chuckles they're not as rubbish this is the mother of all Parliament's we should be performing better than any other organization in this country the spectacular gothic Palace of Westminster behind me host the two houses of Parliament of the United Kingdom the House of Commons which is a public elected body consisting of MPs and the House of Lords which is independent from but continents the work of the Commons history and time of normalized Westminster as a space for a white middle to upper-class male majority to rule making decisions on behalf of the population of Great Britain and implementing laws that impact everyone whatever class color creed or gender a corridors of power and not only lucking an equivalent female viewpoint but also lacking significant cultural and ethnic perspectives and attempts that dressing the deficits are painfully slow the gender and ethnic balance in the House of Commons is clearly out a sink and an issue for British politics is an absolute scandal that we're still in the 21st century having to fight for equal numbers of women and men to be in Parliament it looks like an old boys club and it's not clear how it works this is not the kind of environment that many women wish to join it's not fair the best candidate the job is not being selected because it's too much of a coincidence that the best candidate always seems to be a man it says that that women are not up to it or not worthy to be in positions of power but now we know that that's not true the House of Commons currently has a total of six hundred and fifty MPs of which 503 and Men and 18 of these have ethnic minority heritage there are a hundred and forty seven women MPs nine of these from the ethnic minority community gender representation in politics has improved in recent times but gains have been modest in order to see how women are comfortably representatives in our political process and to look at where they're heading we need to delve into the past to understand the journey our forbearers underwent to create a path of equality for future generations of women in Britain Murray there was a time when women have no rights regarding politics so what was it that provoked them into taking action into getting the right to vote and what took so long it's the sort of first time that were really asked for the vote in this country was probably 18 32 and we've got the first recorded petition of a woman asking for the vote to Parliament women were excluded along with the greatsword a majority of the population from politics and you get the first petition presented to Parliament for in a large number of women that was presented to Parliament by john stuart mill in 1865 and for the first time it gets a guess debated properly in the house commons and it fails of course but it spurs it encourages the women to go on and many working-class men could not vote there was no point trying to give it to women either and so some women started to get frustrated by this and so as in the early 20th century the movement starts become militant or rather a militant sort of wing grows up of the suffragists of the suffrage movement and then in 1903 the women's social and political union is formed by Emmeline Pankhurst and other women who were impatient with slow pace of change and they use more militant tactics do you think this was needed in order to progress the movement in order to achieve what they wanted I think it's important to remember that although the militants that the people use in direction were very small number they're sort of action meant that suddenly many hundreds of thousands women join the constitutional the peaceful suffrage moon as well so it gave them publicity as well there was a huge class divide even back then there was it's important to remember there were working-class women suffrage campaigners always always were in a going way back and among suffragettes absolutely they were working-class suffragettes and suffrage as well as suffragists a peaceful campaigners it's actually the first world war that really changes everything and enables women some women to get the vote after that's that because they had to then take up male jobs whilst a lot of the men were away at war that's part of it absolutely and the other reason that the war was important is because it meant that the working-class men who still could not vote was something like forty percent of men still could not vote by by 1914 they really had to have the vote because they were the ones going off losing their lives in enormous numbers and fighting and so they had to pass an act of parliament to enable all men to have the vote in 1918 you get women over the age of 30 who met minimum property qualifications being allowed to vote now both those things are important the age 30 is important because the reason to that was because if you've given women the vote on the same terms as men and that the women would've outnumbered the men so many men died in the war and that was not politically acceptable obviously the cult culturally it was different at that time but there seems have been a very huge fear factor around women entering into politics yes so for the parliamentarians of course Parliament had always been a male space throughout the centuries now women have been there and the fringes but you know in the tea rooms or watching from the ladies gallery or watching if you go back couple of hundred years women used to have to watch debates through a ventilator shaft in the ceiling so the men couldn't see what see that women were watching them so women were there but they were around the edges and suddenly from 1918 you have the possibility that women might be there in the building and there was a real resistance to this so more some men there you get Nancy Astor who was the first woman MP to take her seat she was a real trailblazer and she had to be because she was the only one and so she had to walk into the house commons on day one is the only woman there the contribution to the Suffragette movement by minority women is virtually unknown what role did they play if any there were certainly indian suffragettes there's a photograph in the Museum of London that shows a delegation of Indian women marching and coronation procession in 1911 and there were and there were other specific groups such as Jewish there was a Jewish League for women's suffrage as well which was founded in nineteen twelve and carried on campaigning some years so women were definitely there minority women and but not always easy to find comparatively life now of course is very different despite the gender deficit that still exists the political process has developed markedly towards progression since 1918 when women first became eligible to be elected as MPs the 70s or further change with a woman securing a position at the helm of British politics Margaret Thatcher she didn't really do very much to encourage women to follow her she got to the top and then pulled the stepladder up behind her she very much challenged the orthodoxy in terms of political thinking not just by the nature of being a sort of strong female was also part of her success but she was she was a force of nature you shouldn't underestimate the impact that she had just by being there a woman at the very highest level in politics I think Margaret Thatcher was a formidable an impressive woman and I think she didn't particularly help women who were coming up behind her she felt I've done it on my own you will have to to the Queen has asked me to form a new administration I have accepted it is across the greatest honor that can come to any citizen in a democracy no matter what the opinion on her leadership or politics Margaret Thatcher was a woman who was first among equals in British politics she held the position of Prime Minister from nineteen seventy nine to nineteen ninety having been reelected for a second term in 1983 making her the longest-serving prime minister in the UK in the 20th century women interestingly make up almost fifty one percent of the population but representation in the House of Commons is less than that at twenty-two percent let's see how and why some of our current female MPs entered into politics so I sort of grew up and going leafletting knocking on doors during election time asking people to vote labour it was the kind of thing that I did at weekends during the Labour Party was about 15 because a local county councillor came to our school to talk about politics and I find it quite interesting the kind of work they were doing but when I was in my teens I started to get involved in Conservative Party as an activist I ended up getting involved actually myself in politics after I finished University I came and worked in Parliament for an MP and I looked at the MPs and I thought well if they can do it there's no reason why I couldn't do it because I was part of that props generation who knew nothing about politics my parents weren't into politics and I did study politics involved in politics at school was never mentioned so it was only when I left University and with some friends who were involved in politics I was lucky enough to get involved with him my husband was a local campaigner he first got elected and that's when I got the book and I'm of the age that was very influenced when mrs. Thatcher became first female Prime Minister it kind of smashed that glass ceiling I actually got into politics because of Margaret Thatcher for the alternative reason which is that she made me incredibly angry women made up less than five percent of parliamentary MPs prior to nineteen eighty seven but from the 1997 general election to the 2010 general election the numbers had inflated and currently stand at twenty-two percent what's happened during this time that augmented numbers in a way previously unseen a piece of legislation was passed in 2002 that allows it permits political parties if they choose to to adopt a quota the Labour Party adopted all women short lists and is used it ever since 2005 and it all had also used it in 1997 the other parties so far have resisted that I think that all women shortlist came out of a feeling within the Labour Party that the Conservatives had an advantage amongst women voters and that the only way they were going to win women's votes was if they had more women representatives they did it for political expediency it wasn't because it was the right thing to do the use of woman shortlist by the labour party since 1997 has been a really significant play in increasing the numbers of women this political practice is now legal but remains extremely controversial and not accepted by all so what's all the fuss about well critics have deemed all women short list as inequitable as they ignore the principle of competition and select candidates based on gender rather than merit although available to all the political parties they are currently only used by the Labour Party I put the arguments against to Labour's MP Shabana Mahmoud who was selected Byron or women shortlist and Russian our ally and Yasmine Qureshi who won their seats via open shot lists if you're really serious about change and making people change their attitudes then sometimes you have to take a blunt instrument to it and frankly for people who think it could have just been done that you could have had a third of the parliamentary Labour Party as women just by you know talking to people and convincing them that they should think about having a woman MP you're living in cloud-cuckoo-land I do understand some people may feel very hard done by but I don't accept the fact that you get a lower quality of candidates from your enormous your list now I don't accept that I bet you my bottom dollar you can tell the difference between women MPs in my party who've been selected through the short list and women MPs who haven't the Tory party don't use or women shortlist however at the tooth ninten general election David Cameron requested an a-list or a priority list of candidates was drawn up in a bid to modernize the Conservative Party in terms of diversity we invited the prime minister to talk about the gender inequality in our political system but he was unavailable however we did catch up with other members of his party to discuss these issues I don't think Ramona shortlist actually make a difference long term and because it doesn't change the culture and the mindset of the people who are out there doing doing the selection when I looked around me sort of the colleagues elected in 2010 I thought that actually we had a very much more diverse group than we achieve before not nearly as diverse as we'd like we just did some research in this last year a cross-party group as were women in Parliament did it and we found that actually even labour of thought they would do women on the shortlist for a short period of time and then actually when they stopped they had to go back to it because it didn't change the numbers at all you know we don't have a name is because I would say to you very clearly we don't need it we have no problem at all with our grassroots activists who are the people that choose the candidates in choosing women and bmi's and people from all sorts of backgrounds when we think about perhaps the failure of the Conservative Party to continue the efforts to the same extent this time round as compared with in 2010 I think some of this is to do with the fact that the leadership has less of a principal position now than perhaps they did then otherwise how does one explain the fact they walked away from a mechanism we invited nick clegg leader of the Liberal Democrats to partake in this documentary but he wasn't available for an interview although his party doesn't use or women shortlist it has been reported in the press recently that Nick Clegg has backed this political practice but says will only implement it if the number of women falls at the upcoming general election I met with women lib dem party members to determine their thoughts on this issue personally I'm in favor of all very short lists i know that's often not a very popular starts to take but i get very frustrated we still only have you know fifth of parliamentarians are women and that's just not good enough speaking personally yes I like the idea of all women short lists I can't persuade my party one of the problems with all women short lists is that the local parties which are forced to have an all one in short list often resent the MP and I have friends who were Labour MPs chosen through all women short lists and sometimes it was fine but others said there was this continuing resentment just bubbling underneath the surface and also as liberals we say we don't want any person to feel that they've got a particular leg up it should be done on their own ability the recent Rao in cannon valley wales has demonstrated that there's some division within your party with regards or women short layers does this hinder incidents like these hinder your progress your efforts in trying to redress the balance within your party when it comes to gender well I'm really determined that we go through with all we've been shortlist they were controversial when we first introduced her in 1997 sometimes they're controversial today but they're generally less controversial than they were we've got a third of our parliamentary Labour Party who are women but that's not enough we want to get to fifty percent women that's when you know that's the only power point of which will rest in terms of our battle to get greater equality in terms of gender representation so we're not there yet we're doing better than other parties but we've got a long way to go and we're going to keep going and what about the the disparity that there's like unhappiness with certain members of your party who don't want to use all women short occasionally you get people who are more skeptical about them but actually over all across our party is widely accepted this is the right thing to do you know I often say that when Harriet Harman my deputy came into Parliament I think it was three percent of parliament were women and so that you to believe that that was fair you'd have to believe that somehow men were 30 times better at the job which of course they're not is rubbish and so we've got to have fair representation we've got to look like the country we seek to serve and that's why I will press ahead and I think that's widely supported in the Labour Party within both Liberal Democrats and the Conservatives has been a big internal debate about this no one really wants on short lives but actually if you want to bring about change kind of got to use them a yougov poll conducted for the times last summer found fifty-six percent of the British public were opposed to the principle of women only short lists are you in favor of all women shortlist not really cuz I think it's a bit hypocrites corn the other side so instead of kind of just being men has to be pure women I think it should be an adequate balance I don't think I am in favor of all women short lists or any kind of positive discrimination but was the problem with that is you don't necessarily get the best people representing you I don't know how someone on that short list will feel if they it might be little their achievements I think it's a tricky question to answer because I can see both sides of the equation if you're that's a high summer for a role you should try and find the best person for that role I'll critics justified in claiming that all women shortlist give the girls an easy ride and not meritocratic well the main political parties are clearly divided more than half of the general public is opposed however what do academics and campaigners for a fairer political system have to say I think for all women short list there is a temporary solution i would take a short and medium term solution the end goal is is that the system is is such that you don't need to challenge the in imbalance because that's been rectified for a level playing field at the moment we don't have that and so we have to circumvent the blockages so talent can come through in which we all benefit my research has shown that not only our women's selected via or min shortlist their backgrounds are no different to those women and men who aren't selected by that way the voters don't discriminate against women from all women shortlist either and then when they're in Parliament if you actually look at the careers they have in the things they do once they're in Parliament they're exactly the same in the past two decades gender quotas have been adopted by more than 100 countries globally to ensure their political systems are more representative of women after the 2010 general election the UK was positioned 55th on the world league charts a political presentation of women well the UK is 65th in the world for women's representation and shockingly we've actually gone down the rankings we should be leading the way not lagging behind I think we have so much to learn from other countries where they've gone from quite a low base often made incredibly rapid progress to get equals numbers of women and men in Parliament and I think what they've shown is that where there's a will there's a way and but then if you look at who often gets elected in those countries and the quota system a lot of them won't be ordinary women who get elected it's often tends to be the mothers arrives the daughters of somebody rich and famous with here the women who do getting elected mostly tend to be women doing it on their own back there is evidence that having more important politics will serve the population better take for example Sweden which has very good levels of female political participation it is much fairer society and it has one of the highest living standards in the world there is also knock-on effect in that there is good female participation in non political spheres as well that's what we want that's what we deserve rwanda has far far more women in their Parliament than we do and I think we need to take some drastic action to make a difference I think once you end up with women in parliament then they tend to stay there and it changes the changes to society changes that their culture and it's more normal to see female MPs when making comparisons between the three main political parties the numbers look like this in terms of female MP representation the Labour Party leads the way with 33.5 percent the Conservatives and the lib dems have 15 point eight percent and twelve point five percent respectively the others make up eighteen percent the overall total being twenty two point six percent since the suffragettes fought for the right to vote our political institutions have progressed significantly there are more women in the UK Parliament today than ever and they have more access to Parliament than in the past but a huge deficit still exists and there's still a woeful lack of senior represent tation of women in politics the 2014 cabinet reshuffle by David Cameron was heralded as a move to freshen up the image of the Conservative Party ahead of the 2015 general election the overall number of women cabinet members currently stands at five all members of the Conservative Party Home Secretary Theresa May education secretary in Nicky Morgan Environment Secretary liz truss interior development secretary Justine Greening and northern Island Secretary Theresa Villiers although not cabinet ministers MP Esther McVey Baroness Stowell of beeston and Baroness annalee of st. John's also attend cabinet the women are notably outnumbered by 17 men many critics said David Cameron could have done a lot more you know he's purported to have double the figure at that time he was boasting but what can you say on that well I think needs government has done enough in terms of women's representation I'm proud over forty percent of our shadow cabinet are women but you know we've got to get to fifty percent we need to get to a 50-percent cabinet and we need to get fifty percent representation in Parliament as well I mean he now has the same number of ministers in government has Gordon Brown had under the last government in but remember the Conservative Party I'm the lib dems as a coalition we're starting from a much lower be so of women you can really run the risk of promoting people too soon and then they let themselves down you know I just think you know I will do all I can to make sure that the skills and abilities and experience of the female MPs that we have are continually being been promoted so that so that actually they know what we can deliver and what we can bring in to minister ranks and above interestingly despite Britain having the ruling coalition female members of the cabinets are only represented by the Conservative Party and not the Liberal Democrats one of the difficulties the parties faced i think has been that our MPs women MPs have been quite junior quite new to Parliament and may not have had the experience but I know they're capable in the case of the people who Cameron would have been promoting specifically the women most of them would only have come into Parliament in 2010 so they would have had for getting on for five years of experience now whether or not that's enough experience to be promoted to the cabinet is arguable however you could also make the argument that in some cases you can not worry about the experience argument and instead focus on just getting more women into Parliament the ethnic composition of the cabinet rarely sees much change and the latest reshuffle saw many white men departing government but only to be replaced by others the only non-white cabinet minister is culture secretaries Sajid Javid who is of pakistani heritage although she resigned her position last year syeda warsi merits a special mention as being the first Muslim and ethnic minority woman to attend the cabinet

Eisenhower Farewell Address (Best Quality) – 'Military Industrial Complex' WARNING

from the White House in the office of the President of the United States we present an address by Dwight d Eisenhower this is the farewell address for President Eisenhower who's eight years as chief executive come to an end at noon Friday mr. Eisenhower has chosen this time for his final speech ladies and gentlemen the President of the United States good evening my fellow Americans first I should like to express my gratitude to the radio and television networks for the opportunities they have given me over the years to bring reports and messages to our nation my special thanks go to them for the opportunity of addressing you this evening three days from now after half a century in the service of our country I shall lay down the responsibilities of office as in traditional and solemn ceremony the authority of the presidency is vested in my successor this evening I come to you with a message of leave-taking and farewell and to share a few final thoughts with you my countrymen like every other City I like every other citizen I wish the new President and all who were labor with him Godspeed I pray that the coming years will be blessed with peace and prosperity for all our people expect their president and the Congress to find essential agreement on issues of great moment the wise resolution of which will better shape the future of the nation my own relations with the Congress which began on a remote and tenuous basis when long ago a member of the Senate appointed me to West Point have since range to the intamin during the war an immediate post-war period and finally to the mutually interdependent during these past eight years in this final relationship the Congress and the administration have on most vital shus cooperated well – certainly the nation good rather than mere partisanship and so have assured that the business of the nation should go forward so my official relationship with the Congress ends in a feeling on my part of gratitude that we have been able to do so much together we now stand 10 years past the midpoint of a century that has witnessed four major Wars among great nations three of these involve our own country despite these holocaust America is today the strongest the most influential and most productive nation in the world understandably proud of this preeminence we yet realize that America's leadership and prestige depend not merely upon our unmatched material progress riches and military strength but on how we use our power in the interests of world peace and human veterans throughout America's adventure in freeing government our basic purposes have been to keep the peace to foster progress in human achievement and to enhance liberty dignity and integrity among peoples and among nations to strive for less would be unworthy of a free and religious people any failure traceable to arrogance or our lack of comprehension or readiness to sacrifice would inflict upon us grievous hurt both at home and abroad progress toward these noble goals is persistently threatened by the conflict now engulfing the world it commands our whole attention absorbs our very beings we face a hostile ideology global in scope atheistic in character ruthless in purpose and insidious in method unhappily the danger it poses promises to be indefinite duration to meet it successfully there is call for not so much the emotional and transitory sacrifices of crisis but rather those which enable us to carry forward steadily surely and without complaint the burdens of a prolonged and complex struggle with liberty the state only thus shall we remain despite every provocation on our charted course toward permanent peace and human betterment crises there will continue to be in meeting them whether foreign or domestic great or small there is a recurring temptation to feel that some spectacular and costly action could become the miraculous solution to all current difficulties a huge increase in newer elements of our defenses development of unrealistic programs to cure every ill in agriculture a dramatic expansion in basic and Applied Research these and many other possibilities each possibly promising in itself may be suggested as the only way to the road we wish to travel but each proposal must be weighed in the light of a broader consideration the need to maintain balance in and among national programs balance between the private and the public economy balance between the cost and hoped for advantages balance between the clearly necessary and the comfortably desirable balance between our essential requirements as a nation and the duties imposed by the nation upon the individual balance between actions at the moment and the national welfare of the future good judgement seeks balance in progress lack of it he eventually finds imbalance and frustration the record of many decades stands as proof that our people and their government have in the main understood these truths and have responded to them well in the face of threat and stress but threats new in kind or degree constantly arrives of these I mentioned to only a vital element in keeping the peace as our military establishment our arms must be mighty ready for instant actions so that no potential aggressor may be tempted to risk his own destruction our military organization today bears little relation to that known of any of my predecessors in peacetime or indeed by the fighting men of World War two or Korea until the latest of our world conflicts the United States had no armaments industry American makers of plowshares could with time and as required make swords as well but we can no longer risk emergency improvisation of national defense we have been compelled to create a permanent armaments industry of vast proportions added to this three and a half million men and women are directly engaged in the defense establishment we annually spend on military security alone more than the net income of all United States cooperation corporations now this conjunction of an immense military establishment and a large arms industry is new in the American experience the total influence economic political even spiritual is felt in every city every state house every office of the federal government we recognize the imperative need for this development yet we must not fail to comprehend its grave implications our toil resources and livelihood are all involved so is the very structure of our society in the council's of government we must car guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence whether sought or unsought by the military-industrial complex the potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist we must never let the weight of this combination endanger our liberties or democratic processes we should take nothing for granted only an alert and knowledgeable citizenry can compel the proper meshing of the huge industrial and military machinery of Defense with our peaceful methods and goals so that security and liberty may prosper together akin to and largely responsible for the sweeping changes in our industrial military posture has been the technological revolution during recent decades in this revolution research research has become central it also becomes more formalized complex and costly a steadily increasing share is conducted for by or at the direction of the federal government today the solitary inventor tinkering in his shop has been overshadowed by task forces of scientists in laboratories and testing fields in the same fashion the Free University versity historically The Fountainhead of free ideas and scientific discovery has experienced a revolution in the conduct of research partly because of the huge costs involved a government contract becomes virtually a substitute for intellectual curiosity for every old blackboard there are now hundreds of new electronic computers the prospect of domination of the nation's scholars by federal employment project allocations and the power of money is ever-present and is greatly to be regarded yet in holdings research and discovery in respect as we should we must also be alert to the equal and opposite danger that public policy could itself become the captive of a scientific technological elite is the task of statesmanship to mold to balance and to integrate these and other forces new and old within the principles of our democratic system ever aiming toward the supreme goals of our free society another factor in maintaining balance involves the element time as we peer into society's future we you and I and our government must avoid the impulse to live only for today plundering for our own ease and convenience the precious resources of tomorrow's we cannot mortgage the material assets of our grandchildren without risking the loss also of their political and spiritual heritage we want democracy to survive for all generations to come not to become the insolvent family of tomorrow during the long lane of the history yet to be written America knows that this world of ours ever growing smaller must avoid becoming a community of dreadful fear and hate and be instead a proud Confederation a mutual trust and respect such a confederation must be one of equals the weakest must come to the conference table with the same competence as do we protected as we are by our moral economic and military strength that table those scarred by many fast frustration past frustrations cannot be abandoned for the certainty agony of dishonor of the battlefield disarmament with mutual honour and competence is a continuing imperative together we must learn how to compose differences not with arms but with intellect and decent purpose because this need is so sharp and apparently I confess that I lay down and my official responsibilities in this field with a definite sense of disappointment as one who has witnessed the horror and the lingering sadness award as one who knows that another war could utter Li destroy this civilization which has been so slowly and painfully built over thousands of years I wish I could say tonight that a lasting peace is in sight happily I can say that war has been avoided steady progress toward our ultimate goal has been made but so much remains to be done as a private citizen I shall never cease to do what little I can to help the world advance along that road so in this my last good night to you is your president I thank you for the many opportunities you have given me for public service in war and in peace I trust in that in that in that service you find some things worthy as for the rest of it I know you will find ways to improve performance in the future you and I my fellow citizens need to be strong in our faith that all nations under God will reach the goal of peace with justice may we be ever unswerving in devotion to principle confident but humble with power diligent in pursuit of the nation's great goals to all the peoples of the world I once more give expression to America's prayerful and continuing aspiration we pray that peoples of all faiths all races all nations may have their great human needs satisfied that those now denied opportunity shall come to enjoy it to the full that all who yearn for freedom may experience its few spiritual blessings those who have freedom will understand also it's heavy responsibility that all who are insensitive to the needs of others will learn charity and that the sources scourge ease of poverty disease and ignorance will be made disappear from the earth and that in the goodness of time all peoples will come to live together in a peace guaranteed by the binding force of mutual respect and love now on Friday noon I am to become a private citizen I am proud to do so I look forward to it thank you a good we have presented the farewell address by the President of the United States Dwight D Eisenhower who spoke this evening from his office in the White House

How to be a Professional Politician

hi I'm Dick rauscher I'm going to be talking today a little bit about mastering the skills to become a professional politician I kind of had fun writing this one because I've moved into irony a little bit I've thought it might be fun to play with a little more ironic point of view in terms of politicians etc scale number one in the article for example is learn how to speak in sound bites of six to eight words nobody really likes all the details because they get boring so keep it really really simple skill number two is for example learn how to court only wealthy donors scale number three for example is learn how to help the one percent and the multinational corporations that are doing all the greedy exploitation of our planet help them to distance from the results of all of their greed and their control good mornings going if you click on one of the buttons below it will take it to the article if you click on the other button it will take it to the signup page for the Stony Hill nugget newsletter just as an aside we're taking we're doing this video right now on the hike at Fall River it's the Fall River Campground hike along the river that comes out of a spring off up to upstream we're going to walk up there and take a look at it this is a beautiful hike you want to see a little bit more about it go to RV travels dotnet we're going to do a kind of a video coverage of this hike it's really pretty don't miss it you're ever in this area this is a good one okay we'll see you down the road have a good week you

What Millennials Think About Politics

when you hear the word socialism what do you think of that is that a positive or negative in your mind um right now I think it is more of a positive Millennials who are they what do they believe why do we care we visited a college campus to talk with some of these young mysterious creatures who may hold the keys to the country's political future and we asked for some help from Reason Foundation polling director Emily Eakins who happens to be a millennial herself go ahead and mock Generation selfie all you want but ikan says politicians and activists from all sides of the spectrum dismissed the Millennials at their own peril there are three major reasons why we should care about the Millennial Generation one they're one of the largest generations we've seen in American history – they're very diverse and have a lot we have a lot of new Americans in this generation the third reason is that Millennials came of a politically impressionable age during the post 9/11 era with ballooning government spending too unpopular Wars and then the Great Recession these are things that will forever impact their political judgments in their voting behavior even as they get older and as a result we want to understand what they think because that helps us understand how our politics will change in the future when they start to vote more how do you describe yourself politically liberal conservative something else no I'm more liberal I think liberal I was usually many more liberal but I guess it depends on the topic I've grown up in a very conservative household so um but I've been open to a lot of liberal views what we're finding is that young Americans today are increasingly more comfortable using the word liberal than older Americans in fact they're twice as likely to self-identify as liberal and about half as likely to identify as conservative I don't really have a political affiliation but I guess if you were to define it be a moderate between liberal conservative money-wise I'm kind of a moderate but social issues rising pretty liberal a lot of people have prematurely concluded that young people are liberals and that's actually not true they're not liberals they're social liberals 62% self-identified as socially liberal but only 49% said that they were economically liberal so that average millennial that average you might talk to on the street it's probably going to be a social liberal and pretty moderate on the economic issues do you prefer Democrats or Republicans or nits neither I don't like the two-party system there's things I agree from one party that I don't agree with the other and vice versa so I just have to really kind of figure out which one I'm more leaning towards right now it's neither I'm kind of angry at both I would I vote a Democrat before for a bomb election but right now it just seems like a big ol like party and they're kind of working or conniving together young people are three times as likely as Americans over 30 to self-identify as politically independent a third of them saying no they don't lean towards either of the two major political parties both the Democratic and Republican parties will need to take note of young people Democrats may feel that they kind of have the millennial generation in their pockets and that is not accurate why do you think that is that people around this age just don't trust either party um they get a lot of their information on internet there's a lot that comes to light so you can see the inconsistencies well wellness at all you know we're gonna get out of all these wars we're gonna stop doing these things a lot of people are like you know that's that's a good idea you know we don't need to be wasting our time and battles that are pointless and then lo and behold we're still doing all the same thing so even though Obama said he was going to try and take the chips out I don't think that's enough young people still like President Obama but they are disappointed in him now he won the election with 60% of the youth vote however today only a slim majority about 51% they'll still say they approve of his job performance but that doesn't mean they're happy with everything that is transpired during his administration when you hear the word socialism what do you think of that is that a positive or negative in your mind um right now I think of it as more of a positive because it's like I think our country could use it a little bit more for me socialism I see it as a min between because uh is this portion of wealth in this country people tend to have a negative perception of it probably due to Russia those kind of things but now I have no negative connotation towards that it's kind of a loaded term because you know socialism can go anywhere from like you know Stalinist Russia just to a country like you know like Sweden or Norway you know which is doing pretty well for itself what's happening here is that young people don't know what the word socialism means a government managed economy isn't even socialism that's socialism light but if they were to understand that socialism meant government running Facebook Amazon uber they would not like that would you like to see the government or politicians kind of making decisions about you know who makes what products or do you think that's best left to the market I think that's best left to the market I guess you know being born in the US in raised here I'd I prefer free-market have a positive view of entrepreneurs and small business um for the most part yeah I can't knock anyone for trying to get their ideas off the ground because I mean eventually I hope I could do something like that it is for a business that you want to start um not right now it's just you know I know I kind of want to start one yet you put down ten grand you can get a loan for that amount it started franchise we have a great opportunity where they'll just build the building for you and you become an operator owner that's one opportunity in America you couldn't get that in say China young people have a different language than older people especially a different political language and as a result people should be as precise and specific as possible when they talk about politics not making big generalizations about socialism or capitalism or big government those things don't convey the meaning that they used to they need to be specific about what government is doing how its doing it and who's paying for it once young people learn that they're paying for things that really changes how they approach politics do you think government spends money wisely no I definitely don't think they spend money wisely should take out money from war and put an inch our education military industrial complex that kind of thing I think they spent too much like I said in the defense ministry like supporting countries that maybe shouldn't be we need to be more concrete when we talk to young people and be specific in the words that we use words like capitalism and socialism language from the Cold War post-world war ii era is just not going to work because those words of lost meaning