God, Government and Good Hair: Personality over Party Politics in US Elections, Dr Mark Shanahan



this is a recording from the Congress to campus conference at reading blue coat school on 2nd March 2015 the conference was sponsored by the eccles center for american studies at the British Library and the british association for american studies with support from the u.s. embassy london this session is entitled God government and good hair personality / party politics in u.s. elections and the speaker is dr. mark Shanahan with discussion from four members of Congress Claudine Schneider and Dennis hurtle it's interesting that people are looking bad backgrounds and house get into things I'm very old but I got my PhD last year I had 25 years plus in journalism and in corporate communications coming off the back of an English degree at Manchester University ah I think on the weakest link and I 1 and I thought I was clever and I went into the Masters and then I went on mastermind and I can last I'm very glad it's not one of the episodes that you can easily find but the Masters led into a PhD and while I was doing my PhD I started teaching I found I really really liked it and I found I was absolutely fascinated by America and American politics I teach British and American politics now we do it comparatively are you can take modules in each or you can we're actually working on a module at reading now where we look across different systems of government I love the American system because it's absolutely mad and it brings in a lot of good aspects it was trying but the when it's framed with the founding fathers to be very different from what had gone before never to enable dictators to rise so we get presidents and we get services and we get house representatives I would get all sorts of other things so we got all of those wonderful people there but when you go to the polls you will see something that the original founding fathers didn't think of they didn't think of parties I'm trying to get away from passage they were trying to get away from the idea party european thing they didn't want it because it would cause conflict and actually this was government of the people by the people for the people it's very easy when you start and you've got a small colony and nowhere is more than about four days ride away from the center so you want to raise an issue you can do it you can do it yourself and then you can head to Washington wherever it may be and do it as America spread and it grew and I've even with the first 13 states it was huge if you wanted to go from South Carolina to Washington it could be over 500 months you can't do that on your own as your own representative for one of the founding fathers didn't right beside your factions actually is it can help Society or is it gonna hinder it is it going to break it up make things more difficult are you actually going to be able to represent other citizens if actually can maybe make your other influences on you if somebody is pulling the party strings the kind of wid thing that were very used to impart some politics over it but funny enough that's how it grew that's how it did others ah but hey george washington some other guys who slipped up and he didn't want parties so we have a system that doesn't have taught each it makes very simple elections and you get election bones like so how many of you will actually go over to vote on myself for sure you go to verse say yes good you'll get a vote who you're going to be basing for you get I'll no I'm not asking for the party you voting for a particular party are you facing to the Prime Minister do you get to like the Prime Minister hmm not under our system but in the United States the good people of Washington house in this set a Minnesota who vote for Mitt Romney and Paul Ryan ferret Obama and Joe Biden actually a whole load of other people as well I've got on one T father doesn't just realized it's a touchscreen system yeah ah equally may give you space masculine this is national level down here this is us saying this is the US representatives never candidates that they're also basing the state offices because under the the way that the government is split between the federal offices Amin the state do you also have honest parallel organization operating in state level so you pick your state people who want to know we also had a constitutional amendment there in Minnesota they're also facing at county level and this was the one that really got me the Soil and Water Conservation District Supervisor how cool would it be to bring the Soil and Water District conservation supervisor and beyond the same ticket the same valet / ask Barrack Obama I think that is pretty cool that's not going to happen over here but what happens when you've actually vote one party all the way through the line probably not you're going to look at individuals who put themselves in front of you who have raised their ideas with you who may be tackling a local issue who may be coming from a course area who may be backed by a group of people who you support you might actually go yeah I'm going Democrat over here i'm going to pumpkin over here and you pick and choose so actually we don't get um how we go back to 2010 we all agreed with nick and the Liberals better all the world's over here think by half ah but you're more likely to get splitting closing you're more likely not get one party through the line in elections what makes people interested about our actions have how would your interest be raised what would you look to so I'm a horrible lecture I asked question parents okay so personal opinions around you what about when you switch on actually you guys don't watch television or you don't watch it linearly or sequentially but when you go and you're really bored in lesson then you hit google page one and you're going right and find politics story would you look at websites and TV or that kind of stuff I hope you do I hope it stimulates you is it a new thing websites relatively new what about television how high do you think that goes back in terms of political coverage 1550s how about fifth to 10 this may or may not work it was like not quite um President Eisenhower the Bison how was a hero I still have one the wall all on his own but it was the Supreme Commander in the European theater I nobody knew what his politics were I'm working on this work at the moment that suggests he may have had it in his mind that he was going to run for president from the end of the walk ah general history says it's much much later he could have been picked by the Democrats in Portillo eventually when he does run he runs his Republic's and he has a very clever guy working for him who manages a TV campaign and says this new medium television which has just come out we've already sold 73 million sets in America 73 million sets which brand news had only actually been around for about four years at the time the guy realized if we buy advertising spots in all the premier television shows at the time I Love Lucy comedy show stuff like that in the gaps or TV is commercial we're going to get one over on our political opponents if this works I hope it does this is the first-ever presidential TV at let's say I might have sought from is even better otherwise I had to sing it you don't want to hear me sing it that something might start going and start moving clearly people are we just let it down basic because i like i like like I bike for precedence good slogan kind of stakes vice president running with him at the time was guy called dick Nixon they also had slogan for deck which is very similar but I'm not going to repeat that is not going to work now so we'll get rid of it this could blow the presentation sky-high us because we move on it seems to work for I he's the guy got the red stones there's a lot of the movies are very sweeping victory to 39 states at that time there were only 48 to States of America don't come on until the end of fifties ah absolutely slow to that likes taking some loose or no virtue whatsoever in using advertising in using this kind of television ha it's a fad no one's going to take it out ah we move forward to nineteen sixty some more famous one it's one that everybody at Reading University where I am right so sakes about and the influence of television on campaign ah we have John F Kennedy fresh young ah good haircut smart suit excellent rhetoric very good speech writers who's standing against dick Nixon dick Nixon has been the vice president for eight years already he is well known is he particularly liked he's maybe not quite such a likeable character he's only actually four years olds of in Canada ah dick Nixon decisis going to come home in every state he's going to campaign all across country while he's campaigning with fascists knee on the door he ends up in hospital he loses a lot of weight he turns up at the first TV debate the first time ever presidential candidates have got together and have spacing issues and he turns up in a pail of racing's pale racing that he's also looking pale and himself this is a guy who can grow a beard in a day see this gentleman's bid over here take medicine can grow that beard remaining the ball you freely after me ah he left stubborn he looks and shamed he doesn't look very healthy he's lost 20 pounds his six is hanging up in a little bit bad choice of soup not least because even though color television exists at this time it doesn't exist for live broadcasting and this is a live band Kennedy has been briefed brilliantly but he has makeup it covers up the sweaty sheen dick Nixon doesn't have to hang up it looks a bit shady there is a kind of a myth that says those who watched the television thought that Kennedy won the debate and those who listen to the radio thought that Nixon it it's a wonderful part of the myth of hindsight because there are actually no firm statistics that show I'd like there was study on the radio it involved 280 people i think professor Davis would probably say that in a country that probably at that time is 250 million are 200 odd people isn't really a viable sample but what we have is Kennedy realizing that it's not about mrs. doctors it's not about going around from states take anymore you're going to reach people through the medium they're most comfortable with you're going to get to them a tee time on the news if you have a good thing to say it's a follow-up picture there that shows by the time the second and third debates camera he makes an advantage lesson he's using makeup is in a dark suit a dark-type is making the right impression but maybe he had already lost the election and there is interesting thing too is that when he ran again in 68 and in 72 there are no televised debates doesn't want to get burns twice a cost daddy we had to thanks for everything 2012 you got a Republican driving that just looks like the worst ever episode of tape where it I don't action look that much better when I get down there one shocking thing I find still is that there is only one woman to that line michelle bachman there but everybody now is in the starch press white shirt they're all in smart Tyler in the dark suit and it's about presenting an image but is it just about presenting an images at the right kind of image or is it about getting policy person if it's back in policy processing across is it ideological is exposing it's an interesting thing my hypothesis if like is that it's about individuals I'm tempted to show a little video about Rick Perry might not so I might just jump on but essentially during the questioning they reached else how they would address agency if each of these candidates were elected and became the president of the United States what would they do if they got to Washington and of course Rick Perry sometimes worth what I need to do is get rid of three agencies three big agencies in government hello this one and this one and then he forgets number three and at that moment repairing is no longer a viable presidential Council because he is being scrutinized by the courts on television he's being scrutinized by the nation of his peers who might not actually know that much beyond what they see on television about his policies they may not particularly know where he comes from on the spectrum in terms of Republicans if that's Hiller the hell is here then make me wreck is just a little bit to the right ah but all they're saying is this very very almost cut English image someone who loves their lines on television he can't remember what he was meant to say he spent the last five years trying to recover from that and may still himself forward in 26 days ah but what we get is led about lest of our policy and more about a beauty contest if you've got the good hair if you've got a good teeth maybe you're going to attract the money that will enable you to run ah rick is therapist still I want to show this while we see if it works if not we'll just jump on again because there is something else that comes out in American politics like we really don't get over here America is a far more religious nation I am so glad I put so much YouTube in this presentation it's working so well um candidates will come out and talk about God havoc candidates you talk about God's in bro get on hello everyone what do we think about Tony Blair when we started talking about face did that make you think I would a wonderful man Tony Blair is absolutely not i dint for me it's a little bit crazy but it's hugely different things though to go prepared when i won so we will move on dry and work to Lane out of time it's rather different in fact we've got owned such five percent of all Americans claim that they are people of faith forty-four percent of americans claimed to be Protestant twenty-four percent of all Americans claim speak Evangelical Protestant twenty-four percent one in for one in four of the vote that is a very big constituencies that you want to win or some people want with some people will go out on a limb to pick up that kind of out does it winning practice 1980 quite possibly Ronald Reagan goes to a conference where he is surrounded by evangelical Christians it's a bipartisan conference though it's not specifically Republican so he stands there and says I know this isn't about endorsing me I know you can't endorsement but I endorse you he's percentage of the votes among that constituents just went like that overnight it was influential maybe not um totally driving lights or Raven's wing I think he was always gonna win but it helped his cause very considerably more recently with George Bush II have George Bush jr. are bringing out an agency within Washington about faith effects can't exactly remember the name of it but then he gets usually criticized because it's not seem to actually deliver anything but if you're going to invoke God's on your platform for election maybe carry it through to what you do there are a lot of politicians and I say politicians rather than governments are people within Washington who will carry their cross with them in the election and then hang it on the door once they're getting to Washington very different walking we are why is also very different is money seven billion dollars for the twenty twelve elections seven billion dollars that would almost pay my salary for a week ah in Fairyland we talked panic in the last hour session here where's that money come from well due to the Supreme Court it is now much easier for it to come anonymously all through groups who again are not passive for the answers if they decide on candidates who they would like to win they can put money whether it's directly or some round the corners into that campaigns make it HAP if you're in the House of Representatives how often do you get electrical sorry how often do you have to run for election every ten years five years four years three years Cheers excellent if that man star Baker every two years so as soon as you get to Washington having done all of the hard work to raise the money and we can talk about how much money it is ah in the house run the winning race these days one and a half million dollar since I said go right go to the Senate eleven and a half million dollars do you get that too i get there if i'm running as a candidate and i walk around and i start canvassing you all individually hey so my tweets when each other's the hand of John's the two hundred dollars that come in but it's not gonna matter that much so you have got to look for big money that big money might come from lobbying organization sort of thrill of evil no sections they might be lobbying for something that is very important in your state it might be the catfish industry in Louisiana supporting you or it could be walk behind it or something to find this contractor you are responsible to your constituents when you go to Washington but who's going to be knocking on the door first people be back so quick right way there is I on something in return from people putting my money in and by the way here's a policy that's coming up I likely to take my side of it so it's quite a balancing act there is a huge balancing act between what exactly you're there in Washington to do and increasingly it's making it harder to drive through big legislation because there is so much compete competition for the share of your brains when you're sitting there whether as a senator or in the house and for the share of your voting time and to the share of your policy making so we actually get an awful lot of bills supporting national catfish day in Louisiana and increasingly over the last few rounds of Congress fewer and fewer big important laws being passed on language give any money to these guys this is the British quinn's here or lovely chaps possibly don't have the hair the teeth or necessarily got um so what about Parsons parties did have a traditional roller parties brings together people some cheap control of government policies hey grumbles their interests all of the groups that support them as organized and persuade voters to elect their candidates to office fairly standard definition it be very quite possibly comes from Phil Davison's book she wrote that we keep in davis buy it ah how important is that now i would suggest and my colleagues here may well disagree when we get into the conversation that it becomes less importance but now it is more and more about the individual and who is backing that individual that's fun um so let's look at an individual race my video is not going to work is it so I'm probably are not even going to bother looking at the video there you want to get my slides out which you can and this hours and hours now so rich content behind ah these two guys good hair good teeth nice tights I'm writing for racing Massachusetts in the midterm we have Seth Moulton says oh here is Democrat are you can see very clear difference in the station to them with Richard over here who is the Republican I mean they just look so obviously different immediately don't they um if I was to say to you one of them was gay Mary's a realtor who made his big claim to live on Main Street next door to bomb politically who would you expect Democrat right close your eyes no shop no peeping put your hands in the air if you think that gay married man lives on Main Street is Democrat so see if you do with your eyes up then that you can let your not ridiculed at all when I tell you just how many of you are wrong see mr. Republican Richard Tisei a long time state politician many holes in State Politics for about 20 years very much from the moderate end of the Republicans say is Action Man he's been a captain who's been to Iraq uh he's platoon leader he's had the Bronze Star and various other awards which he keeps out of the media until it's oozing just before voting though I've sick of you yes though because it's not him who brings it into the public domain it's Boston work but I suspect someone tipped off the paper the Boston Globe they are very hard to differentiate between what they both do is a little bit of negative advertising on each other ah Moulton looks bad to say saying he's a Stakes proposition what's he cheat in 20 years he's done nothing if you like him you're just elected more of the same nothing will change professional conversation politics is dirty word are you going to Washington to change things and funny laughs both in primary he has been through then through two saves negative advertising very much American concept as well ah we get to say having a pop of Muslims own waste his money coming from he's raised millions of dollars and he was raised from out of state how is he going to represent you if all of the money he's racing actually comes from tax outside the state who are donating not so about the longshoremen of of of north of Boston get their rights but so that what policy he does get to raise in Washington actually represents those big money sources when it comes down to it Seth Moulton wins easily about 12 percentage points ahead of the other but it was a interesting right it's very interesting we followed it at Reading University by social media thanks week since our we study tweeting to them and the best thing was they started tweeting back little University thousands miles away why didn't matter because we asking some quite further questions and we are some clever questions that wasn't just meets you sending an email which can be ignored but by sticking on by sticking it on their twitter p and they actually had to respond and maybe that's where things are going soon there's 12 points I'd like to pick up before we go how do you get elected in America good hair good teeth ah Henry wrote a book out last year Henry I think will be the Democratic presidential candidate essentially she got all of her policy into her book hard choices if you just if you read it it's the Hillary manifesto dressed up in the book about her time as Secretary of stuff very good she basic very very highly with you cancel that image New York Times put out an image like that that's been revoked every day here down blasts on she scored considerably lower on that picture more candid pictures of just the everyday person rather than the average person I'm chris Christie should be up against the vase pushed risky after the hurricane hit the Jersey Shore in 2012 with Obama hammock is just so cool it just exudes coolness were going there chris Christie good politician had been a trouble with the bridge but not so cool in that picture chris is working on it Chris will never be a thin guy but has lost over 100 pounds it matters Tencent's matter don't ever ever ever ever go and address the nation dressed in a tensor Barack Obama might have had something really really really important to say that day but the news for the next two three four days was not about what came out of his mouth on what was hanging off his shoulders remember those Republicans in 2012 dachshunds white shows good ties fat suit okay you still he still Google News friends with Jesse where do we go now my final points after that there is a paradigm shift in communication we've got an awful long way from I like I like everybody likes like for president um we've got a long way from TV debates where the two finalists Republican and the Democrats can be like stand and are brilliant on television for your benefit what happens in 2018 2012 is that Barack Obama wipes the floor on social media with his opponents but what happens is that we get a very old-style use of social media it is social media treated like any other communication channel so the campaign team at the top are going to put out messages and you're going to respond all you're going to spread them around it's changing that kind of misses the point of twitter or facebook of snapchat but whatever it may be who is the message on those channels come on first time voters you are the digital natives us guys at the front we've learned this this is learned behavior we kind of bring in what we've done before to how we do it now who ends the conversation with Twitter it's about a part of Twitter and good he just owns everything probably the world I guess rich enough you can probably find on presidential candidate all on his own you guys own the message should it be for me presidential candidates be telling you staff or should you be raising conversations sharing the conversations asking questions making it much more to mock retires to communication taking the power of the media out of the hands of the people at the center I'm putting it much more in the hands of the election I suspect list in progression into the 2016 election it may take one or two more rounds before we really switch haribo social communication but the days where you can just go in on an advertising spot and talk out people are going the days when all of you guys are just chatting with the television and it doesn't answer back are going now you can change my last question for you kind of the end of november 2016 who will be preston for me sometimes any thoughts clinton what bills going to make come back laughing yeah so Hillary anyone else jeb bush so we could have Bush versus Clinton haven't been there before um actually are suspected be Barack Obama because he won't actually leave office until January 2007 seen but that was a really bad joke and to finish thanks for your time I do weddings bar mitzvahs we have some time for questions before that I like clothing and Dennis to come back up and it is anything that you sing on there that you would like to respond to and should i leave for it now oh that's like I'd rather hear from the students I don't really want this attitude so happy to answer your questions okay get on the pulse of it social media as well and on our knees people constantly get campaign someone I will just be like an advert it's just like a watch your phone it's exactly the same there's no sort of personal aspect to it I mean point for social media in this sense i think the way forward for you can takes us to youth Alex using the way people can use Twitter for personal reasons obviously every single thing to be about politics and I took one that same principle that the abridgement needs to take that model because we use projects as a boring candidate why not particularly exciting I think of this the social media is the way forward show how really people are is that a naive way to look at it was up so excited yes I am absolutely and firmly with you I'm not sure that political strategists that pulls up yeah political strategists will tend to be of my generation and the generation younger than meter from carex generation them and we have learnt we haven't grown up with fat thumbs and with a phone actually grafted to our heads and we actually use phone sometimes my calls with voice have you have done that it's rich quite good aah and send texts and stuff like that so yeah I know is it something across over how Regina was the first person to actually move on that you know and media ticket far enough and of course he faltered when he yelled after the talkers could he have taken too far enough so President Obama really has taken it as far as any politician if you make a major change and that's how I want of the second election because he was able to pick out you know a Democrat leader precinct where there was you know eighty-five percent Republicans it deems it will pick up the Democrats to social media keep them going you know throughout the election and get him to turn out and vote and it made the difference now in addition to that were they the really important thing that no one ever talks about is that he was able to get average people to contribute to his campaign she had a janitor you know when in Detroit high school giving 10 hours a month and you had people have never been involved in politics whatsoever because the truth is nobody wants to check in general oh you know unless unless they want something ever citizens don't write and contribute to campaigns and it's been getting worse in that regard and ever since George Washington first ran for office when he lost with the House of Delegates Martin Burgess in Virginia he was outspent he made sure that he was never outspent again and back any lot more beer of liquor and wine for the voters and he made sure that he always one vote you know politics is always been that way and usually the person who for local office or for Congress or for president but as most money wins that's true um but we have exceptions we've seen mr. Cantor in Virginia who was the you know majority Republican leader who lost a re-election is primary overwhelmingly about over 24 no he got Spanish at home about a 100 one more so there's still exceptions but day in and day out whoever has the most money place so yeah I think social media is a future I agree the professor that the older campaign people have instead it real probably I've talked about today is this idea of raising money when i ran i reached 120,000 had to borrow a part of that my opponent spent five hundred thousand that was in nineteen eighty I 1998 Congress it was a million dollars from open sea of about twenty forty million dollars we've had a seat in Michigan just a congressional house seat for 40 million a set of risks are always in depth in that league of extraordinary amounts of money the second problem isn't even when the Democrats can raise the money he went there the majority with him president to the majority of the House and Senate it could raise it up line they obviously don't know how to spend it because I'll ask any of you to show me 11 political ad the Democrats have had over the last four years that made a difference or we can have a message because they're camping they have no message at all I mean it's not message where you're running for reelection of the United States Senate to say you know it's true that I've been here 12 years 18 years six years and it's true that I voted eighty-five ninety percent with the president but you know I don't agree with the president or anything and I'm not really Democrat I've got him an independent guy so reelect me as a Democrat did work you know so we are a lot of because those people have not yet admitted the truth that people know more today they're not going to be relying on the television commercials have to watch because they take their television shows and they're going to zap through all that you know I ended you know newspapers don't really exist so who's going to read and newspapers or the editorial page except for acceptor so the president's people did show us what you can do with social media but no one else has yet realized it more questions comments prayer those yep do you think we place too much emphasis on social media in politics today and azeri it has great potential but our current situation because too much is too much crap I'll give me if you like the academic perspective I will defer for practitioner perspective ah you're not one homogenous audience people who don't vote at the moment a young people well that this side of the polls are over in the states and what candidates wherever they are need to realize is that they have to connect with you as young voters find some common perspective some area of interest that is of interest to you and motivate you to do something that is actually really hard which is to get up to get down to the polling booths and to demonstrate your your right as a system and it becomes harder and other ppl develops are old people who made him do it through sense geez you're free having always done if you're looking at policy works in the UK or in the US and we see nothing that you can connect with why would you bother to vote so politicians have to find those points connection and with younger people at the moment one of the ways to do that is through social media I much rather it's situations like this when we see Ashley to know what these are real flesh-and-blood people do not something I mental image that comes through TV screen so I think social media is very very important I think it will become increasingly important but it's by no means the Oriental and those digital agencies who go in and say whatever the question is the answer is social media are actually has to wake up to the fact that there are a lot of answers that's maybe only one of the questions well I agree with everything that you said and I think that it's important to realize that part of the reason that the cost of campaigns have gone up is because those who are giving the money have realized how easy it is to manipulate people in positions of power and so it's an effort to number one by power and at the same time it is an effort to have enough money to be in the face of all the voters to most of the money in campaigns goes to advertising about who you are and what you stand for and that advertising takes many forms from social media and having a whole team to figure out how to manipulate social media so that you can reach a multitude of different audiences and then it goes to the really high priced media which is television where I consider it a form of Chinese brain torture no water torture because it's so constant and so negative and the other thing too because you pointed out a lot of the different psychological aspects the visual I think that all voters should be very cautious about negative advertising and fear tactics because the human mind moves in one of two ways you are either motivated by pleasure or motivated by pain and that is what the advertising industry has understood forever so if they're advertising a car well they sell sex with that you know you you much sexier if you're driving a cool convertible than if you're driving you know a jalopy and so as a result that's the pleasure impetus that hey I want that car because then I'll be cool well it's the same thing in the political forum because if they communicate pain or fear you think oh my gosh I better vote for him because he's going to spend more money on defense and he's going to go after Isis or she's going to do this or that so you really do need to be very cautious about being manipulated by the media and ask yourself are those people communicating you know pleasure or pain got a plug in it and i think the negative wins people say i don't like it but a few wins at ninety percent she's right ninety percent maybe ninety five percent of the money that's raised goes into TV ads to buy those ads and i'll say this at least in my life i don't know about advertising informative my lifetime as far as television ads there has never been an educational political totally everybody learned anything by any candidate from I like Ike when I remember is a four-year-old forward you know that this just does its 30 seconds or 60 seconds what are you going to do you know we mostly attack your opponent or or you know latch onto some popular item or just a just a few seconds but the other problem is it audiences like this don't exist even the 90s when I was in Congress we're running out of groups in earlier you can go to veterans groups school groups you know civic groups in the the Women's University University and University you know women's groups and all these different things but you know those who died out there is a book written about holding alone I mean nobody belongs to anything anymore you can't find him at the end all I could find were the kids Little League baseball games to go to the crowd what did that do politics nothing that's where I could find some adults you know um so I actually started taking some candidates to of bowling alleys and baseball games just to shake hands you know to see people so that's going to continue to be a problem because in television and as I say you know people don't watch you like to eat two dinners there's no other media people don't really read the snail mail date yet you know all those advertisements in the rest so so yeah they're going to have to dock to social media I don't think they have I don't think they have and I think really see all kinds of variations out of the future I think Pollack to you know if you want some mad men that television show you know even there they showed that the politics no step behind advertising or whatever new technique there is in distance but they always do get to it absorb so I think you get there but I don't over there you go I have a question of the audience I'd be interested in at least for answers and my question is I mean from four different people if you had someone instead of us being Americans we were tradition we were running for public office what questions would you ask what do you care about as almost new voters what would you ask about we're just an excuse me since then you okay good what else would you ask about yes student finance and even if cops dude appliances will see the realtor's University it's going to come squad little mind I think I'll own the back of my life okay so us of a major issues among great yes louder please uh-huh and yes I'm Bethany more integration all right well um why would you ask about immigration why do you care about that okay and the gentleman who asked about would you be part of the EU or not why do you care about that so one of the things that I find really interesting among younger voters is that oftentimes they don't understand how decisions being made in the federal government impact their lives and I know whether it's student loans or immigration or the you or whatever a real trick to know how to do I believe is to connect the dots and it always surprises me how people ordinarily don't I mean I always do and I thought everybody did or get but everybody's mind worked that way but I remember campaigning you know on behalf of the environment and people didn't realize that if you dump your waist into the Thames River that and then if you rely on that for you know swimming or drinking water or whatever if it's polluted it's going to affect your health and then that of course would affect the health budget for the country or it would affect the health care system which you as taxpayers are paying into same thing with obesity you know should you care yes I mean if you're your brother's keeper and you have a national health insurance program you do care whether your neighbor is smoking or you know not looking after their so it will cost you more absolutely so I think that's an important skill that if all of you can learn to not only connect the dots but articulate that it's very important particularly in the political arena and one of the other little points I'd like to make is that I'm often asked you know well what do you look for when you look for when you look at these various candidates who are running it's really hard because they put out what they want you to see and what they think is important what I think is most important because I care about change and I think that we're very fortunate to be alive during this time period because I think that we are going through a substantial shift much like the Renaissance and a lot of people you know don't think of it in those terms because how many of you are familiar with the tale about the frog in the pot of water that's on the stove any of you know this story yes no hands up who knows story okay so if you put a frog in a pot of water and you turn the heat up and it's swimming around and it doesn't realize that it's getting hotter and hotter and starting to boil so it doesn't do anything but if you have a boiling pot when you put a fraud it'll immediately jump out that's crises management it's aware of the heat I think most of us are not aware of the shifts and changes that are taking place right now and what do we need most in terms of our political leaders but someone who is a problem solver someone who salivates at the opportunity to figure out how are we going to do immigration differently and I now live in the state of Colorado and I'm very proud of the fact that we are progressive and forward-thinking enough that we were looking at all of the Mexicans that were involved in the drug trade that being killed and all of the Americans that were being killed in the drug trade and we decided that we were going to legalize marijuana for medicinal purposes and then we decided we were going to legalize marijuana for recreational purposes and some people were saying oh my you know how scary well what's so fascinating to me is the medical research industry is now growing creating more jobs people are coming to colorado to study the beneficial health effects of certain aspects in certain compounds found within marijuana and you know i think that we were trying to solve the problem of murder of money leaving the United States but in particular with leaving colorado and going to the mexican war lords and now we have millions of dollars that are going into our education system just from the sale of marijuana because marijuana sales are being taxed so you know it took some real problem solvers to say we're going to do things differently we're obviously failing at the so-called war on drugs how do we address the problem of illegal drugs and have enough money for education and you know people who are problem solvers are the ones who said yeah let's try this out the other way isn't working let's do something new other kids evolution once talk about social media you're talking like a professor open about whether his x was white golden black and blue and you know I mean as watching today shows the morning for left and they said 21 million at that point had been watching that dress on social media let me cover in two more days as a league thing about supportive in America and so I wonder if it was like you know a hundred million people i'm sure and you know just think if the revolution takes place where instead of talking about that dress that we talked about the ecology and what's happening you know with you know our world and we talked about what was happening in the community level and it should be changed for we can save money or we can help bug we could help poor people get better education and you know possibly how could we do that how should we get involved you know i'm just thinking we actually did that instead of talking about whether the dress was vertical and i believe because social media we have potential to get there I'm a hipper passing out of the phase where people read you know an email that says about congressman ribbons that says there was a famous email that went around and it said that when people are left in the Congress automatically a pension Freud there were children go to college for free they have a limousine that drives them and they give free residents and this splint around and I was I was growing health care yeah pre helmet so I was I was going to I heard about this but I was going to run a car at the airport Detroit and I actually heard well-educated well-dressed lady tell her for friends how about this email she got and I saw it right there I you know for me in the old world you know how to old school and actually see it that here she was she believed this and she was some of these people that this was the truth now in a democracy you know Jefferson said the two things you have to have freedom first event be able to say whatever you want to write whatever you want second thing is you have to have an educated citizenry further democracy do so you know it seems to be in social media as this potentially get beyond the television ads to get you know beyond all of the misinformation and lack of information and and really have a discussion about my guess I would ask you that you know what what do you think of how do we get to this new world would that be a new revolution of information for all of us rather than the old system again well if you had something like vote smart how would you get which has you know the facts and you were voting for the first time how would you do what congressman hotel is saying how would you get that word out how would you help disseminate the facts or the truth about a pitiful candidate yes I receive you to try and target at a specific group of people so it depends what we'll Squatch so if you're going to let say stop discussing pensioners yes you may want to do it for that might get better whereas where you're going to try gave this to feed you try the I die on some service as I gave you when you say that one specific method is going to head back there any messages but a big enough for a one size fits all politicians use an awful lot of one size fits all there's a lot of all these little five-minute programs in the run-up to the elections over here or what you get hit with every 15 minutes when there's a great little TV program with the same apps having all the cabin again ok it's that poor communication generation who are any changes so no pressure we have about one minute left is there any final killer question that will make us flows out of this room and into lunge thinking we're that's the best thing I've ever again no pressure go through how far you think this American style image is coming into British politics you know I don't know about British politics really is it coming into your crystal glasses oh man you just want to be President of Europe so it helps get a leg up in Britain first I do you see it as I asked you right the beginning to do vocals you go for the leader so when you go when you go back to your constituency in prepare for power are you thinking at or like Cameron or Nigel please I saw the politically biased here all nasty better so what she said she think that would you just think of the person who's madness in front of you on the phone because it is so dangerous it's you know I've seen it here mayor of Detroit in a governor and mission and she in heat both thought it was a good day if they got on television not if they had a vote that they accomplished something not even if they got defeated by working for something but if they gotta tell me calm way set people they have good hair they look good you know and and we found a whole bunch of politicians how fun if they don't even have to shake hands with people or meet people it could get elected in their high school class treasurer but if they call it up strangers and ask for a thousand dollars per phone call and spend three hours a day doing that they can be member of Congress and then that four days a week you know think if you're real life into Congress so it's it's because think of what difference that is that in the time of this fence and the tools they have in their life and what they think is an accomplishment and so it's very very dangerous that it's going this way not that I'm sure it hasn't been this way before or under you know um different technologies you know when the railroads owned the Congress for instance you know 150 years ago that was a new technology you know we go through different phases but i think we certainly are one now that i do think is spreading to other nations i think that you know very often you know whatever's in America doesn't attractive and I think television ads have been accepted in nations from world and some of our people that Mother's campaigns going do consulting another country nice and their guns chief justice for this campaign work from home ah I think we're just about at lunch either finished by saying if you want to google any police glass over the next few days the best one that I saw from the mid services by Richard Tisei who I mentioned earlier on that it was water lapping on the shore for 30 seconds north of Boston no commentary what's whether just the tag line at the NSA seconds of car in these months of matters items organized approach that we still didn't would you search the representatives here

No longer a United Kingdom: the history and politics of Britain’s identity crisis



thank you so much everyone for coming to our public lecture tonight I really appreciate it I know it's the beginning right after the inter semester break and everyone's very busy and whatnot but win for what I think is going to be a very exciting evening and we have a little bit of time for questions and answers afterwards so my name is Julie MacArthur and I'm a lecture in politics and international relations and the masters of public policy program here at the University of Auckland one of the reasons I'm so excited that the New Zealand rhodes scholars association has actually brought the cruise to New Zealand and host of their visit is because a lot of what we do obviously in politics and I know some of you aren't in this field is look at the constitution of political units how they change the dynamism the evolution and whatnot and so what with what's been going on in the UK over the last number of years and particularly with the referendum earlier this year I think this talk is really going to stimulate some discussion so I'm very excited about that so I'm going to keep these opening remarks short so we put the twitter feed up on the powerpoint slide so for any of you who haven't come to our speaker series before i would like to be notified you can also come and talk to me after if you're not on Twitter which is absolutely fine no judgment there at all and give me your email address so without further ado I'm also delighted that the Vice Chancellor of the University of Auckland has also actually come to introduce us her ivers talk this evening so bit further ado Stuart McCutchen Thank You Julian good evening ladies and gentlemen I sure probably forgetting in the spirit of openness by admitting that I'm not on Twitter or Facebook thank you see I appreciate the applause that's very much appreciated it's my pleasure tonight to introduce our speaker saraiva crew Master of University College Oxford and to welcome you with Julie to this public lecture hosted by politics and international relations and the Faculty of Arts sir ivor is the chairman of the Higher Education Policy Institute and advisor to the office for fear axis he's written extensively on elections public opinion and party politics in the United Kingdom his books include decade of D alignment SDP the birth life and death of the Social Democratic Party and the blunders of our governments and reviewing the most recent of these the blunders of our governments which was written with Anthony King the Guardian commented as follows this book will make you gasp in disbelief and stamp your feet and rage and quite frequently reduce you to help us laughter it will also make you tremble and terror at the realisation the people in charge of our destinies are in many respects idiots I'm happy to be able to assure sir ivor that none of that applies in New Zealand it is a dress tonight sir ivor we'll discuss why one of history's most successful political unions is under threat and what could be done to restore it and if I can quote from the flyer that accompanied this program the may 2015 general election in the UK revealed a country more divided about its national identity and destiny that in any time since the rise of Irish nationalism over a century earlier each of the 4 nations of the United Kingdom is dominated by a different party and the winners of the election the Conservatives have a significant presence only in England they must resolve to challenges the prospect of an independent Scotland and the United Kingdom's exit from the European Union and it's suggested by the next election and 2020 the united kingdom may be unrecognizable as such survivors address is less entire hood as you'll see on the board no longer a united kingdom the history and politics of Britain's identity crisis that isn't give him and the please join me in welcoming so I've approved Vice Chancellor ladies and gentlemen thank you it's a is a great pleasure to be here and to have an opportunity to give this lecture at about eleven o'clock in the evening on the twenty-fifth of October 1951 Winston Churchill settled down with a brandy in the study of his Hyde Park home it was the knowledge of the general election at which he had led the Conservatives in a bid to return to power he switched on the radio and soon after the first declaration of the night came in from the marginal constituencies billericay a commuter town north east of London the Conservatives had taken it from labor with a small swing Churchill then went to bed we are back he told clementi he was right they were he knew that they were because he knew that as went billericay so would go bristol in the south Birmingham in the Midlands Radford in the north and barrick sure and bam sure in Scotland he knew that there would be what political scientists call a uniform national swing the country would vote as one nation in the 1950s the conservative and labour party's book over ninety percent of the vote and all but six of the 630 seats across the country they were serious contenders for election in every nation region of the United Kingdom and they were the only serious contenders in that same here in the 1950s the different constituent nations of the UK retained strong separate identities shaped by their particular histories and institutions and social make up the peoples of these nations thought of themselves as both Scots or welt or else Thurmond and British Northern Ireland had its own Parliament the Stormont with devolved paths with administration but not of revenue or spending as a result of the 1920 Act following the petition of Allen their relations between the minority Catholic and dominant Protestant communities were marked by segregation suspicion discrimination and occasional violence Scotland kept its own legal and educational systems after the 1707 Act of Union and presbyterianism as distinct from Anglicanism remained the established church a Protestant Catholic cleavage originating in the savage suppression of the Jacobite rebellions and reinvigorated by Irish immigration in the late 19th century was important in Scotland but it took a weaker form than that in northern ireland wales welsh was the first language for a significant minority and the basis of a distinct culture the predominance of heavy industry in both the Scottish and Welsh economies created a large and militant trade union movement which coloured the political cultures of both those countries but none of this with the important exception of the Catholics in Northern Ireland found expression in separatist nationalism anti-english sentiment was reserved for rugby and football matches when a tartan or taffy army of well-lubricated supporters descended on London for the day all the nations were content with United Kingdom's England dominated and London centred arrangements now fast-forward more than 60 years through the recent general election held in may this election determined who would govern the United Kingdom turned out with the Conservatives with a slim but unexpected majority but not and whether they would still be united kingdom to govern by the end of the Parliament elections held in mirror to the body politic and may 2015 revealed a country less United than at any time since at least the armed insurrection zin Ireland before and during World War one the party system has fragmented 2015 five parties each commanding at least a fifth a five percent of the national vote contested every constituency the conservatives and labour of course the Liberal Democrats who were the conservative current partners the greens and the recently formed United Kingdom Independence Party you kick an English nationalist party campaigning for withdrawal from the EU tank controls an immigration and an English Parliament with the Scottish and Welsh nationalist parties Scotland and Wales were contested by six parties one voter in three chose a party other than the conservatives and labour and elected 87 MPs from outside the two main parties and a further third of the registered electorate chose not to vote at all in the 1950s when turnout was much higher three-quarters of the total registered electorate voted conservative or labour in 2015 well fewer than half or two four percent this is the electoral expression of profound social changes from a society block a of organised occupational classes to a culturally and geographically splintered society in which entrenched tribal party allegiances have been replaced by volatile dual choice the bridden of the 1950s influenced Maurice de vache the French political sociologist who formulated what for decades was widely regarded as one of the very few iron laws of politics plurality look rule elections held in single-member constituencies or what you call it Lecter 'it's tend to produce a two-party system and single part in the douro Therrien government proportional representation in multi-member electorates tends to produce multi-part ISM and coalition's everybody who took political science 101 knew that so how's the iron law rusted to nothing well not quite in recent British elections to party competition has continued but with different pairs of parties in different nations and regions conservative and labour still in much of middle England conservative and liberal Democrat in rural and affluent suburban areas Labor and Liberal Democrat in inner metropolitan areas labour and you Kip in poor white economically disarmed disadvantaged areas and most important of all labor and the Scottish nationalists in Scotland so there is no longer a single front but a number of battles in regional enclaves fought by different armies as a result different parties are predominant in some nations or regions and almost entirely absent from others in 2015 each of the 4 nations was for the first time in British electoral history dominated by a different party in Northern Ireland by the Ulster unionists representing the lawless community in Wales by labor the ascendant party for a century in Scotland the first time by the Scottish nationalists and in England by the Conservatives moreover each of these parties lack presence in a number of other nations and regions within England for example the geographic cleavage with wider than ever before the servitors failed to win a single seat in any major city outside London labour failed to win a small town suburban or rural seat and only 8 of the 200 seats in the south east and south and southwest of the country the outcome in Scotland was momentous at the previous election the Nationalists 16 of the 59 seats on twenty percent of the vote in Scotland this time they won 56 of the 59 seats on just over fifty percent of a nationalist tsunami washed away the granite labour citadel of the dorf label was left with a single seat all of its leading Scottish politicians were felled on huge swings by young near facts there had already been signs of movement in Scotland's tectonic plates in the independence referendum held the previous September and in the Scottish Nationalist gaining of an absolute majority in the Scottish parliamentary elections of 2011 on which more later the current indications and that's all they are are that they will sweep to victory again in next year's Scottish parliamentary elections Scotland has become a democratic one-party state and the SNP is the hagerman now how did this transformation in Scotland's politics and by extension in the future of the united kingdom come about most nationalist movements seeking independence and either secession from or the overthrow of the existing sovereign power derive their energy from the cultural distinctiveness of the nation differences of language religion and ethnicity are the basis of nationalist movements economic inequality and exploitation provide reinforcement advances in literacy and mass communication accelerate the mobilisation of popular support and the organizing and rhetorical skills the movements leadership in combination with the response of the sovereign power are the contingent factors that determine the historical course of the nationalist program that has been free work for understanding most European nationalist movement in the 19th and 20th century the nationalist eruption in Scotland cannot be explained in these conventional terms the cultural particularity zuv Scotland are today by historical standards week the number of Gaelic speakers is tiny fine for the western islands and highlands Scotland like the rest of the UK is largely secular Protestants and Catholics are increasingly integrated and the old orange green conflict has not translated into a contemporary unionist nationalist division it is true that Scotland was particularly badly hit by the decline of heavy industry in the 1970s and 80s for which the predominantly Conservative government's of the time were widely blame but that was 40 years ago and labour not the nationalists were the political beneficiaries since then energy financial services and high tech have revitalized the economy Scotland is not in particularly bad economic shape GDP per capita even excluding oil receipts is closer to that of london and the south and it is to its neighbouring english regions in the north this urgent Scottish nationalism can only be understood as a civic and political phenomenon and by that I mean two things firstly the Nationalists objective is self-government for the purpose of better closer government not for the furtherance of the idea of a nation nor for cultural revival or religious rebirth or ethnic dominance and secondly its impetus and power comes from the political constitutional arrangements that have been put in place for the governing Scotland since the 1990s and from the political dynamic that has resulted from that the design of political institutions of electoral systems of referendums of Parliament's of devolved powers matters one political institution which has unexpectedly promoted Scottish nationalism is the electoral system for UK general elections first-past-the-post as it is very inaccurately because in fact there is no fixed post or more accurately the single member simple chirality system which Zealand used to have and has reformed first-past-the-post I'll still call it that as is well known does not produce proportional outcomes it own rewards parties who support is geographically concentrated and under rewards parties whose support is geographically dispersed and this disproportionality can be very marked and very arbitrary as the 2015 elections showed for example you Kip took twelve percent of the UK vote but elected only one MP the Scottish Nationalist took four percent of the United Kingdom vote and elected 56 MPs in Scotland itself this translated into ninety-five percent of the seats for fifty percent of the vote the Conservatives who have regularly when a sixth of the vote in Scotland since the 1990s which under a PR system would have delivered about ten seats have never produced more than one MP since that time they were the local joke went and more endangered species in Scotland than giant pandas of which there were two in Edinburgh Zoo more seriously from Westminster they governed a nation in which they had virtually no presence so in a unitary state governing one nation of different peoples a first-past-the-post system nudges voters across the land to fall in and cluster behind the two large governing parties but in a quasi federal state governing a union of different nations each with its own identity in institutions first-past-the-post distorts political representation exaggerated split achill differences exacerbates conflict and threatens national youth to understand how the Scottish nationalists pole vault it's so high above the other parties were need to go back to the 1970s when oil began to be extracted from the North Sea off the Scottish coast in October 1974 when both main parties were unpopular in the global downturn the Scottish nationalists campaigned on the slogan it's Scotland's oil and took thirty percent of the vote and 11 seats the then labour government taking fright at the prospect of losing its Scottish base introduced proposals for a limited devolution of powers to Scottish and Welsh assemblers but these were heavily defeated in a referendum in Wales and supported by two slimmer majority in Scotland that passed the threshold of forty percent of the electorate the Scottish nationalists bitterly blamed labor for the forty percent threshold proviso and allied with the opposition in a successful vote of no confidence Parliament was dissolved and the subsequent election ushered in 18 years of conservative government and the Margaret Thatcher and Dawn major who opposed any measure of devolution and I think it's fair to say showed little understanding of Scottish sent him during those long wilderness years in opposition in the 1980s and 90s the Labour Party both at Westminster and in Scotland and Wales gradually committed itself to a major measure of devolution in Scotland and Wales as always the momentum behind its embrace of constitutional reform was not Democratic principle but maneuvering for party advantage it needed to blunt the Nationalists appeal so on returning to office in 1997 the new labour government led by tony blair held pre-legislative referendum on the establishment of a parliament and an assembly proposals passed by a large majority in Scotland and a very small one in Wales the conversion of so many to the cause of devolution since the 1970s owed much to its endorsement by the Scottish Labour Party but also to the unpopularity of conservative governments in particular the unpopularity of the quintessentially southern English Margaret Thatcher in particular her anti-state free-market policies and her experiment with a flat rate property taxes so-called poll tax in Scotland the 1998 scotland act that was instituted by the Labour government constituted in the words of one of the magnet England's foremost constitutional authorities the greatest voluntary handover of power by a national government to a sub-national body within its own borders in modern times the Act established a unicameral Scottish Parliament elected by the additional member system of PR with the First Minister a cabinet and an executive administration but what powers would they have well a critical test of how much central power is shed in any legislative measure of devolution is whether the at lists and thus limits the powers reserved the devolved parliament or lists and thus limits the powers reserved to the central parliament in this case a limited number of power admittedly critical powers over foreign policy and national security macroeconomic policy and Social Security benefits were reserved for the Westminster Government but everything else health care all levels of education housing transport lease courts local government economic development the environment agriculture fisheries and much more were ceded to Edinburgh Scotland's government would have the power if it wished to abolish the National Health Service to build airports and motorways to sell or spam public housing to raise or abolish University tuition fees to subsidize or neglect none carbon energy generation and a great deal else the act effectively made Scotland semi-independent another critical test is whether the devolved government is fiscally autonomous does it raise its own revenue through taxes and borrowing and take responsibility for balancing its budget or does it rely significantly on subvention from central government the arrangement in Scotland's case was that its government would have significant powers to spend but his powers to tax would be limited to varying the england pats raped by three percent in other words Scotland's government could decide how to divide the cake but the UK government decided how big the cake would be now the Westminster Parliament retained these powers for reasons of macroeconomic management it didn't want the UK economy to be distorted by uncontrolled and potentially higher levels of taxing spending and borrowing in Scotland but less recognized is that it also wanted to ensure that it could attend to the social needs of Scotland and indeed Wales and Northern Ireland Scotland tax base was insufficient to support the historic levels of public expenditure in Scotland which reflect the particular needs both of its impoverished old industrial areas and of the sparsely populated Highlands and Islands the UK government determines the amount of public money spent on the devolved nations by a formula known as the Barnett formula after the Treasury secretary who invented it in 1978 I when I was writing this letter I wondered whether there was any way in which I could avoid having to tell you what the Barnett formula is because I knew that I did it would make me sound like a really nerdy anorak but I have to write you cannot understand the politics of Scotland unless I evening drastically simplified form tell you about the Barnett formula because it is central it's hideously complicated it lacks any coherent rationale and it has nothing to commend it other than the fact that nobody can agree on any alternative but simplifying drastically it does two things firstly each year taking 1978 the year of its invention as a baseline it adjusts public expenditure per capita in Scotland by the percentage change in per-capita spending in England so if it goes up two percent of England it goes up two percent the capital stock but secondly because in 1978 per capita public spending in Scotland was so much greater than anywhere else in the United Kingdom the Barnett formula aimed to tweak this protractor adjustment so that per capita expenditure very gradually converged to the same across the United Kingdom over the long term well we should return to the Barnett for the 1997 devolution of power to Scotland was intended to tame the nationalist beast but instead it fed and emboldened it as the independence referendum a year ago and general election in May amply demonstrated the assumption was that proportional representation would prevent any party with a possible exception of labour from forming a Scottish government on its own and as it would forestall an SNP administration from holding and winning a referendum for independence but in the event the Scottish nationalists won a small but absolute majority in the 2011 parliamentary elections the assumption was that the devolvi significant powers and the generous financial settlement was too good a deal to risk by taking such a leap in the dark as of dependence survey after survey suggested that only a quarter and never more than a third of Scotland's voters wanted full independence the majority wanted Home Rule which is what the Scotland that gave them but in the event forty-five percent voted for independence and were a second referendum to be held now there is a distinct chance I would say a probability that a slender majority would prob would vote for it back to an outside observer the home rule that was brought in by the 1998 act was and remains a jolly good deal Scotland's government controls fifty percent of all public spending in the country and public spending per head has consistently been about twelve percent higher in Scotland than the UK overall Scotland is permanently subsidized by the taxpayers of London and the affluent South Scotland's administration's that were first led by labor from nineteen nineteen ninety 2007 and then by the SNP from 2007 until now have had the freedom to governor well to the political left of the labor and conservative governments at Westminster for example they have left the old struct of the health service intact while in England the National Health Service has been subject to two major structural changes to incorporate an internal market Social Care the elderly is free in Scotland but not in England so our university tuition fees in contrast to England where government grants for teaching have been replaced by tuition fees and loans of up to 9,000 pounds a year the scottish government spends a great deal more on economic development and inward investment and so forth i could continue the list so none of this would appear to be particularly fertile ground for the flowering of an independence movement scotland was getting most of the benefit of independence without the economic risks of full sovereign state but for the first eight years until 2007 the parties an alignment of Labor Government's in Scotland and at Westminster defused the inevitable conflicts between Edinburgh Westminster especially over central funding it helped that so many of Labour's leading ministers at Westminster the chance of the expected Gordon Brown the Foreign Secretary Robin Cook the Home Secretary John Reid they all represented Scottish constituency's it couldn't be said that they didn't understand or know or care about Scotland new labors of debt adoption of market-based reforms of public services was less readily accepted in Scotland and England but then Scotland's government didn't have to copy them only one major decision made at Westminster planted seeds of nationalism and that was the invasion of Iraq which was more widely opposed in Scotland than elsewhere some argue that they didn't wish to belong to a state it was a poodle of the United States this was enough together with the inevitable short-term dissatisfaction with the incumbent party to catapult the SNP into office as a minority government in Scotland in teeth out and 7 an important step in the growing credibility of the nationalist position was the record and the deportment of the SNP administration of 2007 the SNP MPs who became ministers were completely untried it turned out to be in the main more competent than their labour predecessors more accommodating to other parties until the organized lobbies less prone to personal scandal or petty corruption they were younger better educated more sympathetic to business and without ties to the trade union movement the quality of their leaders was higher because they were politicians whose primary interest was Scotland not the UK labour by contrast always fielded their second 11 for the Scottish Parliament because their best talent was bound for Westminster the second boost to the nationalist position was the formation of a conservative-led coalition with the Liberal Democrats following the 2010 general election in the midst of the global recession the Conservatives came back to office on the back of a huge swing from labour in England 7.4 percent but Scotland moved in the reverse direction and the Conservatives still toxic in Scotland barely lifted their vote they were the party of England in particular of the South of England only one minister in the conservative cabinet had any Scottish antecedents of any kind Scotland was already taking a distinctive position on how the government should respond to the UK's fiscal deficit and level of boro now the coalition government's austerity strategy for dealing with the budget deficit comprised 80% public spending cuts twenty percent tax rises here comes the Barnett formula this was converted by the Barnett formula into reductions in the Block Grant allocated Scotland no matter that Scotland was still heavily subsidised by England the subsidy would be less the SNP administration in Edinburgh could blame any cuts it made to services or grants on the Conservatives in London who having virtually no representation in Scotland had they claimed no mandate to dictate to Scott the government of an independent Scotland untrammeled by Westminster the nationalist claims would have dealt with the financial crisis by job generating investment in infrastructure and better protection of the vulnerable from welfare cuts in other words by a traditional Keynesian Social Democratic program a year into the coalition government in 2011 the SNP won an absolute majority and its manifesto included a referendum on independence if it won a majority the ensuing negotiations about the referendum between the SNP administration and the coalition government which was handled personally by David Cameron demonstrated two things firstly repeat my earlier point the design of institutions matters critically and secondly that the conservative leadership so geographically and politically removed from Scotland were profoundly ignorant with the Scottish impulse to self done David Cameron had read the polls and assumed that no more than a third of Scots supported independence the majority hadn't the heart for it and would balk at the large risks entail he would call Alex Salmond Bluff Alex Salmond was the leader of Scottish nationalists salmon suggested a tripartite question voters would be asked to choose between full independence an extension of the existing devolution to include fiscal autonomy and the status quo he assumed that the plurality would plump for devo max the middle option which would be a stepping stone to eventual independence Cameron refused and insisted on a straight choice for or against independence he called Salmons bluff but he accepted as the wording of the question should Scotland be an independent country arguably slanted more positively than some plausible alternative verdicts of the questions such as should Scotland leave the United Kingdom to become an independent country or should Scotland remain a member of the United me well Scotland did not as you know in the end vote for independence but the yes vote at forty five percent was very much higher than expected a buoyant campaign succeeded in converting large numbers of skeptics and doubters particularly labour supporters the late campaign pearls portrayed such a tight race that the three Westminster party leaders pledged out of panic to introduce the devo map that had been left off the ballot paper Scotland remained in the UK after the result the yes campaigners act as as if they had one not lost it was if the runner-up in the Olympics marathon went on to run a lap of honour around the stadium to thunderous applause before stepping up to the podium to receive the gold medal membership of the SNP double its supporting the polls cert at Labour's expense and it went on to its clean sweep of Scotland at the general election now some have characterized the relative success of the S campaign as another populists insurgency against the political establishment struggling to deal with the 2008 recession a bit like podemos in Spain or thigh Riza in Greece certainly protest against austerity strategy of a distant Conservative government played a part but protest does not capture the style and appeal of Scottish nationalism it has developed since it came to office and was on display during the referendum campaign at the opening of the Scottish Parliament in 1999 the then First Minister Donald Dewar who was on a nationalist quoted the opening lines of Walter Scott's patriotic poem breathes there the man readers there the man was soul so dead who never to himself has said this is my own my native land whose heart is there within him burn as home his footsteps he of turn a poem a lot of Scottish children but contemporary Scottish nationalism is not the nationalism of blood and soil of Abraham Lincoln's mystic chords of memory it is inclusive own devices and ecumenical based on residents in Scotland not on DNA in the referendum negotiations salmond made no claim those of proven Scots heritage resident outside Scotland who I imagine there are large numbers in this country should be entitled to vote much to the dismay of the Scots diaspora in the rest of the United Kingdom so a recently arrived Polish plumber could vote a tenth generation Glaswegian plumber who'd lately moved to London could not in the referendum it offered national self-belief the conviction that Scotland had the capacity to prosper the politics of Hope or as the doubters argued of fantasy but if it was fantasy it was a modest and moderate one moral Don the small social democracies of northern Europe Iceland Denmark Norway Sweden open and modern rather than protectionism traditional the pro unionist campaign appealed to voters caution and aversion to risk project fear the Nationalists calling it asked legitimately and reasonably how Scotland could sustain itself without the English subsidy whether it will retain sterling at its currency and if so how this could be squared with independence how it would manage as nationalists appear to promise to combine Scandinavian levels of welfare with Irish levels of business taxes necessary to attract foreign investment what contingency plans it had for a plunge in oil prices or the exhaustion of the oil fields and how it would cope with its initial and perhaps long-lasting exclusion from the EU in other words it made the negative case against Independence that Scotland is incapable case brushed aside is humiliating rather than the positive case for Union yes voters were passionate positive and confident no voters were pragmatic and skeptical but few had a visceral belief in the Union itself a second referendum before the end of this Parliament in 2020 cannot be ruled out if a seems very likely the government of Scotland remains firmly in atlas hands it will demand another referendum if the constitutional status of Scotland has changed if for example the United Kingdom voted to leave the European Union in the referendum promised on that no later than 2017 but the majority in Scotland voted to stay in which is quite a possible outcome in what is expected to be a closely balanced vote a second referendum on Scottish independence would be triggered and quite probably one latest polls put the vote fifty three percent to forty seven percent in favor irrespective of the EU referendum result if the Conservatives are returned to office in 2020 but the SNP a game sweep Scotland a second referendum would be impossible to resist the leadership of the established UK parties do not wish the United Kingdom to lose Scotland despite the cost of the subsidy and in the case of conservative electoral advantages a diminished united kingdom would carry less weight in the EU with united states and in the united nations where its permanent status on the Security Council would be in jeopardy it would lose its nuclear submarine base in Faslane and have a 400-mile land border to maintain with a difficult possibly hostile nation to its norm labored would lose permanently it's past power base which it still believes to be retrievable in the long term and it would lose a prospective coalition partner in the SNP the Welsh might start to get ideas of their own no government wishes to be remembered for the loss of territory so prospects were a Velvet divorce of the kind the checks agreed with the slow backs in 1993 are slim so what might the government do to mobilize support for the union on both sides of the border what is the positive case for a united kingdom in the 1950s when the tiny numbers of Scottish and Welsh nationalists were regarded as romantic cranks the answer was simple and stop it was global power Empire welfare and still then the Protestant descendants the united kingdom was a bulwark against fascist and communist totalitarianism the British Empire provided a market for Scottish business bitches state needed Scots recruits for its Armed Forces and overseas administration the UK offered opportunities for impoverished workers for bankrupt farmers and for ambitious professionals alike the post-war welfare state created equal rights to health care pensions and benefits to all citizens of the Union it was a club worth belonging to an independent Scotland let alone Wales could not have provided the same security opportunities or benefits these advantages have largely faded away or at least are perceived to have done the UK is a diminished power even if it still punches above its weight the EU of which it is a semi-detached member as we placed the Empire over at which it once presided as trading area and labour market the welfare state has been contracting since the Thatcher years and at an accelerating pace since the global recession the benefits of the Union are less obvious the government's response to the nationalist insurgency is the offer of full devolution of tax raising powers and greater control over some welfare benefits and this might by itself be sufficient to postpone another referendum in Scotland for a few years but it is stirred up a the growing resentment among English MPs against the anomalously privileged position of Scotland in the Constitution the problem is known as the West Lothian question so called because it was the Labour MP for this Scottish constituency that first persistently raised the issue in its modern form the granting of devolved powers to a Scottish Parliament means that a Scottish MP at Westminster for example the mp4 West Lothian may vote on legislation that affects England such as the health service while an English MP cannot vote on equivalent legislation that affects Scotland it means that Scottish nationalists MPs can vote on laws that apply to a country in which they have no representation and from which they wish to separate but cannot vote on laws that affect Scotland which they represent when do evolution was of limited scale objections to the anomaly were muted it was just one of those things that you have to accept in the Constitution but the commitment to extend the devolved powers to Scotland has turned it into a major constitutional question after the referendum the Prime Minister mindful resentment amongst his own backbenchers under swelling of English now represented by you kit promised to change parliamentary practice and guarantee english-only votes in Parliament for English laws the idea was that the speaker or a parliamentary committee established for the purpose would determine which laws apply to England alone and a grand committee comprising all English and peas or smaller standing committee representatives the party strength of English mp's meeting in the Westminster Parliament would debate and vote on the bill this is a Pandora's box it will not work but it'll have far-reaching and detrimental consequences for one thing England only laws are fearsomely difficult to define there are very few laws about England that do not involve a cut or increase in public expenditure that any such change with feed through to the government's invention to Scotland via you've got it the Barnett formula and thus not be English only laws MPs would not have equal rights nor know for certain when they could or could not vote well why not instead significantly reduce the number of Scottish MPs on the grounds that with so many significant powers devolved to Scotland the nation of Scotland doesn't need proportionately as much representation as in the West no lothian anomaly would remain but it would be to in sequential inconsequential to bother about but the week of the representation of Scotland at Westminster when Westminster retains control of foreign affairs defense and macroeconomic levers the week of the incentives for Scotland to remain in the UK alternative more thoroughgoing constitutional reforms have been proposed for incorporating extensive devolution to Scotland while addressing English concerns one model is home rules for the Four Nations Parliament's and devolved powers not only for Scotland Wales and Northern Allen put for England with powers over foreign policy and defence and currency and interest rates in other words strategic powers reserved through a UK parliament meeting in a second chamber and for disputes between the UK Parliament and the Four Nations settled by a constitutional court the drawback is that unlike the federal systems of the US and Austria Canada and Germany one of the constituent elements England with eighty-five percent of the UK population on an even larger proportion of the UK's GDP overwhelmingly dominates the others and given that different parties are in the ascendant in the different nations it would be quite possible in a closer and election for one party to command a majority in the English but for another party the commander majority in the United Kingdom pub for example the Conservatives in England and labor with SNP support in the United King and this would produce two prime ministers leading different parties and different governments the second model designed to circumvent these problems is a Federation of regional Parliament's so that England does not dominate but in England regional identities are generally weak and there is no appetite for regional Parliament's in a referendum held in 2004 in the Northeast bordering Scotland and conscious of Scotland's privileges the proposal to establish a regional Parliament with heavenly defeated by four to one for seeing the breakup of the United King that the community of constitutional experts and political commentators are calling for a national constitutional convention which would head off Scottish independence by entrenching devolved powers across the UK in a written constitution with an elected UK Parliament replacing the unelected House of Lords radical constitutional reform on this scale is unlikely constitutional change is usually the outcome of incremental changes the part is an advantage lot of a grand national design and even if it did occur it would not by itself address the challenge posed by Scottish nationalism namely the purpose and benefits of the union it would be putting the constitutional horse before the political car what is needed is a coherent vision of the advantage of union in the 21st century based on values common to the Four Nations and whatever solidarity can be created between them that defines the union's place in the world the union would need to be instituted in the formal constitution which devolved power and guaranteed rights and fair representation under the crown but it would need to guarantee social and economic and digital rights not just civil and political rights and reserved to the UK those elements of the welfare state and of the redistribution of wealth that are deemed so fundamental that they cannot be decentralized this will be a very difficult feat to pull off and I am not holding my breath there's been a debate about electoral reform well as long as I can remember in the United Kingdom and it is being confined to supporters are or largely confined to supporters of those parties that were benefit from it and they inevitably are at the moment out of power I don't think there's any that that debate will continue and it will fill the small journals of constitutional experts and political scientists and supporters of minority parties but there is no interested portal representation on the part of the Conservative Party which after all mandas quite nicely under the current system and there has never been more than minority support for it in the Labour Party even when the Labour Party has been in opposition for a long period of time in the coalition government of 2010 2 2015 the Liberal Democrats did extract as part as part of their agreement to serve in that government a referendum on the introduction of the alternative vote the alternative voted not assisting with the portal representation it's the it's the transferable vote within a single member constituency but it probably would have made the results less disproportional than under the first part of her system that referendum was lost by two to one with all of the Conservative Party virtually and significant parts of the Labour Party and their press supporters most of their press supporters campaigning against it I think the Liberal Democrats missed a trick which was not missed in New Zealand they should have in fact asked for a referendum on the principle of the fourth Loretta not a referendum on a particular system electoral system and if the country had voted for the principles of corporal representation I'm not saying it would have done but i think the vote would have been more balanced then it could have set up a commission to examine various forms of proportional representation there is proportional representation in the in the elections for the national parliaments Northern Ireland Scotland and Wales a formal representation for London election for representation Scottish local election and a proportion and a transferable vote system for the election of the London man impede for the mayors of those other cities that have got so proportional representation is beginning to seep into the body politic but I see very little prospect of it being introduced for Westminster elections until such time as a major political party has lost so many elections in succession that in order to win a Westminster election it puts it in its manifesto I my rule of thumb is that are that a major political party has got to lose something like five elections on the top before though stop doing that well as you've probably read in the newspapers or seen online very recorded has been elected leader the Labour Party I think this is the most bizarre extraordinary election of the leader of a major political party in the history of the UK if the story of his election had appeared in a novel I think the publisher would have spiked it before actor publishing it because it it's such an unlikely sequence of events but he has been elected and he's been elected by a very large majority of not the parliamentary Labour Party almost none of whom supporting but of the Labour Party in the country that is to say labor labor party's members its trade union affiliated members and a new category called registered supporters these are people who claim to support the aims and values of the Labour Party and who pay approximately eight new zealand dollars for the right to vote in the election of a labor leader and the result of this has been the given me if i am telling you what you already know the election the of as leader of a member of parliament whose 30-year korean parliament has been on the extreme left fringe of the party he is an old-fashioned I mean he's his politics and his rhetoric and his outlook of those of a can student socialist radical of the 1980s and it's as if he still that man so he leads in socialist economics he's an admirer of the economies of Venezuela and Cuba he's a pacifist he what you think NATO should be dismantled he think Britain should be later he is vehemently fiercely anti-american garden activators great and fearless Satan he believes in central economic planning large-scale public ownership and nationalization very much higher taxes printing of money he is the old socialist other things quite rightly neo-marxist but the old socialist father now and he is appointed to his shadow cabinet we see today and a number of the very small rump in the parliamentary Labour Party who have like-minded views he also carries a lot of embarrassing I think to the advancing baggage in his apologia for organizations that are generally regarded as terrorist organizations around the world IRA Hamas Hezbollah answer on the grounds that they are engaged in an antique through this struggle um I do not think there is the remotest chance of the Labour Party winning an election under very important I very rarely make statements quite as emphatic as that over the years I've learnt to qualify everything I say with words like with the weasel words like probably normally I would not expect and I would be surprised if I'm quite happy to go on record and say Labour Party cannot possibly win an election with a leader whose only appeal will be to student radicals public sector trade unionists and some organized ethnic minorities the Muslim minorities that's those three constituencies are not big enough to win an electrical come anywhere close to winning an election I it's very difficult to see how the positions that Gordon takes assuming he takes a Labour Party Labour Party moves towards these positions can win an election in a country that it does not have a socialist culture or does not really have a service not a sponsored less traditional it is a England have a conservative moresee conservative political culture so what will the impact of this be on the 10 things I've been talking about well the SNP will be thrilled because what it means is that Conservative government's about much more likely in 2020 and to that matter 2025 and those are the grounds on which the SNP and appealed and Scottish people and say are going to be conservative governments for the foreseeable future the Conservatives do not represent Scotland they have almost no representation Scotland why be continuously ruled by Conservative government's we have collected for that be very pleased you Kip will also be very pleased because you clip appeals to small see conservative socially conservative nationalistic white working-class on the whole not very well educated or highly educated i should say people living in the more disadvantaged economically large areas of the country it appeals to those who resent immigration both white immigration from eastern europe as part of the new and immigration from further afield and who on who don't have what you might call metropolitan london liberal and socialist values and i would have thought that this is an opportunity for you kit which is now the main challenger to labor in in white economically disadvantaged areas of the country with a large number this is an opportunity for you clip to make inroads and it will of course thrill the Conservative Party because it will make them more confident that they will have time to implement they're really very ambitious strategy of shrinking the state cutting public expenditure to pre World War two levels and lowering taxes um even if the Labour Party was to replace Corbett of the leader before the next election I think the fact and manner had his election will have any way done considerable damage to the Labour Party's reputation round if you like you've network in the short and medium term Labour Party won three elections in the 1990s and 2000's under Tony Blair because he succeeded in persuading the public moderate central opinion that the Labour Party was a different party from the party that they haven't voted for before that has been modernized and that is replaced 1970s socialist ideas with a so-called third way which balanced market forces with targeted state intervention to address the those consequences of market forces that for particularly heavily on relatively vulnerable insecure and low-income citizens that new labor brand was destroyed this weekend and people would not think that the Labour Party is that or could be that in the foreseeable future and I think that will make it much more difficult it would anyway have been very difficult for label to win the next election but they're so far behind the Conservatives because they don't be boundary changes which will work very much against them because the demographics are beginning to work against them though all kinds of reasons why it would anyway be very difficult for them to win the next election but this makes it I think impossible of course hope the arts events and I

How To Be a Politician



hello my fellow Americans and other countrymen I'm beg flatly did you ever wonder how politicians become so successful I've determined the key factors to turn virtually anyone into a political Messiah now before we get started I have to tell you I really think you have what it takes to make it in politics and I don't say this to everybody you're like Jesus and Richard Nixon rolled into one and that's good real good before you go proposing to me that was just an example of the first method in politics you kiss as much ass as you can and you give the same compliments to everybody you come in contact with that way you only have to remember one set of responses to go with the compliments I mean it'll start off small by telling people that they're good-looking or smart but once you wrote the latter of it you'll be able to tell entire countries that you value their existence with a straight face Oh first let's talk about gestures it is a proven fact that's strong gestures lure unsuspecting strangers into thinking you're more capable than you actually are you'll have to try different ones out to see what works best for you but some of the more common ones are the reserved thumbs up not to do this just pretend like you've got some shit on your thumb from all that ass grabbing you've been doing you don't have a wife handy so you have to conceal it this is also pretty symbolic of all the shit you'll be concealing during your career the controlled karate chop now you're going to want to do anything to move up the ladder in politics so you kind of have to let people know you're cutthroat but you don't want to look reckless now the karate chop implies that your discipline but you always did chuck bitch in the throat if you add to the lip purse now this move makes it look like you're thinking of a good response so use it when you get a difficult question now in reality you're just going to be regurgitating the slop a team of writers constructs for you but if you look like you're thinking people will actually believe it they will have no idea that you're just focusing on pinching the fork and your tongue together before you open your mouth again oh now let's move on to statements now most of your career is going to consist of reading teleprompters contrary to popular belief only educational prerequisite to becoming a politician is that you can read but preferably at a second grade level so you don't miss pronounce the hard words like a new killer in jessup it there's only three statements that you actually need to memorize the be a success one I was not aware of that too let me look into that and three I did not have sexual relations with that woman or man less likely though go ahead and test it out these statements will get you out of anything hey Bob a couple of staff members saw that in turn going to your office after hours I was not aware of that well did you know she was in there were you in there let me look into that actually Bob I was just trying to see if you would admit it the security cameras caught everything so I did not have sexual relations with that woman pop we have a recording of it cleaners fucking babe do you want to see it let me look into it now this cycle can go on and on forever but usually people just lose interest and give up just like all the voters in this country oh and now for a speed round of bonus tips if you feel like you're just not climbing the ladder fast enough here are a few exercises you can do to boost your politician points if you haven't yet landed a job in a government establishment you can still practice your technique just go to a park and set up a collection bucket and bring a poster with possible renovations that could be made with the public's help once you've collected a shit ton of money throw a raging private party in the park at night but make sure they're not invite any of the people that donated money because you don't want those kind of suckers pooping up the party and could have made the park better by rebuilding it or you can make it fucking awesome with this kick-ass rager you never specified how you were gonna make it better so that makes it okay now always keep the cell phone handy just in case you run into a situation where it's imperative that you send an urgent dick pic you wouldn't want to miss that golden window of opportunity with the girls pretending that she actually likes that shit her attraction to you has absolutely nothing to do with the ocean of taxpayer money she's planning on siphoning out of your well-documented dick hole and now it is sometimes you just got to get a little wacky to get notice in this donkey elephant world if you're still not crushing your competition under your hooves fast enough you could always resort to smoking crack on camera people will actually feel like they can relate to you more and get the media involve you could like drum up publicity with extreme trap house makeover not only will you be high as fuck but so will the polls you really want to look like a politician log on to Beck's teeth calm and by the collectible shirt I designed specifically to get some interaction you're welcome

Leader – Motivational video



ترجمة: فريق Magma
facebook.com/magmacoteam "يوماً ما" ليس على التقويم… هذا درس مهم لنا جميعاً البشر هنا اليوم.* جميعنا تعلّم أن الحياة صعبة، الحياة حقيرة الحياة قاسية لكنها ليست كذلك إنها سهلةٌ جداً. أليس كذلك؟ فمن السهل جداً أن تأخذنا بواسطتها** ونجتازالحياة. أليس كذلك؟ نستيقظ كل يوم، والكثير منا في العالم مع وجود سقف فوق رؤوسنا سرير كبير ومريح تحت ظهورنا، ثلاجة ممتلئة بالأطعمة لا داعي للقلق بخصوص الجوع أو التشرد لدينا أصدقاء وعائلة الذي من شأنهم مساعدتنا عندما تأتي تلك الأمور تلك هي الأمور التي جعلت الحياة خطرة منذ 100 عام والآن نشكوا أن الحياة ليست سهلة هذا ليس كلام في المجتمع الحديث. هذا كلام حول الدافع الحياة سهلة. إنها سهلة لنجتاوزها.** حتى أنه لا يبدوا بهذا السوء، يُدعى التزلج التزلج ممتع! من لا يحب التزلج؟ انا أحب التزلج. من لا يحب التزلج؟ من السهل جداً أن تكبر، ضع أحلامك جانباً، أترك شغفك وراءك، خذ عملاً إن كنت حقا لا تمانع، إجمع بعض الأطفال التي ستكون مصدر إلهام لتفعل نفس الشيء بالضبط. انتقل من النقطة A إلى
النقطة B إلى النقطة C حتى ينتهي بك
المطاف إلى النقطة Z. عندما تتوفى و وهنالك خط من الأشخاص ينتظرون لإخبار الآخرين من يعرفك،
كم كانت حياتك جيدة. لا شيء سيء في ذلك. لا شيء محرج في ذلك ولكن لا شيء عظيم في ذلك. لا شيء ملهم في ذلك. الحقيقة الفظيعة هي، هي أن الحياة سهلة. الحياة… الحياة الحقيقية، مطاردة حلم و الحياة الحقيقة صعبة… الحياة حقيرة… الحياة قاسية، خاصةً عندما تبدلها عليك أن تسأل نفسك ما الذي أعددتَهُ للموت؟ ما الذي يضع هذه النار في قلبي؟ الإجابة على هذا السؤال ليست النهاية،
اعتقد. إنها حقّاً مجرد شرارة. لأنه ما أن تحصل على تلك النار المشتعلة
عليك أن تغذيها. تحتاج إلى الإستمرار بتذكير نفسك، وضع الفحم الجديد فيها، ذكّر نفسك يوميّاً
بذلك الهدف. لأننا أخذنا كل هواية أو هدف أو تمرين أن نتوقف لبضعة أيام ونحن لا نستعيدهم مرة أخرى. تحتاج إلى الإستمرار بتذكير نفسك أنك ستموت. وأنك تموت لفعل شيء ما، لأن اللحظة التي تنسى الحياة تعود لتزحف إلينا. * والحياة سهلة. الحياة… الحياة الحقيقية، مطاردة حلم والحياة الحقيقية صعبة. الحياة حقيرة… تخيل فقط لو أنك على فراش الموت، ويقف حول سريرك أشباح الأحلام الأفكار، القدرات، المواهب أعطيت لك من الحياة. وأنت لسببٍ ما لم تتابع تلك الأحلام، لم تعمل على تلك الأفكار، لم تستخدم تلك الهبات… لم تستخدم تلك المواهب أبداً وهنالك يمعنون النظر إليك، كما كنت مستلقياً على سريرك بعيونٍ كبيرةٍ غاضبة تقول "جئنا إليك! أنت فقط من أعطانا الحياة! والآن يجب أن نموت معك… للأبد.. والسؤال هو.. إذا مت اليوم… ما الأحلام، ما المواهب، ما القدرات، ما الهبات، ما الأفكار التي ستموت معك؟ أسوأ مكان في الكوكب ليس الغابة، إنها ليست في جنوب إفريقيا سواء كانت الأسود طعام…* المكان الأسوء في هذا الكوكب هو المقبرة، هنالك ترى إمكانيات لم تحقق أبداً، هنالك تجد كتباً لم تؤلف أبداً، هنالك تجد أفكاراً لم تنفذ. وربما هذا السبب قال هنري ديفد ثورو يا إلهي! لبلوغ نقطة الموت فقط لتدرك أنك لم تعش أبداً، فقط لتدرك أنك لم تخدُش سطح قدراتك دعني أقلها مرةً أُخرى حياة ممتلئة… موت فارغ… اعتقد ذلك الأهم الشيء الأكثر أهمية حول إدارة الشركة هو أن نتذكر طول الوقت ما هي الشركة. الشركة ببساطة هي مجموعة من الناس. وكقائد للشعب عليك ان تكون مستمعاً جيداً، عليك أن تكون محفّزاً عظيماً، عليك أن تكون جيد جداً في المدح وتبحث عن أفضل ما في الناس. الناس لا يختلفون عن الزهور. إذا سقيت الزهور، فإنها تزهر. إذا مدحت الناس، فإنهم يزهرون. هذه هي السمة الهامّة للقائد… تُرجم من قبل فريق Amara.org