The True Story of 6 Remarkable Sisters

This video is supported by The Great Courses Plus. [DAVID] “I’m normal, my wife is normal, but my daughters are which more foolish than the other. Nancy writes lies about me, Diana’s the most hated woman in the country, Jessica’s missing off the face of the earth, and Unity is in the arms of… Hitler!” The Mitfords were you’re perfectly typical 1920s aristocratic English family. David was a peer in the House of Lords, while Sydney ran the household. Together they had six perfectly atypical daughters; Nancy, Pam, Diana, Unity, Jessica and Deborah. And a son called Tom which everyone forgets. He’s the Rob Kardashian/Branwell Brontë of the family. Growing up in country houses around Oxfordshire, they were cousins of the Churchill’s and only really mixed with children of their own class. Although Tom went to Eton, the girls were homeschooled by revolving set of nannies. Each with their own questionable curriculum. [NANNY] “Today’s lesson is shoplifting. Now in you go children and try a little jiggery-pokery.” Not being allowed to go to school was frustrating for most of them, but agonising for Jessica. She once confronted her father, [JESSICA] “Tom goes to school so why can’t we?” [DAVID] “Tom’s a boy and you’re a girl!” [JESSICA] “Amelia Earhart’s a girl and she just flew across the Atlantic!” [DAVID] “She’s American. That doesn’t count.” So without school they turned to the library. All of them read ferociously and developed an appetite for self learning. There wasn’t much else to do out in the country, they only had each other and animals to play with. They developed their own rules, social norms, and even accent. Nancy was the funny one. Her wit made for an excellent novelist, but a mean older sister. [DEBO] “She was a cosmic teaser. She once told Unity, Jessica, and me that our names came from nit, sic, and bor.” [JESSICA] “Nancy was too sharp tongued to be anyone’s favourite sister.” Pam was the clever one. All the sisters had to raise chickens and pigs for pocket money. They paid rent to David for the land and got to keep any profits. A young Pam contacted local farmers about their finances. Realising she was paying more for the land than the commercial average. She unionised the children and led negotiations for reduced rent. Diana was the beautiful one. At 16 the French artist Paul Helleu drew a series of portraits of her. [DIANA] “He was in love with me, which complicated things.” Even Churchill called her “Diana-mite”. Unity was the strange one. She loved to shock. Instead of a necklace for society balls, she’d wear a snake. [NANCY] “She’d stand there stroking it as if daring young men to speak to her. If she felt the party was boring, she’d let it escape.” Jessica or ‘Decca’ was the rebellious one. At age 9 she’d write to companies pretending to be a shop owner in the hope that sent her free samples. [DECCA] “I particularly enjoyed Benger’s baby food. It was lovely.” But apart from her pet sheep ‘Miranda’, Decca found country life boring and dreamt of running away. Deborah was the nice one. As the youngest she did all she could to keep the peace. Even when Diana, Unity, and Decca were making international headlines and the family were at each other’s throats. Deborah was the bridge between them all. They were all clever, funny, motivated children. But they grew up in isolation and were rarely challenged by anyone except each other. They developed an unreasonable level of self confidence and belief in themselves. As adults this gave them the ability to do whatever they wanted, but not necessarily the perspective to judge the consequences. Their social status and class expected women to marry well, keep their mouth shut, and run a house. Preferably a manor. Even their own father spoke up in the House of Lords to protest women joining the chamber, [DAVID] “It would be a waste of public money if we had to build a women’s bathroom.” So when they turned 18 they each had a debutante ball, to introduce them to society and find a suitable husband. Sydney would sit in a room with the other chaperones, while the sisters usually snuck out the back to a more interesting party. The roaring twenties were London high society’s answer to the Great Depression. For a privileged group of friends there were parties every night; toga parties, Russian parties, clown parties, and treasure hunt parties. [WOMAN] “The winners will be the first team back here with the policeman’s hat, a lamppost, and a duck!” The group were dubbed by the press ‘Bright Young Things’, and nearly all of them would go on to be famous actors, writers, artists, and photographers. Notable members included John Betjeman, Cecil Beaton, Evelyn Waugh, and Nancy and Diana Mitford. John Betjeman (the future poet laureate) wrote a poem about the Mitford sisters. And once proposed to Pam, [JOHN] “Sophistication blessed dame, Sure they have heard her call, Yes even gentle Pamela, The most rural of them all.” She declined Betjeman, accepting another young man’s proposal, but then he got tuberculosis. In the end the just gave the engagement ring to Unity and went to run a farm. Years later when asked what happened to the ring Unity said, [UNITY] “Oh that, I gave it to Hitler.” Diana married within weeks of a debutante ball to fellow Bright Young Thing, Bryan Guinness. She regularly featured in newspapers as an icon of youth and sophistication – this was an era where journalists would write about the latest dinner party or the colour palette of a woman’s drawing room. To the outside world she had everything; family, beauty, and wealth. Then she met Oswald Mosley. To anyone in Britain today the name Oswald Mosley is associated with fascism, anti-semitism, and the Nazi regime. But in 1930 he was a young charismatic public speaker who had taken British politics by storm. [MOSLEY] “Suppose people had stood on the shores when Drake and Raleigh set out to the new world and told them, ‘No don’t go today the sea looks rough’.” [Applause] Thousands attended his speeches, his ideas had support across the political spectrum, many people regarded him as the next Prime Minister. Diana Mitford fell madly in love with him. They began a not-so-secretive affair, meeting at every opportunity not caring who saw them. Eventually Diana decided to leave Bryan, but Mosley would not leave his wife. Diana knew that divorce alone could be socially damaging, but she was proposing to live openly as another man’s mistress. A man firmly in the public eye with a wife and three children. Nancy begged her to reconsider, [NANCY] “Darling you are so young to be getting in wrong with the world. I believe you have a much worse time in store than you imagine.” Mosley left conventional politics to set up his own party, The British Union of Fascists. He started dressing members in black uniforms and held rallies promoting a totalitarian style of government as the only solution to mass unemployment and the threat of communism. Diana began working at the BUF and wholeheartedly shared his vision for a far-right Europe. At 22 she left Bryan to live closer to Mosley. That same month Adolf Hitler came to power in Germany. Unity, Decca, and Deborah were still children stuck out in the country. The three youngest sisters were incredibly close, they call each other Boud and created their own language, ‘Boudledidge’. They were so fluent they could talk without being understood by adults. They formed the ‘Society of Hons’, labeling people they didn’t like a ‘Counter-Hon’ and launching propaganda campaigns against them. Decca hadn’t been allowed to visit the homes of other local girls because Sydney did not ‘know their parents’. Even as a child Decca realised this was a euphemism for ‘not the right type of parents’. This experience of class divided deeply affected Decca, especially as the younger sisters were beginning to realise their home life was unusual. [DECCA] “By the time I was 13 major storms were brewing outside The Mitford Fortress. Population centers were designated distressed areas. I read in the papers of the hunger marches, the Great Depression, and the fighting in the streets.” Thanks to Nancy and Diana, ‘The Mitford Girls’ already had a reputation. Deca and Unity both felt the need to forge their own identity. They read books, pamphlets, leaflets, any political literature they could get their hands on. Although best friends, they were drawn to separate ideology. [DECCA] “When Boud became a Fascist, I declared myself a Communist. We had chosen opposite sides in the conflict of the day.” Their room was separated into two halves, pictures of Hitler on one side, Lenin on the other. When the family had guests round Unity would ask, [UNITY] “Are you a fascist or a communist?” One visitor replied, [MAN] “Neither I’m a Democrat.” [UNITY & DECCA] “Oh how wet!” It’s worth remembering that the words ‘fascism’, ‘communism’, ‘Hitler’, and ‘Stalin’ didn’t then carry the historical weight they do today. Their horrors wouldn’t be truly displayed for another few years. In the early 1930s there were many that viewed fascism and communism as legitimate alternatives that wouldn’t necessarily lead to abuses of power. All the Mitford girls had a finishing year in France before coming out to society. [SYDNEY] “No respectable lady is without conversational French.” Except Unity, she requested her year of study be in Germany. In Munich Unity became infatuated, obsessed with Hitler. She befriended guards at the Nazi headquarters to get information on his movements, and then built her timetable around it. She discovered a cafe he visited regularly, [UNITY] “One day I got a telephone call to say that he was there. I jumped straight in a taxi. I sat at the table opposite the Führer, I was shaking so violently I had to put down my cup.” Unity went to the cafe every day while Hitler was in the city. She’d drop her tea spoon in the hopes of being noticed by him. Eventually he began to nod at her and then one day the restaurant owner came over, [MAN] “The Führer would like to speak to you.” [UNITY] “It was the most wonderful, beautiful moment of my life. I went over to him and he stood up and saluted and shook hands and introduced me to all the others. I can’t tell you of all the things we talked about, I told him he ought to come to England and he said he would love to but he was afraid there would be a revolution. Then we spoke of London, films, the new road system being constructed all over Germany. After all that you can imagine what I felt like, I’m so happy that I wouldn’t mind a bit dying. I suppose I am the luckiest girl in the world.” According to Unity’s diary she would go on to speak to Hitler 140 times before the war. She was invited to parties and rallies as his esteemed guest. They would talk privately in his apartment for hours. [UNITY] “It was the greatest moment of my life, sitting at the Führer’s feet and having him stroke my hair.” Hitler was clearly captivated by Unity too. She could be funny and had the confidence to engineer those initial meetings. Many of Hitler’s inner circle believed her to be a spy, Hitler would defend her to them time and time again. It was clear they had a unique relationship in every possible way. She called him ‘Wolf’ and he called her ‘Kind Child’. They gave each other gifts, like Pam’s engagement ring, and Unity even claimed he gave her a gun. Saying all women should know how to defend themselves. Although Unity was certainly in love with him, there’s no evidence their relationship was ever sexual. Not that that stopped the British press from speculating. When Unity wrote an open letter urging England to recognise the “Jewish Danger”, newspapers ran the headlines “The Girl Who Adores Hitler” and “Peer’s Daughter is Jew Hater”. This crushed David who was firmly against fascism. He refused to ever meet Hitler or Mosley. Sydney however loved Hitler, dining with him and Unity several times. Pam met him once, describing him as, [PAM] “Very ordinary, like an old farmer in a brown suit.” Diana was the only other sister taken in by him. Hitler was naturally interested in her connections to Mosley. After Mosley’s wife died he and Diana married in secret, at the house of Joseph Goebbels (Hitler’s Minister of Propaganda). Hitler’s wedding present to the couple was a framed photograph, of himself. Interestingly Diana was perhaps the only person in the world to be close friends with both Churchill and Hitler. She tried to persuade them to meet but both always declined. By now Nancy had written several books and her career had begun to take off. Her novel ‘Wigs on the Green’ is a satire of British fascism. Stories of Unity, Diana, and Mosley all appear with little done to hide their identity. Nancy was horrified by the rise of fascism in Britain. When Diana invited her to a BUF event, she made a point of declining in Yiddish. Meanwhile Decca began to hear stories of her rebellious cousin, Esmond Romilly. As the nephew of Winston Churchill, his exploits had made the papers. He’d been expelled from school, joined the International Brigade in the Spanish Civil War, and was now running a left-wing magazine out of a bookshop in London. He was Decca’s hero. [DECCA] “There was a marvelous photo of him at which I used to gaze wistfully.” At a dinner party they eventually met. [DECCA] “I heard you were going back to Spain. I was, well, well I was wondering if you could possibly take me with you?” Esmond immediately agreed and they hatched a plan. Decca would falsify a letter from a friend inviting her on a road trip of Austria, this meant her parents would never be able to verify her location. She emptied her bank account and obtained a visa traveling as Esmond’s secretary. She was about to achieve her childhood dream of leaving the Mitford fortress. With a man she already loved, all while fighting on the front line in the war against fascism. Esmond hid at the other end of platform while Decca said goodbye to her parents. She felt guilty as they gave her spending money. It would be the last time Decca would ever see her father. She was 19 years old. Eventually they arrived in Spain and found work writing news dispatches about the war. Test firing rifles was the closest Decca ever got to fighting. Meanwhile Sydney had contacted the mother of Decca’s friend in Austria and discovered the lie. Given her allegiance to the communist party, they feared she had gone to Russia. [SYDNEY] “She’s probably lying dead in a ditch somewhere.” Esmond wrote to his mother admitting everything, [ESMOND] “Decca and I are in Spain, by the time you read this we shall be married. Any attempt by the Mitfords to get her back and I shall leak to the papers the truth about Unity and Hitler.” When the news made it back to the Mitfords, David sank into his armchair. [SYDNEY] “Good gracious, she didn’t take any clothes fight in.” [DAVID] “It’s worse than I thought. Married to a Romilly.” Through Churchill, the Foreign Secretary got involved and he cabled the British Consul in Spain, [MAN] “FIND JESSICA MITFORD. AND PERSUADE HER TO RETURN. STOP.” However the Consul was out when the message arrived, Esmond intercepted it and forged a reply, [ESMOND] “HAVE FOUND JESSICA MITFORD. IMPOSSIBLE TO PERSUADE HER TO RETURN. STOP.” By now he papers had got hold of the story and thanks to the fame of a Unity and Diana, plus Esmond’s connection to Churchill, it made headlines across Europe. Unity wrote to Decca, [UNITY] “I spoke to Hitler and he has forbidden it to appear in the German papers, which was very nice of him wasn’t it? As for Esmond, I hate communists as much as he hates Nazis, I naturally wouldn’t hesitate to shoot him if it was necessary for my cause and I should expect him to do the same to me. But in the meantime, I don’t see why we shouldn’t be quite good friends.” At this point the British ambassador met with Esmond and Decca. He was coordinating the Royal Navy in the evacuation of refugees. [AMBASSADOR] “If you do not board that ship and leave Spain, I will tell the Press Bureau that Britain will no longer be cooperating in the evacuation of refugees.” This was probably a bluff, but Esmond and Decca agreed to leave as long as they could disembark in France. Deborah was deeply affected by all this. While her three closest sisters were being torn apart by politics and the press, she alone faced the fallout at home. She wrote to Decca, [DEBO] “Farve goes off to the House of Lords and Muv sits around reading books like ‘Stalin, My father’, ‘Mussolini, the Man’ or ‘Hitler, my Great-Aunt’s Brother’s Son-in-law.’ [DECCA] “Oh Debo, your letters do make me roar.” It was now 1939 and war in Europe was seeming more more likely, Decca and Esmond set sail to America. The couple were welcomed by New York society, the war hero nephew of Winston Churchill and his funny posh English wife were a hit at every party. While Decca was happy to denounce the rest of her family as Nazis, she could never bring herself to cut ties with Unity. [DECCA] “Although I hated everything Boud stood for, we had a bond. She was easily my favourite sister.” Unity was becoming increasingly concerned that war would mean disaster for her two favourite countries. [UNITY] “I cannot stand to see England and Germany tear themselves apart.” She made it a personal mission to stop the approaching war, begging Hitler to seek alternatives. In 1939 Hitler gave her Unity her own apartment in Munich and even agreed to help her furnish it. Unity must have known that the Jewish family who owned the apartment before hadn’t “gone abroad” as was claimed. By this point the Nazi treatment of the Jews was clear for all to see. Even if Unity didn’t know their ultimate fate, she still rejoiced at stories of Jewish people being humiliated in the street, or being made to cut grass with their teeth. Unity his innocence and naivety is often cited to explain her actions, but they cannot extend to this. On the 3rd of September she received a telegram that Britain had declared war on Germany. [UNITY] “This is to say goodbye. I send my best love to you all and particularly my Boud when you write. If anything should happen to me and the English press try to make some untrue story out of it against Wolf. You will see to it that the truth is known? Won’t you?” She then walked to the English Gardens, her favourite spot in Munich, and took the gun from her bag. [Gunshot] The bullet had gone through a head and embedded in the back of her skull. Somehow she survived but with severe brain damage. Hitler banned all news or reporting of the incident, so it was two months before the family in England learnt what had happened. The press however, only got half of an incorrect story. This is how Decca (5,000 miles away) read in the newspapers that her favourite sister had died. In some articles she’d been killed during a row with Hitler, and in others she’d been shot by the Nazi High Command and buried in an unmarked grave. Hitler arranged a train to take unity to hospital in Switzerland. This is where Sydney and Debora were able to collect her. [DEBO] “She had an odd vacant expression. I can’t begin to imagine what it must have been like for my mother, seeing her like that. But it wasn’t just her appearance, she was a completely changed person.” The journey back was through a Europe now at war. [DEBO] “Every time the train jolted, stopped, and started it was torture for her. It was a long, dark, and cold journey and Unity was so ill.” Once home David rushed up and kissed her. There began a rare family truce for those early weeks of recovery. Unity kept repeating sentences and asking the same questions, [UNITY] “Where is my Boud? I thought you all hated me, but I don’t remember why?” She would recover physically but remained childlike and in need of care the rest of her life. When a goat gave birth to twins Unity excitedly wrote to Decca. It must have broke Decca’s heart to see the childish scrawl and pictures. Although glad to see Unity alive and happy, the papers were right, the best friend she left behind had died in Munich. During the war Nancy worked in first aid, took in families of Jewish refugees, in the evening wrote her autobiography, and even found time for a relationship with Gaston Palewski – the French politician and close friend of Charles de Gaulle. Nancy fell deeply and madly in love with him. For him it was just another affair. Nancy was furious with Sydney and Diana’s support of Hitler. The authorities even questioned Nancy about Diana’s visits to Germany. [NANCY] “I advised them to examine her passport to see how often she went. I also said I regard her as an extremely dangerous person. Not very sisterly behaviour, but it such times I think it one’s duty.” At the beginning of the war Diana and Mosley were possibly the most hated people in Britain. News of their marriage and Hitler’s attendance had got out. If Germany invaded Britain, many people assumed Mosley would be the Nazi’s puppet dictator. They were both arrested and imprisoned without trial. Diana was taken to Holloway prison and given nothing but a thin mattress in her cell. She slept to the sound of air raid sirens and the bombs falling on London. Once a direct hit burst the main sewer, flooding the cells with sewage for three days. [DIANA] “The only thing that saved me was the thought it was temporary. Had I known I’d be there years, I would have died.” It was Pam who looked after Diana’s children. She and her husband, the world-renowned physicist Derek Jackson, were unable to have their own. [PAM] “I had Derek, the animals, and the children. The war years were busy for me, but not unhappy.” Decca and Esmond were fairly isolated from the war, but when Esmond’s brother was taken prisoner, he felt his duty was to return to England and fight. [ESMOND] “I’ll probably find myself being commanded by one of your ghastly relations.” Their letters to each other during this time are filled with stories of their new baby, how much they love, miss each other, and the horrors of war. [ESMOND] “My four closest friends have been killed. It is a cruel blow from something against which it is impossible to strike back. War is so huge and powerful and at the same time so vague and shadowy. Very much love, darling angel, Esmond.” The next message she received was a telegram, [MAN] “2ND OF DECEMBER 1941.MRS E.M.ROMILLY. REGRET TO INFORM THAT YOUR HUSBAND ESMOND ROMILLY MISSING ON ACTIVE SERVICE. STOP.” 5 days later Japan attacked Pearl Harbor and America joined the war. Churchill was in Washington to meet the President and while there he also met with Decca. Churchill told her that Esmond’s plane had gone down 110 miles from shore, in the freezing North Sea. No one could have survived more than 20 minutes in the water. Trying to comfort Decca but unaware of the family politics, he explained that Diana’s prison cell had been cleaned to make life easier for her. [DECCA] “Why is Diana being pampered by servants, when her precious friends have just killed Esmond? If you want to comfort me, have Diana and Mosley put against a wall and shot!” During the war Deborah married Lord Andrew Cavendish, second son of the Duke of Devonshire. [DECCA] “Congratulations Debo, you so very nearly got a Duke.” [DEBO] “Oh Decca, don’t be such a counter-hon.” It was Andrew’s older brother Billy that was heir to the dukedom. He was married to the American Kick Kennedy, sister of the future president. However not long after the ceremony, Billy died in the war and Kick died in a plane crash. The title of Duke passed down to Andrew. At 23 Deborah became heir to a duchy and one of the largest estates in England. After three and a half years in prison Moseley became very ill. The authorities feared that death in prison would only make a martyr of him. Both husband and wife were released under strict supervision. 20,000 people gathered in protest. The Mitford family were once again front-page news. Tom had spent the war fighting across Europe and Africa. With only a few months left, he was hit by a round of machine-gun fire. Tom died aged 36. [DECCA] “It seems like a lifetime since I last saw him. He was one of the few people in England I was really looking forward to seeing again. We are only one family of thousands, all over the world, and what a world it has become, all black and dark.” The end of the war was welcome but it had cost Sydney; Tom, Esmond, Billy, 4 nephews, her relationship with Decca, Diana, and her marriage. And then quite suddenly, Unity became ill. She was rushed to hospital with an infection in her old head wound. 9 years after her suicide attempt, she died aged 33. Decca wrote to Sydney, [DECCA] “Of course I’m heartbroken, but I mourned for her when I first realised we could no longer be friends.” [SYDNEY] “She mourned for you too. She knew you’d probably never meet again, but her love for you was quite unchanged. She was always going back in her mind to when she was young, when you were all there. I could never understand my daughters. But I think you understood each other.” Nancy wrote a trilogy of books about an aristocratic English family. The character Uncle Matthew is an irritable Lord at his country house in Oxford. Jassy dreams of running away and her devoted friend Matt leaves school to join the Spanish Civil War. You get the idea. The books were international bestsellers and helped turn the Mitford myth into legend. Nancy became a rich celebrity author and an icon of the English upper-class. She moved to Paris to be closer to Palewski, [SYDNEY] “Oh why do all my daughters fall for dictators?” Nancy had a hugely successful career, but an unhappy personal life. Palewski never gave her his full attention or love. She developed Hodgkin’s disease and so began a long painful illness. She was looked after by two unlikely enemies. Decca and Diana kept vigil by her bedside in Paris. [DECCA] “It is curious meeting Diana again after 34 years. She’s a beautiful aging sculpture. We stayed off politics and only spoke of Nancy.” Nancy died in 1973, a cult figure and hero to many. Pam and Derek divorced in 1951. For the next 40 years she lived with her Italian girlfriend Giuditta Tommasi. Together they smuggled rare breeds of chickens into the UK and were happy to be the favourite aunts of many nieces and nephews. Diana and Mosely could never accept that their association with the Nazis had ruined their political careers. They spent the rest of their lives campaigning for a united Europe. [DIANA] “The British Empire is failing and alone we can no longer rival the USA or the USSR.” Diana eventually denounced the Nazis and anti-semitism, but it was generally seen as too little too late. When she appeared on British radio in 1989 she still spoke of Hitler with fondness, [DIANA] “He was extraordinarily fascinating and clever. He had mesmerising blue eyes.” She knew this would make the papers, and cause massive public outcry – mainly from Decca. To this day Diana is remembered as a figure of controversy, shock, and hate. After the war Decca was furious at the injustices faced by black veterans and she became Secretary of the Civil Rights Congress. In 1951 Decca was personally involved in the case of Willie McGee, a young black man sentenced to death. They were unable to stop the execution but led mass protests in Mississippi, standing off against the Ku Klux Klan. Decca described herself as a ‘professional muckraker’. Causing trouble wherever she saw abuses of power. She spent five years as an investigative journalist in the funeral industry, visiting undertakers in disguise as a soon-to-be widow to see how they talked up from a wooden box to a marble mausoleum, [DECCA, AMERICAN ACCENT] “Well we could use the Redwood, but we’ll have to cut off his feet.” The result was a fantastic exposé in 1963 called ‘The American Way of Death’. The book was number one in the bestseller charts for months, and the reason JFK was buried in a simple coffin. It made Jessica Mitford a celebrity in the United States. She spent the rest of her life lecturing and writing on every topic imaginable. When asked in an interview what she wanted for her own funeral she joked, [DECCA] “Oh nothing fancy, just six black horses with plumes, streets to be closed off, proclamations to be issued, that sort of thing.” When the time came her many friends honoured the joke. 500 people marched through the streets of San Francisco following six black horses attached to an antique glass hearse, filled with her books and articles. Deborah, Her Grace the Dowager Duchess of Devonshire, was the last Mitford. She and Andrew inherited Chatsworth House, a rundown stately home in the Derbyshire countryside. [DEBO] “It’s only slightly larger than Versailles, 178 rooms and not a single bath.” Over 50 years Deborah brought it back to life. It required the largest renovations the house had seen in 200 years. She opened it to the public in the 1980s and is regarded today as one of the UK’s finest country houses. Deborah remained good friends with the Kennedy family, when Howard Macmillan visited the US in 1962, Deborah accompanied him to smooth relations with the president. She and the president got on very well, [NANCY] “Rather too well.” Nancy would tease. He stayed at Chatsworth during the Cuban Missile Crisis, and Deborah once rang Decca from the telephone in the Oval Office. When she died in 2014 Deborah was admired by the public in a different way to the others, she represented not only the last of the Mitfords but the end of an era in British history. The story of the Mitfords is one of confidence. They were born in a time that expected them to be the obedient wives of aristocrats – yet they stuck their head above the parapet to make their own mark on the world. Some of those marks were abhorrent and ugly, the same self-assuredness that led them to success also blinded them to ideology. However individually remarkable, they were presented to the world as a group. Their story captured the public imagination like no other. It had sex, money, sibling rivalry, politics, and drama… Times six. My favourite quote to describe the sisters’ relationship comes from Nancy and Decca, [NANCY] “Sisters are a shield against life’s cruel adversity.” [DECCA] “But darling, sisters are life’s cruel adversity.” Apart from already being wealthy members of the aristocracy, the secret to the Mitford’s success was their obsessive self learning. To be insightful and well-rounded people they had to read, enroll in college courses, visit libraries, and do investigative journalism. Why? Because they didn’t have… The Great Courses Plus. The Great Courses Plus is an amazing online learning service with over 11,000 video lectures. You can take courses in history, physics, travel, and music. You can learn to cook, draw, train a dog, or crochet. Anything that interests you. While writing about Decca running away to Spain in this video, I realised I didn’t know anything about the Spanish Civil War. So I searched for it on The Great Courses Plus and watched a lecture about it from a world-leading professor. It was so good I ended up going back through the course and learning about the entire history of Spain. Now The Great Courses Plus are giving viewers of this channel unlimited access to their library of courses, by visiting Click the link in the description below to start your free trial today. It’s great being able to learn and study whatever you want without the stress of homework or tests. If school or university kind of put you off studying like it did me, then The Great Courses Plus is perfect for making learning enjoyable again. I want to say a big thank you to all the people who worked really hard to make this video possible. And to Rögnvaldur Tómas and Everett Higginbotham, along with all my other patreon supporters. 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Ice T Addresses Why He Never Ate a Bagel Before Law & Order: SVU

-Before we get into
“SVU” stuff — congrats and everything — I want to talk about
Ice-T quickly. I don’t know
if you heard this, but there was a big… covfefe on Twitter about you
never having a bagel before. Never…
-Yeah, true. -You’ve never eaten a bagel? -I had never eaten a bagel. I’ve eaten one
since then. But what happened was,
on the show, they wanted me
to eat a bagel. I said,
“I don’t eat bagels.” So… [ Laughter ] But it was in the script. So, you know,
I just did it. -Yeah.
-So, then, somebody… But I acted like I ate it.
I didn’t eat it. So, then, on Twitter,
somebody goes, “Why that kind of bagel?” I said, “Because it was
in the script.” Then, they said,
“What’s your favorite?” And I said,
“I’ve never had a bagel.” And then, everybody lost
their Goddamn mind. [ Laughter ] And then, I said,
“I’ve never had coffee, either.” So, I don’t know why that’s
so hard for people to believe. -…two weird things.
One is that you’ve never had a bagel bef–
-Why? Why? Look. Look.
I’m from South Central. Could you imagine Snoop singing,
“Rolling down the street smoking indo,
eating some lox and bagels”? [ Laughter ] It don’t work.
-You never know. -That’s not how it
happened for me. It didn’t happen
like that for me. -I understand. But through your life,
you’ve been on sets. I’m assuming there’s food
on the sets. -There’s a lot of stuff
I won’t eat on the set. I just never ate one.
So, I ate one the other day. I did an actual commercial
for a dating site called “Coffee Meets Bagel,”
or something. And — and —
and basically, I ate one. And it tasted like —
one bite, it felt like I ate
a loaf of bread. [ Laughter ] Why would I eat
an unsweetened doughnut? I’m okay with it.
Coffee’s cool. I’m good.
I like jelly doughnuts. Let’s keep it moving. [ Laughter ] -It’s all wrapped up. -I know,
but I’m interested in this. What’s your thought
on coffee? Just so we don’t have to ever
talk about it again,
what was your thoughts — -Black coffee —
why would someone do that to themselves? Okay? [ Laughter ] They put some cream.
They put a little sugar in it. I got it. It’s cool. I prefer tea —
not because my name is Ice-T. I just prefer tea. [ Laughter ] Black people like sweet stuff,
just in case you didn’t know. We don’t drink unsweetened tea,
stuff like that. White people do that.
-Yeah. [ Laughter ] Black people like
sweet things. -Yeah, but —
-Can I live? -Yes. You can definitely live.
-Can I live? -I don’t know why everyone
freaked out, either, but just, it sounded
very interesting. -Okay, talk to Mariska
about that other stuff. -Uh… Mariska… you’ve had a bagel before?
No, I’m just kidding. -I have to say — I couldn’t
believe that anybody cared. I didn’t understand why people
cared if Ice had a bagel or not. -It’s just fun.
-Is it? -It’s fun. -Have you ever had a sardine?
-Yeah. -I love sardines.
-Some people — My wife had never eaten
a cheeseburger till she was 31. And then, I go,
“‘Cause she was a vegetarian.” And they go,
“Oh, I understand.” [ Laughter ] Some old dumb — listen. Eat what you want to eat. -Oh, my gosh.
-I’ve eaten a lot of things. -I don’t think
you’re over it yet. [ Laughter ] -We brought a therapist
on to the show. -[ Mumbles ] Let’s talk about you guys,
first of all. What was your first impression
of Ice-T when you first met him? -Well, I was so nervous
to meet Ice-T, ’cause he was a rapper.
He was OG. He was, like, the man.
He was the rapper. And so — I didn’t even know
what OG meant back in the day. [ Laughter ] But I was excited about it. “The og is coming.
The og is coming.” -“The og.”
You don’t pronounce it — -It took you guys minutes.
-You don’t pronounce it “og.” -How do you mean?
How you mean? I’m not following. -You don’t pronounce “the og.” So, he came on the show, and
he was the sweetest, kindest, most open — we call him
“the philosopher” on the show. And it was… such a joy,
and it’s been for 20 years, and an education, for me.
-Yeah. -He’s taught me about
so many things, and… -Good for you.
-Yeah. Really. I mean, really.
-20 years. -We’re very fortunate,
you know, to be on a show that, you know,
everyone likes each other. Everyone gets along. 20 years is a long time,
and you know, it’s… a very cool
work environment. Mariska’s the best. -Do you feel that way —
’cause at first, did you think you were gonna
work on the show for 20 years? -I came on for 4 episodes.
-Wow. -Yeah. And then, they —
then, they kiss-kick you. They go,
“Well, we don’t know if you’re working out
with Belzer.” You know,
“We don’t know.” And then, they go,
“But we’d like you to stay.” And I’m like, “Well, you try
getting along with Belzer in four episodes.”
You know? [ Laughter ] And so, then,
they asked me to stay. And I’ve been there,
and I’m happy, and I’m not going nowhere
till she’s gone. -We’re sticking together.
-You’ve got to stick together. -We’re sticking together. -You work great —
you work well together. Why stop it?
-We do. It’s been so — It’s just been such a crazy
surprise journey and gift. -You’re one season away —
one year away — from being the longest
running drama in the history
of television. -Yeah.
-In history. [ Cheers and applause ] -Yeah.
-I mean, if… If you guys do that,
how cool will that be? -So cool. Yeah. -It’s cool. -Whoa.
[ Stammers ] Oh, it’s gonna be
that cool. [ Cheers and applause ] You’ve never had a bagel,
but you’ve been wearing a reverseable jacket
the whole time. That is cool, right there.
Come on. It’s gonna be great,
and I just… Thank you for all
the entertainment, and all the cool things.
We love you guys.

SAIS scholar addresses women’s role in diplomacy, volunteers at Syrian camp

[In Kurdish] They were Syrian refugees, but they were from the Kurdish areas of Syria, so I was
able to communicate with the people. And so I think they trusted me because of
that communication. And the way that I was
able to help out was in getting their needs across to the camp managers. And I remember there were a lot of children and young women all around the area
because especially in the region like in Iraq Syria et cetera, women and children,
they’re very affected by the presence of war. So I think that’s one of the main
reasons that it’s important to bring more woman voices out into the political
sphere. So I’m currently a part of the SAIS Women Lead practicum. It’s a pilot
program. Generally the mission is to empower more women. I actually grew up
under the Saddam-era regime and looking at the Middle East, we’ve seen a lot of
turbulent and violent decisions. So I felt the sense of responsibility to
study more about how to actually go into conflict management
because the Woman, Peace and Security Resolution that was passed by the UN
talks about how when more women are involved in conflict zones or combat
situations, that it leads to more peaceful outcomes. So as part of the
practicum I’m currently working with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the
United Arab Emirates and the Emirates Diplomatic Academy, helping them build up this program that’s looking into best practices around the world in the region,
to help them try to attract them bring more women into diplomacy. And there may be an opportunity to actually speak about some of the research that we’ve
been doing. So I think it’ll be an amazing opportunity as a girl and as a
woman from the area to have my voice heard. And I received the Class of 1983’s
Leadership in Emerging & Advancing Democracies Fellowship.
It was very crucial to me being able to attend SAIS actually, just because of the
economic situation that is currently still happening at the Kurdistan Region
of Iraq. Just as an individual, this has helped me gain so much knowledge in this area, and I feel like this is something that I would obviously want to pay
forward and you know pay back to people in the future. And back home I hope that
we can have a system that can be a little more resilient to conflicts
arising and possibly work towards more reconciliation of a lot of the different
groups within the country because that is something that keeps on coming up. [In Kurdish]

Moore’s Law Is Ending… So, What’s Next?

Remember when cellphones looked like this? You could call, text, maybe play snake on
it … and it had about 6 megabytes of memory, which was a small miracle at the time. Then, phones got faster and around every two
years, you probably upgraded your phone from 8 gigs to 16 to 32 and so on and so forth. This incremental technological progress we’ve
all been participating in for years hinges on one key trend, called Moore’s Law. Co-founder of Intel, Gordon Moore made a prediction
in 1965 that integrated circuits, or chips, were the path to cheaper electronics. Moore’s law states that the number of transistors,
the tiny switches that control the flow of an electrical current that can fit in an integrated
circuit, will double every two years, while the cost will halve. Chip power goes up as cost goes down. That exponential growth has brought massive
advances in computing power… hence tiny computers in our pockets! A single chip today can contain billions of
transistors, and each transistor is about 14 nanometres across! That’s smaller than most human viruses! Now, Moore’s law isn’t a law of physics,
it’s just a good hunch that’s driven companies to make better chips. But experts are claiming that this trend is
slowing down. Granddaddy chip maker Intel recently disclosed
that it’s becoming more difficult to roll out smaller transistors in a two year timeframe
while also being affordable. So, to power the next wave of electronics,
there are a few promising options in the works. One is quantum computing. Another currently in the lab stage is neuromorphic
computing, which are computer chips that are modeled after our own brains! They’re basically capable of learning and
remembering all at the same time at an incredibly fast clip. Let’s break that down and start with the
human brain. So, your brain has billions of neurons, each
of which forms synapses or connections with other neurons. Synaptic activity relies on ion channels,
which control the flow of charged atoms like sodium and calcium that make your brain function
and process properly. So, a neuromorphic chip copies that model
by relying on a densely connected web of transistors that mimic the activity of ion channels. Each chip has a network of cores, with inputs
and outputs that are wired to additional cores, which all operate in conjunction with each
other. Because of this connectivity, neuromorphic
chips are able to integrate memory, computation, and communication all together. These chips are an entirely new computational
design. Standard chips today are built based on von
Neumann architecture… where the processor and memory are separate and the data moves
between them. A central processing unit runs commands that
are fetched from memory to execute tasks. This is what’s made computers very good
at computing, but not as efficiently as they could be. Neuromorphic chips however completely change
that model by having both storage and processing connected within these “neurons” that
are all communicating and learning together. The hope is that these neuromorphic chips
could transform computers from general purpose calculators into machines that can learn from
experience and make decisions. We’d leap to a future where computers wouldn’t
just be able to crunch data at break neck speeds but could do that AND process sensory
data in real time. Some future applications of neuromorphic chips
might include combat robots that could decide how to act in the field, drones that could
detect changes in the environment, and your car taking you to a drive through for ice
cream after being dumped… basically these chips could power our future robot overlords. We don’t have machines with sophisticated,
brain-like chips yet but they’re on the horizon. So get ready for a whole new meaning for the
term “brain power.” But we have something less frightening than
AI to share with you… did you know we have a sister channel called Seeker VR? It’s everything you love about Seeker, but
in 360 degrees! SeekerVR will take you on some incredible
journeys that you probably wouldn’t get to experience otherwise. Like in a recent episode, we took a ride on
one of the most deadly trains in the world. Check it out here. Want to learn more about how the fastest computers
in the world work? We’ve got a video about them here. And am I the only one who misses my Motorola
Razr? Let us know in the comments and check back
here for more videos.

How Is McDonald’s Different In Japan?

– So good. They just need to send
me these sauces bottled. On a Wednesday night in Tokyo, we went to a McDonald’s
near the iconic intersection of Shibuya Crossing. We came here to see how
different the experience of being in a Japanese McDonald’s is, as well as to try unique menu items that you can only get in this country. What will they be like? McDonald’s was first
opened in Japan in 1971. There are now nearly 3,000
locations in the country. Let’s start with the queue. There’s a menu to look at before you get to the main counter. As this branch is in one
of the most touristy areas of the city, there are
English translations, but I’m a bit surprised at
how limited the options are. I counted 13 burger options,
but there’s only a few sides. There are two different
teriyaki burgers on the menu: a standard, and a Chicken Filet-O. It’s quite a wet-feeling burger. It’s like I’ve just dipped it in gravy. But, oh God, the teriyaki
taste on that is incredible. Got a little bit of mayo
in there, some lettuce, there’s obviously the beef patty, and then teriyaki sauce. They put a nice lot of mayo in there, and I really appreciate that, because normally when
you get mayo in a burger, they just put a little tiny squirt in. There are four different
types of McFloat on the menu, which is a Fanta soda topped with a swirl of vanilla soft serve. Well, it’s kind of like Emerald City “Wizard of Oz” green going on here, which is normally not a color that I would really want to drink. I’m not really getting much melon, but I’d say it’s more like bubble gum. If you really, like, if you
want to drink green bubble gum, then get the melon float
from McDonald’s in Japan. There’s also a cheap value
menu, of just 100 to 150 yen, for which you can get Hot Apple Pie and Shaka Shaka Chicken. This is a piece of fried
chicken you put salt onto and then shake in a bag. It’s crispy. Actually, the chicken’s, like,
fried really, really well. It’s not cheesy. It’s not cheesy. I’m yet again disappointed by
a packet of cheese flavoring. There’s a Gran range of burgers, which replaces Quarter Pounders. The expensive Clubhouse burger with streaks of bacon and cheese, Gran Bacon Cheese, and Gran Garlic Pepper. The teriyaki burger smelled so good, and I would very happily bottle that sauce and use it as a perfume on myself. Like this as well. The smell of some really great, sweet, sticky garlic sauce is
just coming straight off that. It’s got lettuce, it’s got some sprinkle
seasoning in there as well, tomato, mayo, onions, and yeah, this garlic, like, peppery
sauce on it as well. The burger buns in McDonald’s
in Japan taste unique. The buns here, they’re
so light and fluffy. It just springs back at
you when you push it. It’s like, just a decent bread. Some of the other burgers
are the Bacon McPork, Egg Cheese Burger, and a Chicken Cheese Burger. As well as the standard Filet-O-Fish, you can get an Ebi Filet-O, which is made with chunks of shrimp. Kind of expecting it to be ground-up prawn which is then somehow fried or battered, but you’ve actually got whole
pieces of prawn in there. It’s got really nice, almost
Thousand Island-style dressing on top of it, lettuce. Very simple, but good. It actually tastes quite fresh as well. It just, it’s not to peel,
it’s to pinch and then clasp, which automatically just sounds
like a recipe for disaster. That’s a really nice sesame sauce. It’s got a little bit more
texture of, like, a mayo. It’s just quite thick. There’s also the standards,
like Big Macs, cheeseburgers, McNuggets, and fries. Some of the fries, however, are a bit more unusual than that. Yes, I spotted something called Shaka Shaka
Potato Butter Soy Sauce. This quite literally translates into “butter soy sauce salt.” You know if you’ve ever been to the cinema and, like, you’ve gone to get a handful of your mate’s popcorn, and
instead of being salted, if you thought it was
salted, it’s actually sweet, and you get a handful of sweet popcorn when you’re expecting salt. This is it. It went on like a salt, it says the word “salt” in
the title, in the name of it, and it just tastes like a sweet butter. Sweet, sweet fries. Mm. The menu had a special
Four-Berry Shake the day we went. Also on the sweets menu
is an Oreo cookie McFlurry and a McFlurry with extra Oreos, in case you didn’t get
enough Oreos the first time. What I’ve got here in my
hand is a Four-Berry Shake. OK, I can sort of smell
berries. I can’t taste berries. I actually, it tastes exactly
the same as the melon. So maybe there’s just some
bubble-gum blender back there that they bung everything into. Mm, I must say this mosquito is really enjoying this as well. So what did we think overall? This might not be a typical experience of all McDonald’s in
Japan, but being British, I appreciated queuing one side and then waiting in a
separate line for my food. Also, the range of burgers was great, something for everyone, from Kalbi Macs to Egg Cheese
Burger to the Gran range. The buns are very sweet,
even for McDonald’s bread, but I still couldn’t get over how good that teriyaki sauce was.

10 Disturbing Government Cover-Ups

10. UFOs In World War Two
Churchill covered up UFO sightings during WW2 to avert mass panic. RAF pilots reported
an arrow-shaped craft hovering beside their planes near the UK coast. 09. Missing Hydrogen Bomb
In 1968 the Pentagon hid the loss of a hydrogen bomb from an air crash. Declaring the clear-up
complete, they left 1 bomb buried beneath the ice in Greenland. 08. Tuskegee Syphilis Study
Exposed in 1972, US studies hid syphilis diagnoses & denied 399 patients treatment. 128 men died
of the illness or related complications during the 40-year study. 07. The Dreyfus Affair
In 1894 Capt. Dreyfus was framed by the French government for treachery.
Antisemitic authorities accused the Jewish soldier of selling military secrets to Germany. 06. Chernobyl
The USSR hid the nuclear disaster which spread radiation across Europe in
1986. Gorbachev waited 3 weeks until forced to publicly discuss the incident. 05. Gulf of Tonkin
US authorities invented a Vietnamese attack on US ships in the Gulf of Tonkin. The attack
was critical in Congress’s decision to allow US military action. 04. Bloody Sunday
The UK government whitewashed an inquiry into 13 deaths at a 1972 protest.
In 2010 they revealed that the victims had’t provoked army fire as initially claimed. 03. Katyn Massacre
The USSR covered up the murders of 22,000+ Polish prisoners in 1940. They blamed the
massacre on Nazi troops but finally admitted responsibility in 1990. 02. Watergate
President Nixon denied knowledge of the 1972 burglars who bugged Democrat offices. He destroyed
evidence, before being impeached & resigning 2 years later. 01. My Lai Massacre
The US government covered up the 1968 murder of 504 unarmed Vietnamese civilians. The only
soldier arrested for the My Lai Massacre served just 3 days in jail.